Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed marine
Listed migratory - Bonn
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Marine bioregional plan for the North Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012x) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): July 2012)
WA: Listed as Other protected fauna (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013)
Scientific name Crocodylus porosus [1774]
Family Crocodylidae:Crocodylia:Reptilia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Schneider,1801
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

After crocodiles were harvested extensively from the wild in northern Australia between the 1940s and 1960s, management measures were taken by all states and the Commonwealth. Full protection was given to the Salt-water Crocodile in Western Australia in 1970 (Burbidge 1987), in the Northern Territory in 1971 and in Queensland in 1974 (Letts 1987).

The Salt-water Crocodile is listed on Appendix I of CITES in all countries other than Australia where it is listed on Appendix II (Ross 1998). The Salt-water Crocodile was transferred to Appendix II in 1985 following a proposal (Webb et al. 1984) to ranch this species. Ranching forms the basis of a sustainable-use management program that aims to save wild populations and their habitat by placing a commercial value on wild stocks (Webb & Vardon 1996).

Scientific name: Crocodylus porosus

Common name: Salt-water Crocodile, Estuarine Crocodile

The Salt-water Crocodile is a large member of Crocodylidae Family. It is the largest species of crocodile and the largest living reptile on the planet. Adult males are on average 5 m long and weigh 450 kg. Females are much smaller, being around 3 m long and up to 150 kg. Male Salt-water Crocodiles can be up to 8 m long and weigh over 1000 kg. The upper body is grey, brown or almost black above with irregular darker mottling while they are generally whitish on the underside. In adults the snout is relatively broad and granular; the distance from the tip to the centre of the eyes is less than twice the width of the head at eye level. Their tails are solid muscle and are the main propulsion mechanism used in the water. Juveniles are generally pale tan in color, with black stripes and spots on the body and tail. The sex of a Salt-water Crocodile is determined by the temperature inside the egg during gestation. Salt-water Crocodiles are estimated to live to 70 years of age (Webb et al. 1984). The adult Salt-water Crocodile generally has 65–67 teeth and is believed to have the greatest bite pressure of any living animal (Cogger 1996).

The Salt-water Crocodile is found in Autralian coastal waters, estuaries, freshwater sections of lakes, inland swamps and marshes (Webb et al. 1987). The species' distribution ranges from Rockhampton in Queensland (Miller 1993; Taplin 1987) throughout coastal Northern Territory (McNamara & Wyre 1993; Webb et al. 1987) to King Sound (near Broome) in Western Australia (Burbidge 1987; McNamara & Wyre 1993).

Queensland distribution
In Queensland the Salt-water Crocodile inhabits reef, coastal and inland waterways from Gladstone on the east coast, throughout the Cape York Peninsula and west to the Queensland-Northern Territory border. A seven-year survey recorded 6444 sightings of the Crocodile in the waterways of the Southern Gulf Plains, Northern Gulf Plains, north-west and north-east Cape York Peninsula, Lakefield National Park, East Coast Plains, Burdekin River catchment and the Fitzroy River catchment (Read et al. 2004).

Northern Territory distribution
In the Northern Territory the Salt-water Crocodile has been found in the following rivers: the Mary River, Adelaide River, Daly River, Moyle River, Victoria/Baines Rivers, Finniss River, Wildman River, West Alligator River, East Alligator River, South Alligator River, Liverpool River, Blyth River, Glyde River, Habgood River, Baralminar/Gobalpa Rivers, Goromuru River, Cato River and Peter John River (Fukuda et al. 2007).

Western Australia distribution
In Western Australia the species is found in most major river systems of the Kimberley, including the Ord, Patrick, Forrest, Durack, King, Pentecost, Prince Regent, Lawley, Mitchell, Hunter, Roes and Glenelg Rivers. It is also found in Parrys Creek. The largest populations occur in the rivers draining into the Cambridge Gulf, the Prince Regent and Roe River systems. They have also been recorded in isolated rivers of the Pilbara region, around Derby near Broome and as far south as Carnarvon on the mid-west coast (DEC 2009a).

