Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Drakaea elastica
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan] as Drakaea elastica.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008adh) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Drakaea elastica.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 28. Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Moora District (Patrick, S.J. & A.P. Brown, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
WA:Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Drakaea elastica
Scientific name Drakaea elastica [16753]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Lindley
Infraspecies author  
Reference Edwards's Botanical Register -- Appendix to Vols 1-23: A Sketch of the Vegetation of the Swan River Colony (1 Jan. 1840) lvi.
Other names Drakaea jeanensis [22299]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Drakaea elastica

Common name: Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid

Other names: Praying Virgin

This species was previously known as Drakaea jeanensis (a taxonomic synonym), a name given to the orchid by Richard Rogers in 1920. More recently, it became clear that this species had first been described as Drakaea elastica by John Lindley in 1840 (Western Australian Herbarium 2005).

The Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid is a slender-stemmed orchid, with a flowering stem that grows to 30 cm in height. The species produces a single, distinctively glossy, bright green, prostrate, round to heart-shaped leaf (1–2 cm in diameter). This leaf emerges in May, and starts to wither by the time the orchid flowers in September. The species also produces a single flower that is 3–4 cm in length and has a hinged, red-purple 'hammer'-like labellum (lip). The two other petals, and the three sepals, are small, slender and pale yellow green with red-purple tips. The flower loosely resembles a flightless female wasp sitting on a grass stalk (DEC 2009l).

Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid plants often occur in tight clusters, which are usually a mix of mature and immature plants. Plants with a small tuber reserve may grow small leaves regardless of age, so age and/or maturity cannot be estimated on leaf size (DEC 2009l).

The Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid is restricted to a 350 km range in the coastal plain between Cataby (approximately 130 km north of Perth) and Busselton (approximately 200 km south-west of Perth) in south-west Western Australia (DEC 2009l). It occurs in the South West, Swan and Northern Agricultural Natural Resource Management Regions. The species is known from 42 locations, 27 of which currently contain less than 15 plants (DEC 2009l). Over half of all known plants occur in one population. The species' distribution is considered to be fragmented as the known subpopulations are scattered with considerable distances between them (DEC 2009l).

The extent of occurrence is calculated to be 5 428 km² (DEC 2007a).

The area of occupancy for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid is 0.67 km², estimated from past monitoring data (DEC 2007a).

The total population size for this species has been estimated at 237 mature plants (DEC 2007a).

Past monitoring has indicated a decline in population numbers and in the area of occupancy. There has also been extensive habitat loss (DEC 2009l).

A summary of known populations, including location, number of plants, condition, threats and conservation manager can be found in the Recovery Plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (DEC 2009l). Of the known 42 populations some have been split into subpopulations. There are 59 subpopulations, and these are defined based upon differences in land tenure and management, as well as location (DEC 2009l).

Twelve of the 42 known populations are presumed to be extinct. No plants have been seen for many years in another four populations, despite surveys undertaken and habitat remaining intact. Thirty-four populations are considered either healthy or in a moderate condition (DEC 2009l).


The Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid is not known to hybridise with other Drakaea species (DEC 2007a).

Ten subpopulations occur within conservation estates (including seven in nature reserves; two in state forest; and one in a regional park). These areas are not managed specifically for this species, but its management is taken into account during operations such as fire prescription planning.

The remaining subpopulations occur within private property, Main Roads Western Australia land, Shire road and tip reserves, Commonwealth land and non-vested land (DEC 2007a).

The Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid grows on bare patches of white sand over a dark sandy loam on low-lying damp areas near ephemeral lakes, or on the slopes adjacent to winter wet depressions, swamps and water courses. The vegetation associated with the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid is Banksia (Banksia attenuata, B. ilicifolia and B. menziesii) woodland with scattered Marri (Corymbia calophylla) and Allocasuarina fraseriana. Most populations occur in Spearwood (Kunzea glabrescens) thickets (Brown et al. 1998; Carstairs & Coates 1994; DEC 2009l; Kelly et al. 1993; Patrick & Brown 2001).

The Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid prefers open sites and the decline of some populations could be due to increased shading and competition by other species. Disturbances such as fire, which temporarily open up the habitat, may be essential to its long-term survival (Brown et al. 1998).

