Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Banksia goodii
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia goodii (Good's Banksia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008iq) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Banksia goodii.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared Rare & Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District. Western Australian wildlife management program no. 20 (Robinson, C.J. & D.J. Coates, 1995) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Banksia goodii
Scientific name Banksia goodii [16727]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author R.Br.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae -- Suppl. 1: Proteaceas Novas: 36 (1830).
Other names Sirmuellera goodii [37163]
Banksia barbigera [50523]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images

Good's Banksia is a prostrate shrub, with a slight tendency to grow erect, growing to 20 cm high with reddish to brown flowers (George 1981, 1999; Hopper i>et al. 1990), often forming spreading clumps (Brown et al. 1998).

This species is endemic to south-western WA where it is known from 23 populations between Albany, Redmond and the Porongorups (George 1981; Robinson & Coates 1995; George 1999). The species was probably formerly more widespread but the intervening land is now mainly cleared for agriculture (Taylor & Hopper 1988).

In 1988, Taylor & Hopper reported ten populations, four of which were on road verges and only one of which was in a conservation reserve. Individual populations ranged from 10 to 300 plants (Taylor & Hopper 1988).

In 1993 sixteen populations varying from 1 to 353 plants (total of 1104 plants), including three large populations on farmland and nine on roadsides, were reported (Lamont et al. 1993; Witkowski & Lamont 1997). In 1995, Robinson & Coates (1995) also reported sixteen localities (23 populations), with approx. 1000 plants in total.

Details of populations as in Robinson & Coates (1995):

Population [as numbered by
WA CALM]
LocationLand StatusYear of survey -
number of plants
Condition
1Millbrook RdPrivate1991 - 70+ 
2 & 15Bailey RdShire reserve1992 - 40+Fair
3MillbrookNature Reserve1985 - 300 
4Redmond RdShire reserve1992 - 28Healthy
5Redmond RdShire reserve1992 - 3Healthy
6Chorkerup RdPrivate1992 - 1Undisturbed
7Jackson RdShire reserve1992 - 17Undisturbed
8, 10 & 13Millstream RdShire reserve1992 - 30+Undisturbed
9Granite HillPrivate1981 - 5?dead
11Chorkerup RdShire reserve1988 - 0 
12Nth Hnwk RdShire reserve1988 - 0 
14Millbrook RdShire reserve1992 - 2Undisturbed
16 & 20MillbrookNature Reserve1990 - 150+ 
17MillbrookNature Reserve1987 
18MillbrookNature Reserve1987 - 340 
19MillbrookNature Reserve1985 
21, 22 & 23MillbrookNature Reserve1985 

Banksia goodii grows on shallow white to grey sand over laterite, in low open forest or low woodland of Eucalyptus marginata and Allocasuarina fraseriana over Agonis heath (George 1981; Taylor & Hopper 1988; Hopper et al. 1990; Robinson & Coates 1995; Brown et al. 1998; George 1999). The underlying landform is generally flat to gently undulating, with an annual rainfall of 800-870 mm (Taylor & Hopper 1988; Lamont et al. 1993). The mean annual temperature range is 5.8°C to 27.18°C (Lamont et al. 1993).

Flowering occurs from Nov. to Jan. (Rye 1982a). Fire represses flowering for 3-4 years, as does a build-up of litter (Lamont et al. 1993; Witkowski & Lamont 1997).

Flowers appear to be pollinated predominantly by small mammals, especially the Honey Possum Tarsipes spencerae (George 1981; Rye 1982a, George 1999). While the pollination rate is high, seed set is low to non-existent in small populations (probably due to inbreeding) (Lamont et al. 1993). In addition, small populations offer insufficient nectar rewards to bird pollinators. There is a tendency for smaller populations to produce fewer cones/seeds until, at a critical level, no seeds are produced at all. Nine of the 15 known populations are road verge remnants, and of these, five lacked seeds entirely and three had depressed numbers of seed (Lamont 1992).

Seedling establishment only occurs after fire. Mammals often kill seedlings by digging them up and eating them. Wild plants set few seeds, and seedling mortality in field conditions is high due to drought and grazing. Seedlings are estimated to take 20 years to become fire-tolerant and to start flowering in the wild (Lamont et al. 1993; Witkowski & Lamont 1997). In cultivation, a very high proportion of the seeds germinate (George 1981; Rye 1982a; George 1999), with germination under experimental conditions reported to be 52-58% (Witkowski & Lamont 1997). Seedlings grow slowly at first but many flower within 3-4 years (George 1981; Rye 1982a; George 1999).

New shoot growth occurs in late spring and summer (Taylor & Hopper 1988). The plant is slow growing, often occurring in spreading clumps where the exact number of individuals is difficult to determine (R.T.Wills 2000, pers. comm.).

According to some authors, this species has a lignotuber (George 1981; Hopper et al. 1990; George 1999); others describe it as a clonal species with no obvious lignotuber but with rhizomes connected by small swollen regions and a larger swollen area above the tap root (Lamont et al. 1993). It will resprout and produce vigorous new growth after fire (Robinson & Coates 1995).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia goodii (Good's Banksia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008iq) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia goodii (Good's Banksia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008iq) [Conservation Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low fecundity, reproductive rate and/or poor recruitment Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia goodii (Good's Banksia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008iq) [Conservation Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia goodii (Good's Banksia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008iq) [Conservation Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Banksia goodii (Good's Banksia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008iq) [Conservation Advice].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

George, A.S. (1981). The genus Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae). Nuytsia. 3(3):239-473. Perth, Department of Agriculture.

George, A.S. (1996b). The Banksia Book. Sydney: SGAP.

George, A.S. (1999). Banksia. In: Orchard, A.E., H.S. Thompson & P.M. McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 17B:175-251. Canberra: ABRS and Melbourne: CSIRO.

Hopper, S.D., S. van Leeuwen, A.P. Brown & S.J. Patrick (1990). Western Australia's Endangered Flora and other plants under consideration for declaration. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Consrvation and Land Management.

Lamont, B. (1992). Population studies on Banksia goodii. Curtin University, Perth.

Lamont, B., V. Whitten, E. Witkowski & D. Abbott (1993). Conservation biology of the rare and endangered species Banksia goodii. for Endangered Species Program, ANPWS. Curtin University, Perth.

Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Robinson, C.J. & D.J. Coates (1995). Declared Rare & Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District. Western Australian wildlife management program no. 20. [Online]. Como, Western Australia: Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

Rye, B.L. (1982a). Rare Western Australian Plants No. 4, Good's Banksia, Banksia goodii R.Br. (Proteaceae). Dept. Fisheries & Wildlife, Perth.

Rye, B.L. & S.D.Hopper (1981). A Guide to the Gazetted Rare Flora of Western Australia. Report No. 42. Page(s) 1-211. Perth: Department of Fisheries & Wildlife WA.

Taylor, A. & S.D. Hopper (1988). The Banksia Atlas. In: Australian Flora and Fauna Series. 8. Canberra: AGPS.

Wills, R.T. (2000). Personal communication.

Witkowski, E.T.F. & B.B.Lamont (1997). Does the rare Banksia goodii have inferior vegetative, reproductive or ecological attributes compared with its widespread co-occurring relative B. gardneri?. Journal of Biogeography. 24:469-482.

Wrigley, J.W. & M. Fagg (1989). Banksias, Waratahs and Grevilleas and all other plants in the Australian Proteaceae family. Sydney, NSW: William Collins Publishers.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Banksia goodii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 21 Sep 2014 08:01:43 +1000.