In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on ten species of Bats (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001a) [Listing Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Recovery plan for cave-dwelling bats, Rhinolophus philippinensis, Hipposideros semoni and Taphozous troughtoni 2001-2005 (Thomson, B., C. Pavey, and T. Reardon, 2001) [Recovery Plan].
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Bats. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.1 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010m) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (29/03/2001) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2001h) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Hipposideros semoni |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Hipposideros semoni Matschie, 1903
Common name: Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat, Greater Wart-nosed Horseshoe Bat
Other common names have included the Wart-nosed Horseshoe Bat and Semon's Bat. A recent synonym is Hipposideros muscinus (Hall 2008). The current name is consistent with Armstrong and Reardon (2006).
The specific distinctness of this taxon is not disputed. Hill (1963) provided the most comprehensive comment on the relationships within the Hipposideros cyclops group, which, among others, contains H. semoni, H. stenotis (an Australian endemic), and H. muscinus (occurs in Papua New Guinea sympatrically in parts with H. semoni; Bonaccorso 1998).
The noseleaf of Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat is well developed, square-shaped and covers most of the muzzle. There are two wart-like protuberances - one in the centre and another on the posterior edge. The upper portion of the noseleaf is divided into four depressions and there are two supplementary leaflets under each side of the lower portion. The ears are particularly long and narrow, with an acute point. The forearm length is between 42 and 50 mm (Churchill 1998; 2009; Hall 2002, 2008). The fur is relatively long and has a ruffled appearance; it is dark, smoky-grey in colour, though lighter on the belly (Churchill 1998, 2009). The wing membrane near the body is covered with whitish-brown hair (Hall & Richards 1979).
The known broad-scale distribution for Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat includes coastal Queensland from Cape York to just south of Cooktown (AMBS 2003; Thomson et al. 2001). The southern limit is unclear, though Coles and colleagues (1996) recorded calls on the Mt Windsor Tableland. There is an outlier population at Kroombit Tops, near Gladstone (Schulz & de Oliveira 1995). A second unconfirmed isolate has been identified in St Mary's State Forest near Maryborough based on an echolocation call recording (de Oliveira & Pavey 1995), though this needs confirmation through better quality echolocation recordings or capture. Australian Museum Business Services (AMBS) (2003) suggest that the species might also occur on some islands in the Torres Strait. Hall (2008) depicts the distribution as extending much further south down the Queensland coast compared to Thomson and colleagues (2001) and AMBS (2003), presumably on the basis of unpublished records.
The estimated extent of occurrence for Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat is 66 650 km². This includes the Kroombit isolate (Schulz & de Oliveira 1995), which is estimated at 8300 km². The area of potential distribution is an additional 33 500 km². Areas were calculated after redrawing in a GIS the estimated distribution of the species as illustrated in Churchill (1998) and AMBS (2003). If the distribution of Hall (2008) is more accurate, then extent of occurrence would be approximately 190 900 km².
No evidence of a decline in area of extent is available for this species, because the distribution is incompletely surveyed. There are a couple of erroneous records that need to be considered when estimating any possible decline in area of extent: an apparent record from the Queensland Museum from near Innisfail is actually Hipposideros ater (Duncan et al. 1999); and an apparent record from Townsville that is incorrect, since the specimen was collected from Cape Direction near Iron Range (Dixon & Huxley 1985).
No specific data on potential future changes in area of occurrence are available. However, vegetation clearing or modification, including loss of understorey from grazing might reduce the habitat available at the edges of their distribution (B. Thomson 2007a, pers. comm.).
The distribution of Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat on both a broad and fine scale is not well known and therefore area of occupancy cannot be calculated accurately. However, a rough estimate is available from information in Duncan and colleagues (1999) and Thomson and colleagues (2001). Based on the area of national parks where the species has been recorded, the minimum area of occupancy (i.e. without estimates from most public and other lands; compiled from DEW 2004) is 2274 km².
