Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis arenicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agb) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
SA:South Australian Murray Darling Basin Threatened Flora Recovery Plan (Obst, C., 2005) [Report].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Vulnerable (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
Scientific name Pterostylis arenicola [17919]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author M.Clements & J.Stewart
Infraspecies author  
Reference Australian Orchid Research 1 (Aug. 1989) 120.
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Pterostylis arenicola

Common name: Sandhill Greenhood Orchid

Pterostylis arenicola is conventionally accepted and has previously been known as Oligochaetochilus arenicola (CHAH 2010).

The Sandhill Greenhood Orchid is a solitary, tuberous terrestrial herb with a basal rosette of leaves growing to 8 cm across which are usually senescent at flowering (Bates & Weber 1990; Jusaitis 1991). The flower stem grows to 25 cm in height, and elongates as flowers progressively open. Flowers have 'hoods' that are green and brown or red-brown with white markings, and are erect (SA DEH 2005b). Plants can have 1–10 flowers. The galea (upper lip of the flower) grows up to 2.2 cm in height and the apex has a fine decurved point. The lateral sepals are deflexed (bent sharply downwards). The lamina (flat part of leaf) is rounded but not particularly broad at the base with short sparse hairs along the margins, strongly veined, and with long fine divergent, not upswept, apices. The labellum (lip) is oblong, thick, red and channelled, with short marginal hairs (Bates 2009).

The Sandhill Greenhood Orchid is endemic to South Australia and is known from Tailem Bend, Grange (suburban Adelaide), Potters Scrub in Coorong National Park, and Poltalloch and other locations on the Narrung Peninsula (near Meningie) (Jusaitis & Sorensen 1997 cited in Obst 2005). In 1990, the species was considered to be restricted to less than 1% of its original distribution (Bates & Weber 1990), however more populations have since been found (Obst 2005). The species occurs in the South Australian Murray Darling Basin Natural Resource Management Region (TSSC 2008agb).

The population is severely fragmented, and known to exist at no more than 10 locations (Obst 2005). The extent of occurrence of this Sandhill Greenhood Orchid is 2468.3 km² (Obst 2005) and its area of occupancy is approximately 3600 km² (CPBR 2007 cited in TSSC 2008agb).

In 2005, no seed or mycorrhizal fungi for the Sandhill Greenhill Orchid were held in storage. The Botanic Gardens of Adelaide Seed Conservation Centre, in collaboration with the Millennium Seed Bank Project (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England), planned to begin collecting orchid seed for storage in 2005, subject to funding (Ainsley n.d. pers. comm. cited in Obst 2005). Planned isolation and storage of mycorrhizal fungi is dependant on the availability of resources and expertise (Obst 2005). These objectives do not appear to have been reached.

There is some conjecture among experts as to the total population size of the Sandhill Greenhood Orchid. Some experts believe the number is unknown (TSSC 2008adg) while others state that approximately 93 200 plants remain in the South Australian Murray Darling Basin (Obst 2005). Despite the loss of 90% of its former habitat, the species' abundance has increased significantly due to improved management and habitat protection (Bates 2009) and the discovery of new populations. The following table presents details of the species' important populations (Obst 2005):

Population number Land tenure, nearest town Total number of plants Area of occupancy (m2) Priority order for management
1 Pangarinda Arboretum, Wellington 8 (translocated) 100
2 Coorong National Park, Meningie 3078 8799 1
3 Private Property, Meningie 96 1450
4 Heritage Agreement, Meningie 89 760 1 600 000
5 Tailem Bend Forest Conservation Park 92 1450
6 Grange Golf Course, Adelaide 104 450
7 Private Property, Narrung 49 87
8 Private Property, Narrung 51 325
9 Private Property, Narrung 27 100

A number of locations that have been previously reported are not included by Obst (2005), such as: Langhorne Creek (included in Heritage Agreement) (Bates 2000 pers. comm.), 'native pine forest' north of Langhorne Creek (included in heritage agreement) (Bates 2000 pers. comm.), 1000 plants on private property at Poltalloch (Davies 1995b) and 5000 plants near Campbell Park (Bates 2000 pers. comm.). Tens of thousands of plants at the Tailem Bend site have been previously reported (Jones 1999 pers. comm.).

