Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Phebalium daviesii
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Phebalium daviesii (Davies' Waxflower, St Helens Waxflower) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001bc) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Davies Waxflower, St Helens Waxflower Phebalium daviesii Flora Recovery Plan (Tasmania Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas. DPIWE), 2011c) [Recovery Plan] as Phebalium daviesii.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Phebalium daviesii.
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (05/10/2001) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2001c) [Legislative Instrument] as Phebalium daviesii.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Threatened Species Listing Statement - Davies' wax flower, Phebalium daviesii (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (TAS DIPWE), 2001f) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Phebalium daviesii (Davies' Waxflower, St Helens Waxflower): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014dk) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list) as Phebalium daviesii
Scientific name Phebalium daviesii [16959]
Family Rutaceae:Sapindales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Hook.f.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Mueller, F.J.H. von in Hooker, J.D. (1859), The botany of the Antarctic voyage of H.M. discovery ships Erebus and Terror. III. Flora Tasmaniae 2(10): 358 [tax. nov.]
Other names Eriostemon daviesii [31237]
Phebalium glandulosum var. daviesii [39312]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

In the wild Davies' Waxflower is a medium-sized woody shrub growing to 2.5 m high (TPWS 1998). In cultivation, it is a small shrub growing to 1-1.5 m high, 0.6-1.5 m wide (Fountain 2001). The flowers are light to deep cream (Fountain 2001), white (TPWS 1998) or pale yellow (Lynch 1994).

This species occurs near St Helens in NE Tas. The species was thought to be extinct until five plants were discovered on the George R. in 1990 (TPWS 1998; Wells 1993). The most recent collection prior to this was in 1892, from Constable Ck (Lynch 1991b). A second subpopulation was discovered on the other side of the George R. in Oct. 1993 (Lynch 1994), on two private properties. This second subpopulation is approximately 200 m upstream of the first (Lynch & Appleby 1996).

In July 1996 the downstream population (formerly 5 plants) consisted of 2 plants, and the upstream population contained 49 plants. Of this total 51 plants, 44 were adults and 7 were seedlings (Lynch & Appleby 1996). By 1998, TPWS were reporting less than 40 plants extant in the wild, though TPWS reported that the population fluctuates but is approximately stable (TPWS 1998).

Davies' Waxflower grows in free draining coarse sandy soil, with exposed granite boulders. It is found on moderately steep E and N facing river banks, above the waterline in a narrow river valley (Fountain 2001; Lynch & Appleby 1996). It is a component of the heath and wet sclerophyll shrub understorey of a riparian woodland (Lynch & Appleby 1996). The community is dominated by Eucalyptus viminalis, Allocasuarina littoralis, Acacia spp., Leptospermum lanigerum, Pterostylis pedunculata, Adiantum aethiopicum, Pomaderris apetala, Zieria arborescens and Micrantheum hexandrum (Lynch 1991b, 1994).

Using dendrochronology it was determined that fires occurred in 1969 and 1983 on the two population sites. All regeneration was accounted for by these disturbance events. There was no evidence of flood initiated regeneration. The species demise from original collection sites on Constable Ck may be a result of sedimentation associated with mining activity (Lynch 1994).

Flowering occurs from Sept. to mid-Jan. The fruit develops in Jan. and Feb. and seed may be dispersed by an ejectile mechanism, or by ants and flowing water (Lynch 1994).

The species produces large quantities of seed (Lynch & Appleby 1996) but the soil surrounding the species seems devoid of any plant seed. Presumably seed is washed away when the George R. breaks its banks (Wells 1993). This hypothesis is partly supported by findings that a high proportion of viable P. daviesii seed floats (Lynch & Appleby 1996).

For a rare plant, there is a high level of genetic diversity, sufficient to enable the species to recover from its current low population size (Lynch & Vaillancourt 1995).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Phebalium daviesii Recovery Plan 1996-2004 (Lynch, A.J.J. & M.W.A. Appleby, 1996) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Phebalium daviesii (Davies' Waxflower, St Helens Waxflower) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001bc) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Phebalium daviesii Recovery Plan 1996-2004 (Lynch, A.J.J. & M.W.A. Appleby, 1996) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Phebalium daviesii (Davies' Waxflower, St Helens Waxflower) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001bc) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock Commonwealth Listing Advice on Phebalium daviesii (Davies' Waxflower, St Helens Waxflower) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001bc) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Phebalium daviesii (Davies' Waxflower, St Helens Waxflower) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001bc) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Phebalium daviesii Recovery Plan 1996-2004 (Lynch, A.J.J. & M.W.A. Appleby, 1996) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Phebalium daviesii Recovery Plan 1996-2004 (Lynch, A.J.J. & M.W.A. Appleby, 1996) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes including flooding Phebalium daviesii Recovery Plan 1996-2004 (Lynch, A.J.J. & M.W.A. Appleby, 1996) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Phebalium daviesii (Davies' Waxflower, St Helens Waxflower) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001bc) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Phebalium daviesii Recovery Plan 1996-2004 (Lynch, A.J.J. & M.W.A. Appleby, 1996) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Phebalium daviesii Recovery Plan 1996-2004 (Lynch, A.J.J. & M.W.A. Appleby, 1996) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Phebalium daviesii Recovery Plan 1996-2004 (Lynch, A.J.J. & M.W.A. Appleby, 1996) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Phebalium daviesii (Davies' Waxflower, St Helens Waxflower) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001bc) [Listing Advice].

Barker, P.C.J. (1994). Phytophthora cinnamoni: The susceptibility and management of selected Tasmanian rare species. Hobart, Tasmania: Forestry Tasmania.

Fountain, M. (2001). Federation Flower for Tasmania. [Online]. Available from: http://155.187.10.12/federation-flora/tas-phebalium/.

Lynch, A.J.J. (1991b). Phebalium daviesii. Flora Recovery Plan: Research Plan Phase. Hobart: Tasmanian Parks & Wildlife.

Lynch, A.J.J. (1994). Aspects of the Conservation Biology and Population Genetics of Phebalium daviesii Hook.f. Davies' Wax-flower. Hobart: Tasmanian Parks & Wildlife.

Lynch, A.J.J. & M.W.A. Appleby (1996). Phebalium daviesii Recovery Plan 1996-2004. [Online]. Department of Primary Industries, Water & Environment, Hobart. Available from: http://www.dpiwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/SJON-59V926/$FILE/Phebalium%20daviesii.pdf.

Lynch, A.J.J. & R.E. Vaillancourt (1995). Genetic Diversity in the Endangered Phebalium daviesii (Rutaceae) Compared to that in Two Widespread Congeners. Australian Journal of Botany. 43:181-191.

Tasmanian Parks & Wildlife Service (TPWS) (1998). St Helens' or Davies' Waxflower. [Online]. Available from: http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/esl/wax.html.

Wells, A. (1993). Rare Species Conservation in Tasmania. Danthonia. 2(1):1,3.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Phebalium daviesii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 24 Jul 2014 22:21:51 +1000.