Other orchids found in association with the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid include the Grand Spider Orchid (Caladenia huegelii), the Cowslip Orchid (C. flava), Little Pink Fairy Orchid (C. reptans), Large Gnat Orchid (Cyrtostylis robusta), King-in-his-carriage (Drakaea glyptodon), Warty Hammer Orchid (D. livida), Dwarf Hammer Orchid (D. micrantha), Fringed Hare Orchid (Leporella fimbriata), Purple Enamel Orchid (Elythranthera brunonis), Undertaker Orchid (Pyrorchis nigricans), Flying Duck Orchid (Paracaleana nigrita), Autumn Leek Orchid (Prasophyllum parvifolium), Clubbed Snail Orchid (Pterostylis aff. nana), Jug Orchid (P. recurva), Banded Greenhood (P. vittata var. vittata) and Thelymitra sp. (Carstairs & Coates 1994; DEC 2007a; DEC 2009l).

Generally, the area in which the species is found has a Mediterranean climate. The summers (December-March) are hot and dry, and winters are cool and wet. Most rainfall occurs in late autumn, winter and early spring. The mean annual rainfall in Perth was 870 mm in 1994, which reduced to 774 mm in 2007 (Carstairs & Coates 1994; Bureau of Meteorology 2007).

Individual Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid plants are long-lived and are capable of producing seed annually that, under ideal conditions, may germinate and develop into new plants. This seed is fine, and may be wind-dispersed for a number of kilometres. The orchid, like many other south-western Australian species, relies on a close association with a specific mycorrhizal fungus to germinate its seed and provide nutrients to the plant throughout its life. This symbiotic relationship is integral for seedling establishment and plant growth from the dormant summer tuber. It takes between two and four years under ideal conditions for a seedling to develop into a flowering plant. The orchid is not known to reproduce vegetatively (DEC 2007a; DEC 2009l).

The species flowers in late September, extending to October and rarely to early November, but each plant may not flower every year. The orchid dies back to a dormant underground tuber over summer before re-emerging following autumn rains. Furthermore, population size has been found to be correlated to rainfall, with greater autumn-winter rainfall resulting in higher numbers of plants being present (Brown et al. 1998; DEC 2007a; DEC 2009l).

The species is pollinated by a single species of Thynnid wasp, the male of which responds to (sexually deceptive) pheromones that the orchid flower emits (DEC 2009l). The labellum of the plant is visually similar to a flightless female wasp. As the male wasp attempts to fly off with the ‘female wasp’ (plant labellum) the structure of the plant causes the male to knock against the column of the flower, thus depositing or removing pollen to transport to another flower (DEC 2009l). This pollinator requires Banksia woodland habitat adjacent to the orchid's preferred Kunzea thicket habitat, as it feeds on the nectar-producing plants abundant in that woodland. The wasp also requires the presence of a scarab beetle species to complete its lifecycle, and lays only 6–10 eggs per mating season, representing very low fecundity for an insect (Phillips in prep.).

The Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid is a distinctive orchid which is recognised by its highly distinctive shiny or glossy, bright green, heart-shaped leaf and unusual flower with a prominently hairy upper section to its labellum (Hoffman & Brown 1998).

This species differs from the closely related Kneeling Hammer Orchid (Drakaea concolor) in its later flowering period and its more southerly distribution (Brown et al. 1998).

Surveys are best conducted when the leaf is bright and relatively conspicuous, which is from May to August. By the time the orchid is flowering, the leaves wither and disappear. Vegetative leaves last a little longer than those of flowering plants, but are also dehiscing at this time. As the plants are difficult to see from any distance away, searchers should walk close together, particularly inexperienced searchers. Experienced searchers will be able to identify microhabitats more likely to contain the orchid. When some are found, more can often be discovered nearby, perhaps partially under fine leaf litter or sand. However, the orchid does occur in scattered clumps, sometimes separated by large distances. Sometimes a small number is all that is present in an area. For example, subpopulation 21 is surrounded by a large area of bush, but repeated surveys through this area have only found the same small but stable population of approximately 10 plants (DEC 2007a).

Historic and potential land clearing
Historically, land clearing for housing, infrastructure and agriculture represented threats to the species throughout its range and have been identified as causing the extinction of six subpopulations of Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid. In addition, a further 11 subpopulations are under potential threat from land clearing for development. This will affect the species both directly, through the removal of habitat, and indirectly, via reduction in habitat quality, size and connectivity (DEC 2009l).