No specific data on past changes in area of occupancy are available. Despite destruction of most mines on the Cape York Peninsula (B. Thomson 2007a, pers. comm.), this species is not likely to have been affected significantly because it does not appear to rely on deeper caves or mines for roosting.
No specific data on potential future changes in area of occupancy are available.
No captive, propagated or artificially translocated colonies or populations of Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat have been reported.
Like many species of bat, this species takes advantage of disused underground mines, but is less reliant on mines than other species, and does not form large aggregations (de Oliveira & Schulz 1997; Hall 2008; B. Thomson 2007a, pers. comm.; Thomson et al. 2001). Consequently, Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat has not been identified as a species that has experienced significant range expansion due to the creation of habitat from mining.
The northern distribution of Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat is isolated from the Kroombit Tops population and the putative Maryborough population (Hall 2008).
The northern distribution appears continuous on a broad scale. However, within this, connectedness among groups and patterns of their distribution are unknown (B. Thomson 2007a, pers. comm.).
Information on population size is lacking from both Australia and Papua New Guinea.
The two geographic populations of Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat in Australia and Papua New Guinea are assumed to be completely separated by the Torres Strait ocean gap. The distribution map in AMBS (2003) shows potential occupancy of some Torres Strait islands, though targeted surveys would be required to confirm this.
No global threats have been identified for the Australian population.
Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat has not been surveyed adequately.
Surveys for bats conducted in the Mt Windsor Tableland area (Coles et al. 1996), at Kroombit Tops National Park (Schulz & de Oliveira 1995) and St. Mary's State Forest near Maryborough (de Oliveira & Pavey 1995) have all produced records that require further confirmation by capture (Thomson et al. 2001).
A survey by B. Thomson (unpublished data) checked all old mine sites listed for Cape York in the Queensland Department of Mines and Energy (DME) historic mines database. It was observed that all of these sites had been destroyed. Another mine near Coen had also been destroyed by the landowner. Thus, it was established that there are essentially no old mines on the Cape York Peninsula that have any value for bats, other than the 'Old Collingwood' and sites at Iron Range. Given that this species does not appear to rely heavily on deep mines or caves like some other Australian Hippposiderids, the loss of old mines is not likely to have reduced area of occupancy.
There have been more recent surveys that have not yet been published.
There is no information available on population size for Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat. No large colonies are known from old mines or caves, since the species is more likely to roost in tree hollows and fig trees, or open habitats such as under creek banks and road culverts, in rockpiles, and relatively shallow caves in drier times (B. Thomson 2007, pers. comm.). The species is also captured rarely in flight, which also makes estimating abundance difficult. The species is regarded as scarce.
There are three main population isolates in Australia identified for this species: Cape York, Kroombit Tops and Maryborough (Thomson et al. 2001). In the Cape York isolate, the species is present in various types of land tenure and its population trend is the considered to be in decline. The more recent representation of the species' distribution by Hall (2008) illustrates a much more southern distribution of the main isolate. It is not known whether these populations would be connected by gene flow.
In Kroombit Tops National Park, a cave contained a male and a female (Schulz & de Oliveira 1995). No specimens were collected. While further captures have not been made, recent designation of this former state forest as a national park is likely to protect both foraging and roost habitats.
The record at St. Mary's State Forest near Maryborough (de Oliveira & Pavey 1995) has not been confirmed by further echolocation recordings or by capture.
No extinctions have been reported.
Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat is considered to be in decline in Australia. A decline was inferred from a comparison of the relative numbers recorded during the Archbold Expeditions in the 1940s and 1950s (Tate 1952) with the number of recent records obtained with more sophisticated techniques (Duncan et al. 1999). It is not known how this relates to potential reductions in area of extent or area of occupancy.
The trend within the last 10 years (since the compilation of Duncan et al. 1999) is unknown, and no specific data is available to determine future population trends.
No extreme natural fluctuations in population numbers have been noted.