In 2005, nine populations were recorded during a field survey. Two of the populations are in a National Park or Conservation Park, one is in a Council Reserve, one is included in a Heritage Agreement and five are not formally managed in any form of reserve. Three new populations (that were previously unrecorded in Government databases) were recorded during this survey (Obst 2005).

The Sandhill Greenhood Orchid is restricted to consolidated, coloured sand-hills in near coastal areas (Bates 2009). Soils are red sand dunes, sandy clay-loams or sandy areas amongst limestone. The climate of the area consists of hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters, with annual rainfall of 467–375 mm (Obst 2005). The species has been recorded in the following vegetation associations (Obst 2005):

Vegetation associations Structure Midstorey vegetation  Understorey vegetation
Mallee Box (Eucalyptus porosa) and Drooping Sheoak (Allocasuarina verticillata) Woodland Golden Wattle, Seaberry Saltbush (Rhagodia candolleana) and Xanthorrhoea caespitosa Exotics, Austrostipa sp., Danthonia sp., Climbing Saltbush (Einadia nutans), Ruby Saltbush (Enchylaena tomentosa var. tomentosa), Knobby Club-rush (Isolepis nodosa), Coastal Lignum (Muehlenbeckia gunnii), Variable Groundsel (Senecio lautus), Tetragona tetragonioides and Wahlenbergia sp.  
Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha) +/- Drooping Sheoak Very low woodland
Mallee Pine (Callitris gracilis) +/- Drooping Sheoak Woodland
Soap Mallee (Eucalyptus diversifolia) +/- Golden Wattle +/- Drooping Sheoak Mallee   Small-leaved Clematis (Clematis microphylla), Blueberry Lily (Dianella revoluta var. revoluta), Beaked Hakea (Hakea rostrata), Silky Guinea-flower (Hibbertia sericea), Running Postman (Kennedia prostrata), Lepidosperma carphoides, Lepidosperma viscidum, Murnong (Microseris lanceolata), Tetragona tetragonioides and Thomasia petalocalyx.

This species has also been observed under Melaleuca uncintata near Langhorne Creek (Bates 2000 pers. comm.).

South of Tailem Bend, the Sandhill Greenhood Orchid grows on the very gentle south-west facing slope of an undulating plain, in sand and sandy loam soils with a pH of 7–7.5. Soils are reddish brown when dry and dark reddish brown when wet. In the Adelaide suburb of West Lakes, the species occurs on pale red sand on sandhills (Bates n.d. cited in Davies 1992).

The distribution of this species overlaps with the following EPBC Act-listed Ecological Communities (TSSC 2008agb):

  • Buloke Woodlands of the Riverina and Murray-Darling Depression Bioregions
  • Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland of South Australia
  • Peppermint Box (Eucalyptus odorata) Grassy Woodland of South Australia.

This Sandhill Greenhood Orchid flowers between September–December (Bates & Weber 1990) and seed matures between November–December (Jusaitis 1991). The species is deciduous and after fruiting, the plant goes into dormancy as an underground tuberoid (Bates & Weber 1990). During winter a new stem is produced from the apical bud within the tuberoid (Jones 1988). The flowers are pollinated by fungus gnats (Mycetophilids) (Bates n.d. pers. comm. cited in Davies 1992).

Propagation requirements for both in vitro and in situ propagation of the Sandhill Greenhood Orchid have been investigated by Jusaitis and Sorensen (1994). In vitro seed germination was optimal when seed was incubated together with mycorrhizal fungus at 23°C in the dark on an oatmeal medium. Conditions required for successful in situ germination suggested that the presence of Allocasuarina sp. needles may provide some degree of desiccation protection for both the seed and mycorrhizal fungus. Direct seeding trials were undertaken within small plots cleared of vegetation by hand. Seed was mixed with finely sieved peat moss and sprinkled into grooves which were then lightly backfilled and patted by hand. Inoculation with mycorrhizal fungus was then carried out using a light spray with the fungus suspension in distilled water. These trials were unsuccessful with only one seedling emerging (Jusaitis & Sorensen 1994).