Inappropriate fire regimes
Inappropriate fire regimes are noted to be affecting 51 subpopulations of the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid. In 1985, a hot fire burned through subpopulation 9 and it is unknown whether these plants have recovered. In the survey conducted at the site in 1988, no plants were found at the site. Orchids of south-west Western Australia are known to be most vulnerable to fire during the vegetative and flowering stage of their life cycle. For the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid, this period is from April to October. Fire during this period is detrimental to the plant as it has used its existing tuber reserves, and has not yet replaced the tuber for the summer dormancy phase. In addition, fire may also result in habitat changes, such as the removal of the open understory of Spearwood (Kunzea glabrescens) thickets (DEC 2009l).

Fire management and fuel reduction burns are recommended to occur in late October to November. The Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid does not require fire to complete its life cycle, and should therefore be protected from frequent, uncontrolled fires. This could be via the construction of fire breaks or fuel reduction burns. Very infrequent fire may be beneficial to the species, due to the opening up of ground layer vegetation (DEC 2009l).

Declining fungus presence, low pollinator presence and poor recruitment
Poor recruitment is affecting 38 subpopulations of the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid. The threat tends to affect subpopulations with declining numbers, and may be a result of declining fungus presence and low pollinator presence. One or more of these factors may be contributing to declines in subpopulations at some sites where habitat appears intact. This requires further research to establish and quantify the cause of decline (DEC 2009l).

Weeds
Weeds are present at 13 subpopulations. While this is often only low level presence of flatweed (Hypochaeris sp.), this species is hard to control, especially near the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid. Hand weeding of sites is impractical, and application of chemical would threaten the orchid as the flatweed emerges from the soil after the emergence of the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid. Generally, in areas where larger biomass weeds (such as grasses or bulbous weeds) are present, the orchid has disappeared (DEC 2009l).

Grazing by vertebrates and/or invertebrates
Grazing of the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid almost always affects the flowering stem rather than the tough prostrate single leaf. It is likely that this grazing is due to a range of fauna, including kangaroos (Macropus sp.), the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), cattle (Bos taurus) (where they have access), and invertebrates. Grazing is currently affecting at least 8 subpopulations of the species (DEC 2009l).

Disturbance by rabbits, kangaroos and cattle
In addition to the impacts of grazing, rabbits, kangaroos and cattle have a degrading affect on bushland. Rabbits disturb soil with their diggings and often introduce weed seed into an area. Kangaroos rest in the shade on bare areas of soil, and, if large numbers are resident in an area, they can have a marked impact on vegetation through heavy grazing. This disturbance has been identified as a threat to 10 subpopulations of the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (DEC 2009l).

Rubbish dumping
Dumping of rubbish in vegetation can both take up habitat area and introduce weeds, and has been noted as a threat for 4 subpopulations of the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid. In addition, the movement of people associated with the practice also creates a high level of disturbance at the site and increases risk of fire (DEC 2009l).

Phytophthora
Although the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid and its fungus are not believed to be susceptible to Phytophthora, the root-rot fungus is known to severely affect the banksia woodland inhabited by the species. The disease is noted to be an issue at 4 subpopulations. Phytophthora in the surrounding habitat of the orchid would mean a loss of the shelter of the canopy plants, without which neither orchid nor fungus would survive. Furthermore, the wasp pollinator may be impacted as its food trees are also susceptible to the disease (DEC 2009l).

Salinity
The rising saline water table in the vicinity of one of the subpopulations of Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid, is considered likely to have a negative effect on the orchid, the fungus and their habitat (DEC 2009l).

Maintenance work - gas pipeline, powerline, road
There are two subpopulations of Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid that have been identified as being currently or potentially affected by maintenance work. Construction and maintenance work on the gas pipeline at subpopulation (number 30) may have an impact on some plants. Powerline and road maintenance have potential to impact on plants at another subpopulation (number 3), but no plants currently occur in the vicinity of either powerline or road (DEC 2007a; DEC 2009l).