The species occurs in India, through South-east Asia, the Philippines and Papua New Guinea, with isolated populations in Palau, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu (Groombridge 1987; Ross 1998).

Prior to 1970 the Salt-water Crocodile was hunted in an unsustainable manner. In the Northern Territory as little as 3000 Salt-water Crocodiles were present. The species is now protected in all states in which it occurs. Northern Territory numbers have increased from 3000 to 30 000–40 000 in 1984 and 70 000–75 000 in 1994. Today the total Australian population is estimated to be around 100 000, although some believe the population to be between 100 000 and 200 000 (Fukuda et al. 2007). The findings of a 10 year survey on the distribution and abundance of the Salt-water Crocodile in Queensland has been summarized by Read and colleagues (2004):

Region (Queensland) Kilometres surveyed Non-hatchling crocodiles sighted
Southern Gulf Plains 550.4 296
Northern Gulf Plains 267.3 271
North-West Cape York Peninsula 910.8 1884
North-East Cape York Peninsula 413.5 247
Lakefield National Park 757.2 1148
East Coast Plains 1058.8 434
Burdekin River Catchment 57.3 6
Fitzroy River Catchment 159.0 19
Total 4174.3 4303

In the Northern Territory and Western Australia, Fukuda and colleagues (2007) have summarized the following population information:

River Name Sightings per Kilometre
Mary River, Northern Territory 5.99
Adelaide River, Northern Territory 3.41
Daly River, Northern Territory 4.75
Moyle River, Northern Territory 5.71
Victoria/Baines Rivers, Northern Territory 1.65
Finniss River, Northern Territory 5.32
Reynolds River, Northern Territory 4.62
Cambridge Gulf, West Arm, Western Australia 0.79
Ord River, Western Australia 2.32
Wildman River, Northern Territory 7.06
West Alligator River, Northern Territory 3.08
South Alligator River, Northern Territory 3.96
East Alligator River, Northern Territory 4.99
Liverpool River, Northern Territory 3.48
Blyth River, Northern Territory 4.12
Glyde River, Northern Territory 5.05
Habgood River, Northern Territory 4.22
Baralminar/ Gobalpa River, Northern Territory 0.59
Goromur, Northern Territory u River 3.27
Cato/Peter John Rivers, Northern Territory 3.28
Roper River, Northern Territory 1.55

Population trends
Leach and colleagues (2009) summarised research into Salt-water Crocodile populations and found the population to be increasing. Four main obervations have led to this conclusion:

  • The biomass of crocodiles in some of these rivers continues to increase, including rivers in which increase in numbers is levelling off. This is consistent with the expectation of the maturing size and age structure of a large, slow-growing species that is recovering from the threshold of extinction in the 1970's.
  • The distribution of Saltwater Crocodiles is expanding upstream to recolonise accessible freshwater habitats in the Northern Territory (Letnic & Connors 2006 in Leach et al. 2009).
  • There is an increase in the number of crocodiles that are living in other marginal habitat, such as the coasts and seas (Nichols & Letnic 2008 in Leach et al. 2009).
  • The number of crocodiles removed from the `Intensively Managed' zone in the Darwin Harbour has increased in recent years (Section 2.4), indicating that animals in expanding populations continue to disperse in search of living areas (Delaney et al. 2008 in Leach et al. 2009).

Typical habitat
Studies from Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, found that Salt-water Crocodiles mostly occur in tidal rivers, coastal floodplains and channels, billabongs and swamps (Webb et al. 1987) up to 150 km inland from the coast (Webb et al. 1983f). Evaporation from isolated channels may lead to salinity levels in these inland channels being twice that of seawater. The Salt-water Crocodile usually inhabits the lower reaches of rivers while the upper reaches are inhabited by Crocodylus johnstoni. Areas of shared distribution may occur in some rivers (Webb et al. 1983a). In Queensland the species is usually restricted to coastal waterways and floodplain wetlands. Populations may also be found hundreds of kilometres upstream, such as in the Fitzroy River and the waterways of the southern Gulf of Carpentaria (Read et al. 2004).

