Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
SA:Draft recovery plan for 23 threatened flora taxa on Eyre Peninsula, South Australia 2007-2012 (Pobke, K., 2007) [State Recovery Plan].
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 85 - Jumping-jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Overman, T. & D. Venn, 2004) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Endangered (Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria: 2005)
Scientific name Acacia enterocarpa [17615]
Family Fabaceae:Fabales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author R.V.Smith
Infraspecies author  
Reference The Victorian Naturalist 73 (7 Feb. 1957) 171.
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Acacia enterocarpa

Common name: Jumping-jack Wattle


Acacia enterocarpa differs from A. nyssophylla and A. colletioides in having strongly zigzag-shaped legumes (Entwisle et al. 1996).

The Jumping-jack Wattle is a dense, rounded, sprawling, prickly shrub growing to 1.5 m high (Entwisle et al. 1996; Overman & Venn 1999). The seed pods are typically zigzag-shaped and bear a resemblance to the fire cracker known as the jumping-jack, hence the common name (Whibley & Symon 1992).

The Jumping-jack Wattle occurs in SA and Victoria. In SA, it is found in several disjunct sub-populations on Eyre Peninsula, Yorke Peninsula and in the South East. In Victoria, it is restricted to a small area in the State’s west, in the Diapur-Kaniva area of the Wimmera. The stronghold for the species is on Yorke Peninsula and in Victoria (Moritz & Bickerton 2011).

In south-western Victoria, where the species is restricted to the Diapur-Kaniva area, it occurs mainly on the Lawloit Range (Overman & Venn 1999; Stuwe 1980). One site is in the Sandsmere Flora Reserve (FR), one is in the Diapur Flora Reserve (FR), two sites are in the Diapur Rail Reserve and one site is on private land with other populations on roadsides (Overman & Venn 1999). In 1977, the Lions Club of Nhill re-established the Jumping-jack Wattle in Diapur FR, where it is believed to have once grown naturally (Stuwe 1980).

In SA, plants have been collected from roadsides, for example, 80-90 km north and north-north-east from Port Lincoln on the Eyre Peninsula; and approximately 25 km east-north-east from Minlaton on the Yorke Peninsula (MEL undated). The species is conserved within Waitpinga National Park (NP) and Abadeur Conservation Park (CP) (Lang & Kraehenbuehl 1987).

The species' extent of occurrence in SA is 5,700 km² on Eyre Peninsula, 290 km² on Yorke Peninsula and 1,240 km² in the South East. There are no corresponding data for Victoria (DSE 2004 in Moritz & Bickerton 2011; DEH 2007 in Moritz & Bickerton 2011; Overman & Venn 1999).

The species' area of occupancy is 0.065 km² on Eyre Peninsula, <0.500 km² on Yorke Peninsula and <0.090 km² in the South East. There are no corresponding data for Victoria (DSE 2004 in Moritz & Bickerton 2011; DEH 2007 in Moritz & Bickerton 2011; Overman & Venn 1999).

Most of the survey effort for the species occurred pre-1979.  In the South East, however, a population of 814 plants was surveyed in 2008 on private property just south of Aberdour CP. For more information on survey effort, refer to the Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-jack Wattle.

In SA, there are 34 known sub-populations with a total of approximately 4 736 individual plants; Eyre Peninsula has 18 sub-populations consisting of 786 plants; Yorke Peninsula has 7 sub-populations with 2850 plants; and the South East has 9 sub-populations with 1100 plants (DSE 2004 in Moritz & Bickerton 2011; DEH 2007 in Moritz & Bickerton 2011).

Wimmera in Victoria has 43 sub-populations with approximately 1 795 plants (DSE 2004 in Moritz & Bickerton 2011; DEH 2007 in Moritz & Bickerton 2011; Overman & Venn 1999).

In many instances, the sub-populations of the species are considered important due to their small size and occurrence on road and rail reserves in a highly fragmented landscape (Moritz & Bickerton 2011). For more information on important sub-populations refer to the Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-jack Wattle.

In SA, the species is conserved in Aberdour CP in the South East and in Ramsay CP on Yorke Peninsula. In Victoria, it is reserved in Sandsmere and Diapur FRs (Stuwe 1980).

Given that this species is nationally endangered, it is considered that all known, currently occupied and potential habitat is critical to its survival (Moritz & Bickerton 2011).

In SA, the Jumping-jack Wattle is recorded as occurring in woodland to open forest on sandy alkaline and hard neutral yellow duplex soils, red shallow porous loam and grey cracking and self-mulching clays with an annual rainfall of 300-500 mm (Whibley & Symon 1992).

In Victoria, the species grows in a range of habitats, from mallee broombush (Melaleuca uncinata) on gravelly duplex ironstone soils to mallee scrub and grassy woodlands of Yellow Gum (Eucalyptus leucoxylon), Grey Box (E. microcarpa) and Buloke (Allocasuarina luehmannii) on more fertile, brown loamy soils (Stuwe 1980).

