Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Caladenia caudata
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan] as Caladenia caudata.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia caudata.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Threatened Species Notesheet - Caladenia caudata (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas. DPIPWE), 2010b) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Caladenia caudata (tailed spider-orchid): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014) [State Action Plan].
TAS:Flowering Times of Tasmanian Orchids: A Practical Guide for Field Botanists (Wapstra, M., N. Roberts, H. Wapstra & A. Wapstra, 2008) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012) as Caladenia caudata
Scientific name Caladenia caudata [17067]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Nicholls
Infraspecies author  
Reference Nicholls, W.H. (1948) Two New Species of Orchids from Tasmania. The Victorian Naturalist 64: 231, fig.
Other names Arachnorchis caudata [76222]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.latrobe.tas.gov.au/images/orchids/Orchid17.jpg

The Tailed Spider-orchid is a deciduous, terrestrial orchid, growing up to 15 cm in height (Curtis 1979; Ziegeler 1997).

The Tailed Spider-orchid is endemic to Tasmania (Jones 1998d), where it is distributed along the east and north coasts. The most southerly occurrence of the Tailed Spider-orchid is at Snug Point in the south-east, while the species’ most western record is at Trial Harbour (Ziegeler 1997). There is one record near Arthur River, on the west coast of Tasmania and the species also occurs on Flinders Island, Cape Barren Island and Clarke Island (Jones 1999 pers. comm.).

At least 1400 individuals occur in Tasmania in 22 widely dispersed populations. Numbers within populations vary from three to around 1000 plants (Ziegeler 1997). A total of 40 populations have been recorded, but many of these records are old (TSS 2014).

This species grows on sands, sandy loams and shallow clay loam (Jones 1998d). Geology varies from Triassic sandstone, Devonian granite, Pre-Cambrian metamorphics to Tertiary and Holocene deposits. Populations are localised, occurring in well-drained situations with an easterly to northerly aspect (Ziegeler 1997), but are most often found on sunny north-facing sites (TSS 2014). The Tailed Spider-orchid is frequently found in highest abundance at sites that have been burnt within five years prior (Ziegeler 1997).

The Tailed Spider-orchid grows in coastal dry sclerophyll forest, open forest, heathy open forest, in coastal scrub and heath communities, with an altitudinal range from 0-50 m above sea level (Jones 1998d; Ziegeler 1997). Associations include Eucalyptus amygdalina (Black Peppermint) heathy open forest, E. tenuiramis (Silver Peppermint) heathy open forest and E. viminalis (Ribbon Gum) grassy open forest (Ziegeler 1997).

The Tailed Spider-orchid dies back annually after flowering in spring and survives the summer as an underground tuber. During autumn or winter a leaf emerges and is later followed by the stem and inflorescence in the spring. Plants on the east coast have been recorded flowering as early as August but majority of flowering in this region occurs in September. In the north and north-west part of Tasmania the flowering period is October to November (Jones 1998d; Ziegeler 1997). The species responds with prolific flowering the first season after a hot fire, diminishing to few or none in subsequent seasons (TSS 2014). Despite its size and distinctive appearance, this species can be hard to detect in its often dried-off grassy habitat (TSS 2014).

Pollination is through pseudo-copulation (sexual deception) by wasps. Male wasps are attracted by odours that resemble the scents of the female wasp. Following fertilisation, minute seeds are produced, which are dispersed by wind and water. The period of time which this species takes to reach sexual maturity is not known. This species also has an association with mycorrhizal fungi (Ziegeler 1997).

Flowers are required for the identification of the Tailed Spider-orchid which dies back to subterranean tubers after flowering. It appears that populations in the south of the state consistently have a peak flowering in late September, while northern populations flower later (October, even early November). This species responds with prolific flowering the first season after a hot fire, diminishing to few or none in subsequent seasons. Despite its size and distinctive appearance, this species can be hard to detect in its often dried-off grassy habitat (TSS 2014).

The Tailed Spider-orchid occurs in coastal and near-coastal localities which have been, and still are, threatened by intensive habitat destruction and modification for forest harvesting, agriculture and urban development (Ziegeler 1997).

The Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids that has been adopted by the Commonwealth Government, includes information that is relevant to the Tailed Spider-orchid (identified as Caladenia caudata in this plan). The recovery actions in this plan are broad and multi-species, however, it is noted that the priority for the Tailed Spider-orchid is further survey effort (TSS 2006a).

Documents relevant to the management of the Tailed Spider-orchid can be found at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) The Caladenia caudata Recovery Plan 1998-2000 (Ziegeler, D., 1997) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Equus caballus (Horse) Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].

Curtis, W.M. (1979). The Students Flora of Tasmania. Part 4A. ANGIOSPERMAE: Orchidaceae. Government Printer, Hobart.

Jones, D.L. (1998d). Contributions to Tasmanian Orchidology 1-9. Australian Orchid Research. 3. Essendon, Victoria: Australian Orchid Foundation.

Jones, D.L. (1999). Personal Communication.

Jones, D.L., M.A. Clements, I.K. Sharma & A.M. McKenzie (2001). A new classification of Caladenia R.Br. (Orchidaceae). The Orchadian. 13(9):389-417.

Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2014). Caladenia caudata (tailed spider-orchid): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link. [Online]. Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Tasmania. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecieslink.tas.gov.au/caladenia-caudata.

Ziegeler, D. (1997). The Caladenia caudata Recovery Plan 1998-2000. [Online]. Hobart: Tasmanian DELM. Available from: http://www.rfa.gov.au/rfa/tas/raa/other/orchids/orchid14.html.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Caladenia caudata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 25 Apr 2014 18:59:46 +1000.