The generation length of Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat is unknown, but is likely to be around five years. Longevity of this species is unknown, but is presumably similar to other bats of equivalent size in the families Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae. While a very small proportion of bats in these families may live up to 30 years (Caubere et al. 1984; Wilkinson & South 2002), most will live around 10 years, especially if they are obligate cave roosters and do not hibernate (Tuttle & Stevenson 1982; Wilkinson & South 2002).
There have been no reports of cross-breeding of this species in the wild. Its closest relative, H. stenotis, is geographically well separated (Churchill 1998).
Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat is known from several national parks and reserves (Duncan et al. 1999; Thomson et al. 2001):
- Black Mountain National Park
- Cape Melville National Park
- Kroombit Tops National Park
- Iron Range National Park
- Starke National Park
- Wet Tropics World Heritage Area.
No examples of active management in national park management plans by the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service are available.
Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat is found in tropical rainforest, monsoon forest, wet sclerophyll forest and open savannah woodland.
This species does not have an obligatory requirement for cave roosts. Daytime roost sites include tree hollows, deserted buildings in rainforest, road culverts and shallow caves amongst granite boulders or in fissures (Churchill 1998, 2009; de Oliveira & Schulz 1997; Hall & Richards 1979; Hall 2002). They appear to prefer rainforest and are more likely to be tree-dwelling than cave-dwelling (S.K. Churchill pers. comm. in Thomson et al. 2001). It is often observed in "atypical places that are visited by humans" and there are examples of bats being observed in unoccupied houses (in an oven, clothes closet and on a picture rail) and the door handle of a car. The microclimate of such roosts is similar to that of ambient (Churchill 1998; 2009; de Oliveira & Schulz 1997; Hall 2002). The presence of two individuals in a warm, humid roost at Kroombit Tops might explain their occurrence so far south of their known distribution (Churchill 1998; 2009). They might occupy caves during drier times (B. Thomson 2007a, pers. comm.).
The species generally forages within the undergrowth, within 1 to 2 m of the ground, and their flight is relatively slow and manoeuverable (Churchill 2009). They apparently glean prey from surfaces such as tree trunks, rock surfaces and the ground (Churchill 1998; 2009). They also fly low along forest gaps and there is one specimen from a roadkill in the Queensland Museum (Accession JM9304).
When exiting roosts on moonlit nights, Semon's Leaf-nosed Bats apparently do not use echolocation; relying instead on memory and vision to negotiate obstacles (Churchill 2009).
In Papua New Guinea, this species occurs in rainforest and savanna forest between 600 m and 1400 m in altitude. Solitary individuals roost in caves, mines, rocky overhangs, buildings and tree hollows. Flight is slow and within 2 m of the ground. They take insects from the forest floor and low vegetation (Bonaccorso 1998).
Daytime refuge habitats for Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat are caves and mines, as well as vegetative and other forest habitats. Movement between roosts or forest patches according to seasonal or stochastic factors has not been studied.
The species is associated with the 'Mabi forest (Complex notophyll vine forest 5b)', a threatened Ecological Community listed under the EPBC Act 1999. It may share roosts on occasions with the Large-eared Horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus philippinensis, possibly in the Iron and McIlwraith Ranges (B. Thomson 2007a, pers. comm.).
Age at sexual maturity for Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat is unknown but is likely to be similar to other medium-sized Hipposideros (such as H. caffer), which is around 18 months (Brosset 1963). However, as with the similarly sized H. speoris (Gopalakrishna & Bhatia 1980) and Rhinonicteris aurantia (Churchill 1995), it is possible that females might become mature in their first year.
Life expectancy is unknown, but is likely to be around 10 years, similar to other medium sized bats that do not hibernate in the Hipposideridae family (Wilkinson & South 2002).
There are no known, recorded predators of this species.
Heavily pregnant Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat females have been captured in October and birth probably occurs in early November. A single young is produced, though females have been observed with two stretched pubic teats, which might indicate twins. A male with scrotal testes was also captured in October, and this condition is uncommon for Hipposiderids unless they are sexually active (Churchill 1998; 2009).
Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat feeds on moths, though there is a suggestion that they also take huntsman spiders and beetles (Churchill 1998; 2009; de Oliveira & Schulz 1997). Spiders would be gleaned from surfaces such as tree trunks.
Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat forages within dense vegetation and would be negatively impacted by vegetation clearing or grazing beneath the canopy. It generally forages within a metre of the ground, hawking prey in the undergrowth and gleaning prey from surfaces such as tree trunks, rock surfaces and the ground (Churchill 1998; 2009).
Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat is not known to be migratory. Seasonal patterns and the degree of movement among roosts have not been studied. Bats exit the daytime roost at dusk and return in the early morning. It is not known if they use night roosts.
Nightly foraging range and feeding site size has not been studied in this species.
Information on the most efficient and effective ways of surveying for the species is provided in The Provision of Data for Draft National Fauna Survey Standards: Bats prepared by the Australian Museum Business Services for Environment Australia (AMBS 2003):
- Determine whether there are known roosts in caves or mines in the area by examining topographic and geological maps, and contacting the Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, caving groups, bat researchers and local councils. When on site, further information should be sourced from local residents, mining companies and Traditional Landowners.
- In the field, bats should be detected by non-invasive means only, consistent with the philosophy of minimising the impacts of surveys on individuals or colonies. Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat is also particularly difficult to capture in conventional mist nets (monofilament nets are required). The use of electronic bat detectors is therefore the best means of non-invasive survey. Recommended devices include the Anabat system and other frequency-division type detectors, and also time expansion detectors. Calls from the detectors should be recorded and examples presented in reports to allow independent verification of calls. A variety of recording methods would be suitable: the Anabat Zero Crossings Analysis system (using CF cards - strongly recommended), recording signals onto audio tape, or other digital recording devices. The time expansion calls can be recorded with a variety of analogue or digital recorders for later computer analysis.
- Bat detectors can be placed outside potential roosts such as mines and caves. Culverts should also be examined with hand-held detectors (with a recording option attached for later confirmation). Presence can also be assessed at foraging sites such as vegetation corridors, open windows in rainforest and near watercourses in woodland. Unattended detectors should be left overnight.
- Boulder piles should be surveyed with a hand-held detector and recording system during periods of emergence after dusk. In this case, point locations for surveying should be 150 m apart and the entire circumference of the boulder pile should be surveyed.
- In larger project areas, walking or driving transects with hand-held detectors should be used in conjunction with unattended detectors. Transects should begin at dusk.
Identified threats for Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat (Thomson et al. 2001) that could result in further declines in both the number of roosts, area of occupancy and number of individuals include:
- re-opening of old mine sites for further ore extraction;
- the destruction of old hardrock mines for the purpose of public safety;
- limestone quarrying;
- exotic pests, including cane toads (remains of H. semoni have been found in their stomach contents), and pigs (on Cape York they create wallows in caves and mines, which destroys the cave environment);
- increasing ecotourism visits to caves;
- unmanaged scientific collecting;
- foraging habitat loss due to land clearing and uncontrolled wildfires.
The species is vulnerable to both roost site destruction or disturbance (Duncan et al. 1999), and the removal of suitable foraging habitat (B. Thomson 2007a, pers. comm.). Further decline might result from habitat fragmentation, since they rely on relatively closed forest for foraging (Hall 2008). Documented examples of past habitat loss or disturbance include the destruction of the Stewart River mine on the Cape York Peninsula following ore extraction in 1994. This mine was the southern-most record for the Cape York population isolate. The fate of the bats is unknown (Hall et al. 1997).
Catastrophic threats have been cited as the closure, collapse or destruction of mines used for roosting (Duncan et al. 1999). However, the species is likely to rely less on mines than previously thought (B. Thomson 2007a, pers. comm.), based on observations that it roosts in relatively shallow underground structures (overhangs and cracks, shallow caves), or other unusual relatively open situations (Hall 2008).
