Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Ben Major Grevillea Grevillea floripendula - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 206-Ben Major Grevillea Grevillea floripendula (Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE), 2009g) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Vulnerable (Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria: 2005)
Scientific name Grevillea floripendula [16859]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author R.V.Smith
Infraspecies author  
Reference Muelleria 4 (20 May 1981) 423.
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images
http://www.anbg.gov.au/images/photo_cd/630930713429/055.html

Scientific name: Grevillea floripendula

Common name: Drooping Grevillea

Other names: Ben Major Grevillea

Conventionally accepted as Grevillea floripendula (CHAH 2012). However, two forms of the species have been identified (Olde & Marriott 1995):

  • Ben Major form, which has a sprawling mostly prostrate habit, growing up to 3 metres across, leaves that are shallowly divided, and flowers with a red tinge. This form is restricted to Ben Major State Forest.
  • Musical Gully form, found north-west of Beaufort, grows to 1 metre tall and is shrubbier, with leaves more deeply divided and flowers that are variable in colour from dull purplish or pink-red to yellowish.

The Drooping Grevillea is a prostrate to spreading shrub growing up to 1 metre. Leaves are ovate (egg-shaped), 20—65 mm long and 15—40 mm wide, usually heavily divided (pinnatisect to pinnatifid), with 5—9 angular-obovate lobes, each ending in a spine. The upper surface is bright to dull green, smooth or slightly hairy, with short, recurved margins. The lower surface is light green with a sparse covering of curly to wavy hairs. Leaves often have a pungent odour (Carter & Walsh 2006j; Vic. DSE 2009g; Walsh & Entwisle 1996). Flower clusters are terminal (at the end of stems), usually pendulous (drooping) and 30—55 mm long. Flowers in each cluster are often turned to one side (secund), along the main stalk of the flower cluster (rachis) which is covered with short hairs. Individual flower stems are slender, wiry, and smooth to slightly hairy. Flowers are green to mauve and covered loosely with silky to woolly hairs externally, and mauve, maroon to blackish in colour internally. The pistil (female organ of a flower encompassing style, ovary and stigma) is 13.5—16 mm long, pale yellow, green-yellow, or pink to red. The ovary is borne on a stalk and densely covered in soft hairs. The style is hairy at the base, and the pollen presenter at the tip of the pistil is uneven in length. The fruits have longitudinal brown bands and are covered in small silky hairs (ABRS undated; Carter & Walsh 2006j; Vic. DSE 2009g; Walsh & Entwisle 1996).

The Drooping Grevillea is restricted to a small area north of Beaufort (approximately 160 km west of Melbourne); from Waterloo to Ben Major Forest (Carter & Walsh 2006j; Vic. DSE 2009g; Walsh & Entwisle 1996).

A 1997 census of records of the Drooping Grevillea identified 21 populations, with an estimated 4000 individuals. Abundance estimates at important populations in 1997 were (Vic DSE 2009g):

Ben Major Flora Reserve

  • Big Hill Road 1 (375 plants, including many seedlings)
  • Big Hill Road 2 (750 plants, including many seedlings)
  • Amphitheatre Road (175 plants, including many seedlings)
  • Grevillea Track (175 plants)

Roadsides (Shire of Pyrenees)

  • Wildlife Road (750 plants recorded, including many seedlings)
  • Sheisa Lane (750 plants, some seedlings observed with small proportion of the site burnt 2-3 years earlier)

Many other smaller populations also occur on roadsides. Four known roadside populations contain approximately 175 plants in each and eleven populations contain less than 50 plants each. Some of these sites may be important for the continued survival of the Drooping Grevillea due to their geographic range and genetic attributes (Carter & Walsh 2006j).

The Ben Major Flora Reserve in Ben Major State Forest contains four known populations.

Populations of the Drooping Grevillea occur in dry, open forest on shallow quartzitic soils (Walsh & Entwisle 1996). Associated overstorey species may include Long-leaved Box (Eucalyptus goniocalyx), Creswick Apple Box (E. aromaphloia) and Red Stringybark (E. macrorhyncha). Understorey species may include Narrow-leaved Bitter-pea (Daviesia leptophylla), Blue Flax-lily (Dianella revoluta), Common Heath (Epacris impressa), Silvertop Wallaby Grass (Joycea pallida), Small Mat-rush (Lomandra sororia) and/or Grey Tussock-grass (Poa sieberiana var. sieberiana) (Vic. DSE 2009g).