Nesting habitat
Preferred nesting habitat for the Salt-water Crocodile includes elevated isolated freshwater swamps that do not have the influence of tidal movements (Webb et al. 1987). Floating rafts of vegetation provide important nesting habitat (Webb et al. 1987). In the Northern Territory, most nest sites are found on the north-west banks of rivers (Magnusson 1980a) and are usually exposed to the midday sun during the day and shaded in the early morning and late evening (Webb et al. 1983f).

Reproductive behavior
Studies in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, found that Salt-water Crocodile nesting occurs during the wet season between November and May with a peak in January and February. Courtship occurs 4 to 6 weeks before nesting and continues through the nesting period (Webb et al. 1987). Large males control a territory through aggression and signalling, and consequently fertilise most reproductively active females within it. During courting, the females approach the males and an elaborate courtship of swimming together, body contact and rubbing follows (Grigg & Gans 1993).

The Salt-water Crocodile is a mound nester, preferring areas with tall vegetation and permanent water close by. One clutch with an average of 52 eggs is laid per season (Webb et al. 1977, 1987). Eggs are ovoid in shape measuring approximately 8 cm in length and 5 cm in width and weighing 113 g (Webb et al. 1983f; Webb & Manolis 1989). Incubation time varies between 65 and 114 days, with the adult female remaining nearby to defend the nest (Magnusson 1979b). The temperature of the nest is determined by heat generated within the nest and the external ambient temperature (Magnusson 1979c). High annual egg mortality is caused by short and long term rainfall (Magnusson 1982; Webb et al. 1977). The temperature of the nest determines the sex of the hatchlings. Males are produced between 31–33 ºC with females dominating the ratios above and below these temperatures (Magnusson 1982).

The adult female excavates the nest after hearing the calls of the hatchlings, and carries them to the water (Webb et al. 1987). Once in the water, hatchlings are stimulated by the calls of other hatchlings and form creches (Magnusson 1980b), which are guarded by the mother for up to two months (Webb et al. 1977). Hatchlings may move up to 9 km during the first month in the water (Magnusson 1979a).

Feeding behavior
Studies conducted in the Northern-Territory on Salt-water Crocodiles ranging from 0–180 cm in length have provided a detailed analysis of stomach contents. Samples recovered from 289 Salt-water Crocodiles (209 from the dry season and 80 from the wet season) have shown that the amount of food consumed does not vary between seasons, although the type of food does vary between habitats.

Food sources
The primary food sources were identified as crustaceans, insects and mammals, however, it was found that only larger Crocodiles ate mammals. Similar proportions of food were consumed in mangrove and floodplain habitats; the primary food source being crabs and shrimp. This is in contrast to insects being the most abundant food source in the habitat, indicating salinity as a factor in eating habits. In areas of higher salinity, the Salt-water Crocodile eats larger volumes of crab and a smaller volume of shrimp and insects. In freshwater swamps and upper mangroves the Crocodile consumed more insects (Taylor 1979). Salt-water Crocodiles are opportunistic feeders using an active hunting or a sit and wait strategy (Cooper & Jenkins 1993). Rocks and stones ingested by crocodiles may function as gastroliths and aid digestion as well as serving other functions such as ballast (Webb & Manolis 1989).

Despite sharing the same habitat, Salt-water Crocodiles were reported to only feed regularly on Goby fish (Pseudogobius spp.). Hence feeding behaviors are a major contributer to diet (i.e. Crocodiles were observed unsuccessfully hunting other fish species). Only larger Crocodiles (longer than 120 cm) ate vertebrates, suggesting a change in feeding behaviours with an increase in age (Taylor 1979). Larger Crocodiles (over 2 m in length) prey on a variety of items including mud crabs, birds, sea turtles, fish, flying foxes, dingoes, cats, dogs, pigs, buffalo, cattle, horses and humans (Webb & Manolis 1989).