The Sandhill Greenhood Orchid is similar to the Rufa Greenhood (or Baggy Britches Pterostylis boormanii), with the main differences being that the former has longer lateral sepals with less pronounced marginal thickening and a longer labellum with numerous setae on a distinct basal lobe (Clements & Jones 1991 cited in Obst 2005).

The Sandhill Greenhood Orchid flowers are green-brown or red-brown with whitish markings (SA DEH 2005b). Petal flanges are large, lateral sepals are much wider than the hood, free points are 10–20 mm long and the labellum is broadly channeled with forward-pointing bristles (Jones 2006).

Threats relevant to the Sandhill Greenhood Orchid vary in severity and importance between known populations. The following table presents a threat risk summary of the Sandhill Greenhood Orchid (Obst 2005):

Threat Details Affected populations Risk 
Weeds    Perennial Veldt Grass (Ehrharta calycina) and Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) All Medium-high
Hare's Tail Grass (Lagurus ovatus), Wild Oats (Avena fatua), Silver Grass (Vulpia spp.) and Annual Veldt Grass (Ehrharta longiflora) 2–8 Medium-high
African Boxthorn (Lycium ferocissimum) 2–5, 9 Medium-high
Soursob (Oxalis pes-caprae) 6 Medium-high
Grazing and substrate disturbance  Kangaroos (Macropus sp.) Medium-high
Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Hares (Lepus sp.) 2–5, 7, 8 Medium-high
Cattle 7,8  Medium-high
Human trampling Unknown Low
Insufficient management  Inappropriate fire regimes 2–5, 8 Medium-high
Illegal collection Unknown  Low
Information gaps Inadequate knowledge on the distribution, abundance, population trends, ecology and threats All Medium-high
Inadequate monitoring All Medium-high
Habitat loss and degradation   Inadequate formal protection Unknown  Low 
Fragmentation Unknown  Low 
Small population size and risk of local extinction Unknown  Low
Disease Dieback of habitat caused by the root-rot fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi Unknown  Low

 

South Australian Murray Darling Basin Recovery Plan

Actions suitable for the recovery of the Sandhill Greenhood Orchid have been identified in the South Australian Murray Darling Basin Threatened Flora Recovery Plan (Obst 2005) and include: 

  • Acquire accurate information on distribution, abundance, threats and critical and potential habitat.
  • Maximise the number of populations and amount of habitat that is protected.
  • Manage the threat from weeds.
  • Manage the threats from grazing herbivores.
  • Manage other threats to populations.
  • Monitor and evaluate populations and extension activities.
  • Manage fragmented populations.
  • Increase the knowledge of this species through targeted research.
  • Ensure sufficient resources are available to implement the recovery plan.
  • Effectively coordinate and implement the recovery project.

Commonwealth Conservation Advice

Refer to the Commonwealth Conservation Advice (TSSC 2008agb) for information on research priorities and recovery priority actions to mitigate threats including habitat loss, disturbance and modification, weeds, trampling, grazing, fire and disease. Enabling recovery of additional populations is also encouraged in the Advice.

Action undertaken

Prior conservation effort directed toward the Sandhill Greenhood Orchid has focused on the Grange population in Adelaide. For many years, the Threatened Plant Action Group has conducted working bees, with weed control being the main conservation action performed for this species (Obst 2005).

Recovery Plan for Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges

The Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species and Ecological Communities of Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia (Willson & Bignall 2009) includes the Sandhill Greenhood Orchid. This plan addresses threat management in the context of broad vegetation groups (Willson & Bignall 2009). The Sandhill Greenhood Orchid is included in the Grassy Woodland vegetation group, which is a vegetation community that is identified as a high priority for recovery (Willson & Bignall 2009). This high priority rating means that conservation investment may be targeted at the Grassy Woodland group (rather than lower priority groups within the area of the regional recovery plan) (Willson & Bignall 2009).