The Recovery Plan for cave-dwelling bats, Rhinolophus philippinensis, Hipposideros semoni and Taphozous troughtoni 20012005 (Thomson et al. 2001), includes a comprehensive set of recovery objectives and criteria that concern three bat species, including Semon's Leaf-nosed bat:
- To clarify the taxonomic status of the subject species.
- To ensure that priority roost and maternity sites throughout the species' distributions are protected from identified threats.
- To document aspects of species' ecology necessary for effective species management and conservation.
Specific objectives during the life of the current recovery plan
- To establish the status of poorly known species and to identify appropriate species management units within two years of implementation of the plan.
- To gather the necessary biological data from current records and through new targeted field work for the effective conservation management of the species.
- To implement conservation strategies or on-ground conservation works in priority sites where the species occur. These initiatives will be designed to mitigate identified threatening processes.
- To identify trends in the species' abundance at priority sites across their distributional ranges after the instigation of conservation strategies or on-ground conservation works.
- To encourage community participation in and understanding of the recovery process and the conservation issues related specifically to cave-dwelling bats.
- All species are taxonomically delineated.
- Species' distribution ranges are identified.
- Roost and maternity sites for species are identified and prioritised.
- Species' roost site characteristics, diet and habitat use are identified.
- On-ground works are completed, or agreed conservation management practices implemented at priority roost and maternity sites.
- At sites where on-ground management practices or works have been implemented, follow-up surveys indicate that population size is stable or increasing.
- Information is disseminated to the public through appropriate media.
- Community Groups are involved in the recovery planning process.
- Undertake taxonomic studies using allozyme and mitochondrial DNA sequencing, and identify standard morphological characters for use in the field identification of species.
- Review all information sources and undertake field surveys to identify fully the distribution ranges of the species.
- Identify natural cave systems within the species' projected distributions (with the aid of local knowledge, topographic maps and published accounts.
- Identify the location of early mining operations (now abandoned and in non-mining company tenure) within the species' distributions with the aid of local knowledge, topographic maps and published accounts, and locate potential mine sites which may be roost and/or maternity sites.
- Identify other structures which may form important roost or maternity sites within the distribution ranges of the species.
- Undertake field survey work to confirm the species' presence in roost sites and where the species are found to occur, undertake assessment to determine the nature and immediacy of any threats.
- Identify the dietary requirements and thermal characteristics of roost sites and the foraging habitat of each species.
- Analyse survey data and information gathered on dietary requirements, thermal characteristics of roosts and foraging habitat in order to establish priorities for on-ground protection measures of roost and maternity sites.
- Install bat gates or fences, or develop other protective systems to prevent human disturbance of roost or maternity sites. In some instances the stabilisation of the site may be required to ensure a degree of site longevity and to address human safety concerns. Such work will be done with the collaboration of landholders and/or the appropriate government agency and indigenous groups.
- Undertake follow-up monitoring at sites where management strategies have been instigated to assess the effectiveness of the above conservation measures. Such monitoring will take into account known or suspected seasonal variation in population size and breeding patterns. Two surveys per year for priority sites is considered a minimum requirement.
- Provide information releases through local radio and newspaper media to notify the community of project progress and to increase awareness of cave-dwelling bat conservation issues.
- Hold recovery team meetings every two years and encourage and assist other community groups to join the recovery team (Thomson et al. 2001).
Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat is listed in The Action Plan for Australian Bats (Duncan et al. 1999), which includes a Recovery Outline for this species, as well as several completed or ongoing management actions:
Management actions already initiated:
- Sites visited by Tate (1952) and Van Deusen (1975) were re-surveyed during a bat survey of Wet Tropics World Heritage Area, as part of Project Gondwana, funded by the Wet Tropics Management Agency.
- Bat gate considered suitable for this species was installed on Gordons No 2 Adit, Iron Range, a known roost for the species.
- Negotiations underway with the Queensland Department of Mines and Energy to resolve the mine closures and bat gates issue.