Movements in Australia
Salt-water Crocodiles are ectotherms and thus their distribution is determined and their behaviour is modified by their surrounding temperature. Continual movement in and out of the water is the main thermoregulatory behaviour. Behaviours such as basking, shade seeking and mouth gaping are common to regulate temperature when out of the water (Grigg & Gans 1993).

Salt-water Crocodile hatchlings remain near the nest for up to two months (Webb et al. 1977), although they can disperse up to 9 km in their first month, with movements over 20 km recorded within six months (Magnusson 1979a). Within one year, over 90% of surviving crocodiles are within 5 km of their nest site (Webb & Messel 1978). Crocodiles between 2 and 6 years of age may travel up to 80 km from their nest site. The movements of older animals is not precisely known, but the movements of relocated animals demonstrate their ability to make long distance movements (up to 280 km) to and from home and their sites of capture (Walsh & Whitehead 1993).

Tracking experiments
A recent study by Brien and colleagues (2008) tracked the movements of Salt-water Crocodiles in a non-tidal waterhole in the Lakefield National Park. It was found that during the late dry to early wet season, males had an average home range of 23.89 ha and females 5.94 ha. It was also found that both males and females were most active from late afternoon until midnight. The average daily movement and largest daily movement of the crocodiles is recorded below (Brien et al. 2008):

Crocodile sex Average daily movement (m)
Largest daily movement (m)
Female 226 360
Female 762 2712
Female 151 233
Female 120 420
Female 163 372
Female 143 286
Male 1853 5694
Male 370 1340
Male 137 1075


In Australia, threats to the Salt-water Crocodile include incidental mortality from fishing nets and habitat destruction (Taplin 1987). In Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, feral animals such as buffalo destroy wetland habitat by increasing drainage and reducing vegetation (Webb et al. 1984, 1987).

In countries outside Australia, habitat destruction and illegal harvesting of the species are the major threats (Ross 1998).

In Western Australia, all native fauna, including both species of Crocodile, are protected by the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950. The Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 and associated Wildlife Conservation Regulations 1970 make provisions for the licensing of a range of activities relating to the commercial harvesting of native fauna including Crocodiles.

The Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and Freshwater Crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni) Management Plan for Western Australia 2004–2008 identifies threat abatement strategies for this species (Department of Environment and Heritage 2004a). The overarching goal of this management plan is to maintain viable populations of crocodiles throughout their ranges in accordance with the principles of ecologically sustainable development. The plan seeks to achieve this with seven main objectives:

  • manage the commercial Crocodile industry via licensing
  • ensure humane treatment of Crocodiles
  • monitor industry compliance
  • monitor crocodile populations
  • facilitate adaptive management and research
  • undertake program reporting and review
  • promote community awareness and participation.

The Salt-water Crocodile Management Program 2007-2017 (Queensland EPA 2007c) goal is to conserve viable populations of estuarine crocodiles in the wild in Queensland, while providing for public safety and ecologically sustainable use. The management program came into effect on 1 March 2008 to coincide with the commencement of the Nature Conservation (Estuarine Crocodile) Conservation Plan 2007 (Queensland EPA 2007). The plan has four specific objectives:

  • to maintain viable wild populations of C. porosus across its range in Queensland, at least at current population levels consistent with the Queensland Government's obligations concerning public safety
  • to increase public awareness and safety in crocodile habitat
  • to educate the public to appreciate the ecological significance of crocodiles and the need for crocodile conservation
  • to permit and control legitimate commercial enterprises.

The Nature Conservation (Estuarine Crocodile) Conservation Plan 2007 (Queensland EPA 2007) has four objectives:

  • conserve viable populations of estuarine crocodiles in the wild
  • protect humans from problem crocodiles
  • prevent loss of aquaculture fisheries resources, stock and working dogs caused by problem crocodile attacks
  • ensure commercial use of estuarine crocodiles is ecologically sustainable.

The Management Program for the Saltwater Crocodile in the Northern Territory of Australia, 2009-2014 (Leach et al. 2009) re-examines management practices for the species in response to changing circumstances:

  • An increase in the number of landowners wanting to participate in the crocodile industry.
  • An increasing crocodile population.
  • An expansion of farming capacity.
  • A recognition that previous harvest levels have not been detrimental to the species.
  • An increase in the negative interactions between crocodiles and people. .
  • An increasing need for public awareness about crocodiles.