The Drooping Grevillea flowers October to December (ABRS undated). Little is known of the biology of the species. Many other related Grevillea species germinate or resprout from basal stems after fire, and anecdotal evidence suggests that this species is also an obligate seed regenerator (new individuals appearing after fire). Recruitment between fire events has been observed; suggesting some other disturbance event, such as digging by native fauna in populations of the Drooping Grevillea may cue germination. The species is likely to be bird-pollinated by Honeyeaters, such as the Eastern Spinebill (Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris) (Vic. DSE 2009g).

The Drooping Grevillea may be mistaken for a number of other Grevillea species. The Brisbane Range Grevillea (Grevillea steiglitziana) has a longer pistil at 15—20 mm than the Drooping Grevillea and a lower leaf surface covered in fine, silky hairs, that help distinguish the two species (ABRS undated; Walsh & Entwisle 1996). The Drooping Grevillea is distinguished from the Goldfields Grevillea (Grevillea dryophylla), as the latter has slender, wiry and glabrous (smooth) peduncles (ABRS undated; Walsh & Entwisle 1996). The species can also be distinguished from the Holly Grevillea (G. aquifolium) by the latter's denser covering of fine hairs on the lower leaf surface and a longer pistil (20 mm long) (ABRS undated). The Mount Cassel Grevillea (G. microstegia) has a stouter, usually shorter, and hairier peduncle and narrower, more acute leaf lobes than the Drooping Grevillea, whilst the Mount Cole Grevillea (G. montis-cole subsp. montis-cole) usually has a thicker, hairy peduncle and erect fruits (as opposed to the incurved fruits in the Drooping Grevillea) and pistils that are 26—27.5 mm long (ABRS undated).

The National Recovery Plan for the Ben Major Grevillea Grevillea floripendula (Vic. DSE 2009g) outlines specific objectives to assist in protection of the species. These are:

  • Acquire accurate information for conservation status assessments.
  • Identify habitat that is critical, common or potential.
  • Ensure that all populations and their habitat are protected and managed appropriately.
  • Manage threats to populations.
  • Identify key biological functions.
  • Determine the growth rates and viability of populations.
  • Establish populations in cultivation.
  • Build community support for conservation.

Management documents for the Drooping Grevillea are at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to firewood collection Ben Major Grevillea Grevillea floripendula - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Ben Major Grevillea Grevillea floripendula - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Ben Major Grevillea Grevillea floripendula - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Ben Major Grevillea Grevillea floripendula - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Ben Major Grevillea Grevillea floripendula - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation by deer Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Negative impacts caused by insects Ben Major Grevillea Grevillea floripendula - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Ben Major Grevillea Grevillea floripendula - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2006j) [Recovery Plan].
Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Ben Major Grevillea Grevillea floripendula - National Recovery Plan (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2006j) [Recovery Plan].

Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS) (no date). Flora of Australia Online. [Online]. ABRS. Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/.

Carter, O. & N. Walsh (2006j). Ben Major Grevillea Grevillea floripendula - National Recovery Plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/g-floripendula.html.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2012). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/apclist.

Olde, P.M. & N.R. Marriott (1995). The Grevillea Book; Volume 2. Kenthurst, NSW: Kangaroo Press.

Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE) (2005a). Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria - 2005. [Online]. East Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/dse/nrenpa.nsf/93a98744f6ec41bd4a256c8e00013aa9/cfd982b7b4c0bc93ca256fa2007affbc/$FILE/Advisory%20List%20of%20Rare%20or%20Threatened%20Plants%20in%20Victoria%20-%202005.pdf.

Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE) (2009g). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 206-Ben Major Grevillea Grevillea floripendula. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/flora-and-fauna-guarantee-act-action-statements-index-of-approved-action-statements.

Walsh, N.G. & T.J. Entwisle (1996). Flora of Victoria. 3. Melbourne, VIC: Inkata Press.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Grevillea floripendula in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 30 Aug 2014 15:32:58 +1000.