The plan addresses key threats to a range of endangered species in the region, such as: weed invasion, inappropriate fire management regimes, impacts of recreational activities and browsing of herbivorous animals (Willson & Bignall 2009). There are no specific measures to address threats to the Sandhill Greenhood Orchid, but, as it occurs in the high priority Grassy Woodland vegetation group, actions to recover this area should benefit the orchid (Willson & Bignall 2009).

Research activities relevant to the Sandhill Greenhood Orchid include Davis (1992), Obst (2005) and Jusaitis and Sorensen (1994).

Management documents relevant to the Sandhill Greenhood Orchid (Pterostylis arenicola) can be found at the start of this profile. Other management documents relavent to the species include:

  • Threatened Plants of the Murray Mallee, Mt Lofty Range and Kangaroo Island Region of South Australia (Davies 1992).
  • Threatened Plant Species Management in National Parks and Wildlife Act Reserves in South Australia (Davies 1995b).
  • Recovery Plans: Prostanthera eurybioides, Pterostylis arenicola, Acacia cretacea, Pultenaea trichophylla (Jusaitis 1991).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis arenicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agb) [Conservation Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Recreational harvest Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Pterostylis arenicola in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006tb) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Pterostylis arenicola in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006tb) [Internet].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lepus capensis (Brown Hare) Pterostylis arenicola in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006tb) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Pterostylis arenicola in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006tb) [Internet].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oxalis pes-caprae (Soursob, Bermuda Buttercup, Buttercup Oxalis, Cape Cowslip, Geelsuring, Oxalis, Sorrel, Sourgrass, Yellow-Flowered Oxalis, Yellow Sorrel) Pterostylis arenicola in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006tb) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lycium ferocissimum (African Boxthorn, Boxthorn) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis arenicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agb) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Avena fatua (Wild Oats) Pterostylis arenicola in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006tb) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Asparagus asparagoides (Bridal Creeper, Bridal Veil Creeper, Smilax, Florist's Smilax, Smilax Asparagus) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis arenicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agb) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis arenicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agb) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis arenicola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agb) [Conservation Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Pterostylis arenicola in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006tb) [Internet].

Bates, R. (2009). South Australian Native Orchids. Compact Disc. Adelaide: Native Orchid Society of South Australia.

Bates, R.J. (2000). Personal Communication.

Bates, R.J. & J.Z. Weber (1990). Orchids of South Australia. Adelaide: Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbooks Committee.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Davies, R.J.P. (1992). Threatened Plants of the Murray Mallee, Mt Lofty Range and Kangaroo Island Region of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.

Davies, R.J.P. (1995b). Threatened Plant Species Management in National Parks and Wildlife Act Reserves in South Australia. Athelstone, South Australia: Black Hill Flora Centre, Botanic Gardens of Adelaide.

Environment Australia (EA) (1999c). Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits. [Online]. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/rabbits08.html.

Environment Australia (EA) (2001m). Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.

Jones, D.L. (1988). Native Orchids of Australia. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Reed.

Jones, D.L. (1999). Personal Communication.

Jones, D.L. (2006). A complete guide to Native Orchids of Australia, including the island Territories. Sydney, NSW: New Holland Publishers (Australia) Pty Ltd.

Jusaitis, M. (1991). Recovery Plans: Prostanthera eurybioides, Pterostylis arenicola, Acacia cretacea, Pultenaea trichophylla. Adelaide, South Australia: Blackhill Flora Centre.

Jusaitis, M. & B. Sorensen (1994). Conservation Studies on Endangered Plant Species from South Australia's Agricultural Regions. Adelaide, South Australia: Black Hill Flora Centre.

Obst, C. (2005). South Australian Murray Darling Basin Threatened Flora Recovery Plan. [Online]. Report to the Threatened Species and Communities Section, Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/files/542b195d-5854-46d1-aeb7-9e3701172106/SAMDB_Thr_Fl_Rec_Plan_05Jun.pdf.

South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2005b). Threatened Flora of the South Australian Murray Darling Basin. Recovery planning for nine nationally threatened plants. Fact Sheet. Adelaide, South Australia: DEH.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008agb). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis arenicola. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/17919-conservation-advice.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Pterostylis arenicola in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 2 Sep 2014 00:11:56 +1000.