The primary aim to ensure the long-term conservation of the Saltwater Crocodile and its habitats in the Northern Territory, is achieved through four principle objectives (Leach et al. 2009):

  • To facilitate the sustainable use of Saltwater Crocodiles.
  • To promote community awareness and public safety.
  • To ensure the humane treatment of Saltwater Crocodiles.
  • To monitor and report on the impact of the harvest of Saltwater Crocodiles.

Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.

The Saltwater Crocodile has been identified as a conservation value in the North (DSEWPaC 2012x) Marine Region. The "species group report card - marine reptiles" for the North (DSEWPaC 2012x) Marine Region provides additional information.

Relevant management documentation for the species includes:

  • The Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and Freshwater Crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni) Management Plan for Western Australia 2004–2008 (Department of Environment and Heritage 2004a).
  • The Salt-water Crocodile Management Program 2007-2017 (Queensland EPA 2007c).
  • The Management Program for the Saltwater Crocodile in the Northern Territory of Australia, 2009-2014 (Leach et al. 2009).
  • Nature Conservation (Estuarine Crocodile) Conservation Plan 2007 (Queensland EPA 2007).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines Crocodylus porosus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gj) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Illegal hunting/harvesting and collection Crocodylus porosus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gj) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Crocodylus porosus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gj) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bubalus bubalis (Water Buffalo, Swamp Buffalo) Crocodylus porosus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gj) [Internet].

Brien, M.L., M.A. Read, H.I. McCallum & G.C. Grigg (2008). Home range and movements of radio-tracked estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) within a non-tidal waterhole. Wildlife Research. 35:140-149.

Burbidge, A.A. (1987). The management of crocodiles in Western Australia. In: Webb, G. J. W., S. C. Manolis & P. J. Whitehead, eds. Wildlife Management: Crocodiles and Alligators. Page(s) 125-127. Sydney: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Cogger, H.G. (1996). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia. Chatswood, NSW: Reed Books.

Cooper, P.H. & R.W.G. Jenkins (1993). Natural history of the Crocodylia. In: Glasby, C. J., G. J. B. Ross & P. L. Beesley, eds. Fauna of Australia. Volume 2A, Amphibia and Reptilia. Page(s) 337-349. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) (2009a). Management Plan for the Commercial Harvest and Farming of Crocodiles in Western Australia 1 January 2009-31 December 2013.

Department of Environment and Heritage (2004a). Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and Freshwater Crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni) Management Plan for Western Australia 2004-2008.

Fukuda, Y., P. Whitehead & G. Boggs (2007). Broad-scale environmental influences on the abundance of saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus). Australia. Wildlife Research. 34:167-176.

Grigg, G. & C. Gans (1993). Morphology and physiology of the Crocodylia. In: Glasby, C. J., G. J. B. Ross & P. L. Beesley, eds. Fauna of Australia. Volume 2A, Amphibia and Reptilia. Page(s) 326-343. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Groombridge, B. (1987). The distribution and status of world crocodilians. In: Webb, G. J. W., S. C. Manolis & P. J. Whitehead, eds. Wildlife Management: Crocodiles and Alligators. Page(s) 9-21. Sydney: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Leach G.J., R. Delaney & Y. Fukuda (2009). Management Program for the Saltwater Crocodile in the Northern Territory of Australia, 2009 - 2014. Darwin: Northern Territory Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport.

Letts, G.A. (1987). The management of crocodilians in Australia - introductory comments. In: Webb, G. J. W., S. C. Manolis & P. J. Whitehead, eds. Wildlife Management: Crocodiles and Alligators. Page(s) 103-105. Sydney, Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Magnusson, W.E. (1979b). Incubation period of Crocodylus porosus. Journal of Herpetology. 13:362-363.