Density of surrounding ground level vegetation
Ground layer vegetation has become too dense, in several subpopulations, to allow the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid to survive and thus has resulted in the disappearance of the species from these sites. Within such vegetation, both orchid and fungus occupy areas with bare ground or only fine leaf litter cover (DEC 2009l).

The following recovery actions were completed prior to 2009 (DEC 2009l):

  • Notification of relevant land managers of status and location of the species, including their legal obligations. Ongoing liaison continues with Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC).
  • Development of an information sheet about the species, and its dissemination to community members in a variety of manners (such as through the library and wildflower shows)
  • Regular monitoring of all populations (by relevant DEC districts and regions).
  • Surveys for the species conducted in 2005 and 2006.
  • Erection of fences around a couple of sites and rabbit-netting enclosures around a number of scattered plants.
  • Trial translocations and salvage attempts in areas where construction and infrastructure projects would have destroyed the plants.
  • Seed collection, hand pollination and propagation of the species with the fungus associated with the orchid isolated and the pollinator wasp collected and studied (ongoing).

The WA DEC Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) Recovery Plan (DEC 2009l) lists the following recovery actions:

  1. Coordinate recovery actions.
  2. Liaise with appropriate stakeholders.
  3. Reduce impact of grazing on seed production.
  4. Map habitat critical to the survival of Drakaea elastica.
  5. Negotiate agreements that protect Drakaea elastica and habitat.
  6. Undertake hand-pollination.
  7. Collect and store seed.
  8. Develop methods to culture and store tissue material and mycorrhizal fungus.
  9. Develop best practice protocols for translocations.
  10. Monitor subpopulations.
  11. Implement weed control as required.
  12. Develop and implement a fire management strategy.
  13. Develop and implement a Phytophthora strategy.
  14. Conduct further surveys.
  15. Promote awareness.
  16. Obtain biological and ecological information.
  17. Review the Plan and the need for further recovery actions.

Carstairs and Coates (1994) undertook a study looking at the conservation genetics and population ecology of five rare orchids including the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid.

Currently, there is work on a PhD thesis focusing on the role of pollinators, mycorrhizal fungi and habitat in controlling distribution and speciation in a range of Drakaea species including the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Phillips in prep.).

Management documents for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid may be found at the start of this profile. Other documents relavent to the species include the following:

  • Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) Draft Interim Recovery Plan 2007-2012 (DEC 2007b).
  • Threatened flora of Swan Region (Evans et al. 2003).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Recreational harvest National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Inappropriate disturbance regimes National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Hypochaeris radicata (Flatweed, Cat's-ear) National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by exotic pasture species National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Fertiliser drift National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Drakaea elastica in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006in) [Internet].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development of roads and railroads National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009l) [Recovery Plan].
Uncategorised:Uncategorised:threats not specified Drakaea elastica in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006in) [Internet].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Bureau of Meteorology (2007). Bureau of Meteorology records. Western Australia Climate Services Centre.

Carstairs, S. & D. Coates (1994). Conservation Genetics and Population Ecology of Five Rare and Threatened Western Australian Orchids. Endangered Species Unit, Australian Nature Conservation Agency.

DEC (2007b). Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica) Draft Interim Recovery Plan 2007-2012. Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation.

Department of Environment and Conservation (2009l). National recovery plan for the Glossy-leafed Hammer Orchid (Drakaea elastica). [Online]. Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/drakaea-elastica.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008adh). Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/rabbits08.html.

Evans, R., N. Willers & D. Mitchell (2003). Threatened flora of the Swan Region. Unpublished report to the Department of Conservation and Land Management and Environment Australia.

Hoffman, N. & A. Brown (1998). Orchids of South-west Australia Rev. 2nd edn. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press.

Kelly, A.E., A. Taylor, M.A. Langley, A. Spooner & D.J. Coates (1993). Declared Rare Flora and Other Plants in Need of Special Protection in the Metro Area. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Managment.

Patrick, S.J. & A.P. Brown (2001). Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 28. Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Moora District. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

Phillips, R. (in prep.). The role of pollinators, mycorrhizal fungi and habitat in controlling distribution and speciation in Drakaea. Ph.D. Thesis.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2007). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation.

Western Australian Herbarium (2005). FloraBase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.

Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2. [Online]. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Drakaea elastica in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 19 Sep 2014 11:59:25 +1000.