For more information on the species' habitat, refer to the Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-jack Wattle.

The Jumping-jack Wattle flowers between May and October (Overman & Venn 1999) or July to September (Entwisle et al. 1996). In 1999, Walsh noted that fruit set appeared to be very poor in most years (Walsh 2001 pers. comm.). Seedling recruitment has been noted at few locations, mostly following disturbance, but occasionally on undisturbed sites (Stuwe 1980).

As most of the sites are on narrow road reserves, lack of effective reservation appears to be the most serious threat to the Jumping-jack Wattle (Walsh 2001 pers. comm.). A number of agricultural weeds have been noted as posing a threat, most significantly, Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) and Horehound (Marrubium vulgare) in Diapur and Sandsmere FRs respectively (MEL undated; Walsh 2001 pers. comm.).

Overman & Venn (1999) summarise the threats to Jumping-jack Wattle as being: disturbance by road and rail maintenance and fire protection works; aerial application of herbicides to adjacent croplands; grazing by travelling stock and the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus); gravel extraction and/or dumping. They draw particular attention to the threat posed by gall infestation, likely to be due to the Gall Fungus (Uromycladium tepperianum) which is present in debilitating levels in most of the Victorian populations. In 1999, Walsh noted that the galls reduce plant vigour and, as they may occur within flowering as well as vegetative parts, potentially reduce seed set (Walsh 2001 pers. comm).

For more information on threats, refer to the Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-jack Wattle.

Nature Conservation Society of South Australia Inc received $21 990 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2004-05, part of which was for population monitoring, surveys and community workshops to help protect this species.

Ark on Eyre Threatened Flora Recovery Team (SA) received $3850 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2002-03, part of which was for enhancement of a vegetation corridor along a 5km stretch of road reserve to contribute to the recovery of this species through an increase in population size, re-establishment of a locally extinct population and linkage of two populations.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Acacia enterocarpa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006f) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Acacia enterocarpa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006f) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lepus capensis (Brown Hare) Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Acacia enterocarpa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006f) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ehrharta calycina (Perennial Veldtgrass) Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Phalaris aquatica (Phalaris) Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Asparagus asparagoides (Bridal Creeper, Bridal Veil Creeper, Smilax, Florist's Smilax, Smilax Asparagus) Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by exotic pasture species Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Introduction of pathogens and resultant disease Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Presence of pathogens and resultant disease Acacia enterocarpa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006f) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Acacia enterocarpa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006f) [Internet].
Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift Acacia enterocarpa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006f) [Internet].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste Acacia enterocarpa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006f) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2011) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Transportation and Service Corridors:Road and rail maintenance works Acacia enterocarpa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006f) [Internet].

Anon (1994). Nomination for listing Acacia enterocarpa - Jumping-Jack Wattle under Victorian Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988. Nomination no. 353.

Entwisle, T.J., B.R. Maslin, R.S. Cowan & A.B. Court (1996). Mimosaceae. In: Walsh, N.G. & T.J. Entwisle, eds. Flora of Victoria. 3:585-658. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

Lang, P.J. & Kraehenbuehl, D.N. (1987). Plants of particular conservation significance in South Australia's agricultural regions: interim report. Department of Environment and Planning, SA.

MEL (undated). National Herbarium of Victoria Specimens. [Online]. Available from: http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/herbarium.

Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton (2011). Recovery Plan for the Nationally Endangered Jumping-Jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa. [Online]. Adelaide, South Australia: Department for Environment and Natural Resources. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/acacia-enterocarpa.html.

Overman, T. & D. Venn (1999). Action Statement No. 85 Jumping-jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa. [Online]. Melbourne: Dept. Natural Resources & Environment. Available from: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dse/nrenpa.nsf/FID/-72C704C81ED78DDA4A25687F0017DD20?OpenDocument.

Overman, T. & D. Venn (2004). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 85 - Jumping-jack Wattle Acacia enterocarpa. [Online]. Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/flora-and-fauna-guarantee-act-action-statements-index-of-approved-action-statements.

Pobke, K. (2007). Draft recovery plan for 23 threatened flora taxa on Eyre Peninsula, South Australia 2007-2012. [Online]. South Australia: Department for Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/biodiversity/west_bcp/pdfs/draft_recovery_plan_for23.pdf..

Stuwe, J. (1980). Rare and endangered Victorian plants. I. Acacia enterocarpa. Victorian Naturalist. 97:157-158.

Walsh, N.G. (2001). Personal Communication.

Whibley, D.J.E. & D.E. Symon (1992). Acacias of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbook Committee.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Acacia enterocarpa in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 12 Jul 2014 17:07:54 +1000.