Magnusson, W.E. (1979c). Maintenance of temperature of crocodile nests (Reptilia, Crocodilidae). Journal of Herpetology. 13(4):439-443.

Magnusson, W.E. (1980a). Habitat required for nesting by Crocodylus porosus (Reptilia: Crocodilidae) in northern Australia. Australian Wildlife Research. 7:149-156.

Magnusson, W.E. (1980b). Hatching and creche formation by Crocodylus porosus. Copeia. 1980(2):359-362.

Magnusson, W.E. (1982). Mortality of eggs of the crocodile Crocodylus porosus in northern Australia. Journal of Herpetology. 16(2):121-130.

Magnusson, W.E. (1979a). Dispersal of hatchling crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) (Reptilia, Crocodilidae). Journal of Herpetology. 13(3):227-231.

McNamara, K.J. & G.J. Wyre (1993). The conservation, management and farming of crocodiles in Western Australia. In: Crocodiles, Proceedings of the 2nd Regional Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. 435-450. Gland, IUCN.

Miller, J.D. (1993). Crocodiles in Queensland: A Brief Overview. In: Crocodiles, Proceedings of the 2nd Regional Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. 272-289. Gland, IUCN.

Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2007c). Nature Conservation (Estuarine Crocodile) Conservation Plan 2007 and Management Program 2007–2017. Queensland Environmental Protection Agency.

Read, M.A., J.D. Miller, I.P. Bell & A. Felton (2004). The distribution and abundance of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, in Queensland. Queensland. Wildlife Research. 31:527-534.

Ross, J.P. (1998). Crocodiles: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan; Second Edition. [Online]. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Available from: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/natsci/herpetology/act-plan/plan1998a.htm.

Taplin, L.E. (1987). The management of crocodiles in Queensland, Australia. In: Webb, G. J. W., S. C. Manolis & P. J. Whitehead, eds. Wildlife Management: Crocodiles and Alligators. Page(s) 129-140. Sydney, Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Taylor, J.A. (1979). The foods and feeding habits of subadult Crocodylus porosus Schneider in northern Australia. Australian Wildlife Research. 6:347-359.

Walsh, B. & P.J. Whitehead (1993). Problem crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus, at Nhulunbuy, Northern Territory: an assessment of relocation as a management strategy. Wildlife Research. 20:127-135.

Webb, G. & C. Manolis (1989). Crocodiles of Australia. Page(s) 160. Sydney, Reed.

Webb, G., S. Manolis, P. Whitehead & G. Letts (1984). A proposal for the transfer of the Australian population of Crocodylus porosus Schneider (1801) from Appendix I to Appendix II of C.I.T.E.S. Page(s) 82. Darwin: Conservation Commission of NT.

Webb, G.J.W., G.C. Sack, R. Buckworth & S.C. Manolis (1983f). An Examination of Crocodylus porosus Nests in Two Northern Australia Freshwater Swamps, with an Analysis of Embryo Mortality. Australian Wildlife Research. 10:571-605.

Webb, G.J.W., H. Messel & W. Magnusson (1977). The Nesting of Crocodylus porosus in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. Copeia. 1977(2):238-249.

Webb, G.J.W., P.J. Whitehead & S.C. Manolis (1987). Crocodile management in the Northern Territory of Australia. In: Webb, G. J. W., S. C. Manolis & P. J. Whitehead, eds. Wildlife Management: Crocodiles and Alligators. Page(s) 107-124. Sydney, Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Webb, G.J.W., R. Buckworth & S.C. Manolis (1983a). Crocodylus johnstoni in the McKinlay River Area, N.T. III Growth, movement and the population age structure. Australian Wildlife Research. 10:383-401.

Webb, J.W. & M.J. Vardon (1996). Conservation through sustainable use: a discussion of concepts and guidelines for use. In: Kitchener, D. J., Suyanto, A, ed. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Eastern Indonesian-Australian Vertebrate Fauna. Manado, Indonesia. November 22-26. Page(s) 83-87. Perth: Western Australian Museum.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Crocodylus porosus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 21 Apr 2014 06:40:31 +1000.