Management and research actions required:
- Carry out ecological research to meet recovery objectives, i.e. determine:
- habitat requirements;
- roost and maternity site selection;
- foraging strategy;
- population dynamics; and
- threatening processes.
- Undertake targetted surveys to determine the range of the species, in particular between Cooktown and Kroombit Tops. Survey should be based initially on predictive climatic models, such as BIOCLIM.
- Ensure that a selection of roost sites are protected across the range of the species.
- Review success of the bat gate installed on Gordons No 2 Adit and, if appropriate, develop protocols for future installation and monitoring at other sites.
- Undertake genetic studies to determine the genetic relationship between northern and southern sub-populations (Duncan et al. 1999).
No comprehensive ecological studies have been undertaken on Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat. Most information has become available from ad hoc observations (for example, Coles et al. 1996; de Oliveira & Pavey 1995; de Oliveira & Schulz 1997; Schulz & de Oliveira 1997; review in AMBS 2003; van Deusen 1975).
Surveys have been undertaken in several areas, such as Project Gondwana and others (Coles et al. 1996; review in Duncan et al. 1999).
Management documents include:
Duncan A, Baker GB and Montgomery N (eds.) (1999), The Action Plan for Australian Bats , Environment Australia, Canberra
Thomson B, Pavey C and Reardon T (2001) Recovery Plan for cave-dwelling bats, Rhinolophus philippinensis, Hipposideros semoni and Taphozous troughtoni 20012005 Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Brisbane.
The Australian handbook for the conservation of bats in mines and artificial cave-bat habitats (Thomson 2002) provides management guidelines for cave-dwelling species that may inhabit disused mine sites.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Commonwealth Listing Advice on ten species of Bats (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001a) [Listing Advice].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||Recovery plan for cave-dwelling bats, Rhinolophus philippinensis, Hipposideros semoni and Taphozous troughtoni 2001-2005 (Thomson, B., C. Pavey, and T. Reardon, 2001) [Recovery Plan].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities||Recovery plan for cave-dwelling bats, Rhinolophus philippinensis, Hipposideros semoni and Taphozous troughtoni 2001-2005 (Thomson, B., C. Pavey, and T. Reardon, 2001) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation||Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat)||Recovery plan for cave-dwelling bats, Rhinolophus philippinensis, Hipposideros semoni and Taphozous troughtoni 2001-2005 (Thomson, B., C. Pavey, and T. Reardon, 2001) [Recovery Plan].|
Armstrong, K. & T. Reardon (2006). Standardising common names of bats in Australia. The Australasian Bat Society Newsletter. 26:pp. 37-42.
Australian Museum Business Services (AMBS) (2003). The Provision of Data for Draft National Fauna Survey Standards: Bats. Unpublished draft report 2002046 by the Australian Museum Business Services for Environment Australia, Canberra.
Bonaccorso, F.J. (1998). Bats of Papua New Guinea. Conservation International Tropical Field Guide Series 2. Washington D C: Conservation International.
Brosset, A. (1963). The bats of central and western India: Part IV volume pp. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 60:337-355.
Caubere, B., P. Gaucher & J.E. Julien (1984). Un record mondial de longevite in natura pour un chiroptere insectivore?. Revue Ecologie. 39:351-353.
Churchill S.K. (2009). Australian bats- Second Edition. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
Churchill, S.K. (1995). Reproductive ecology of the Orange Horseshoe bat, Rhinonycteris aurantius (Hipposideridae: Chiroptera), a tropical cave dweller. Wildlife Research. 22:687-698.
Churchill, S.K. (1998). Australian Bats. Sydney: Reed New Holland.
Coles, R.B. (1993). Echolocation and foraging ecology of Australian horseshoe bats (Rhinolophoidea). In: Abstracts of spoken and poster papers, Sixth International Theriological Congress, Sydney, Australia 4-10 July 1993. Page(s) 55-56.
Coles, R.B., C.I. Clague, H. Spencer & O. Whybird (1996). Bat survey and the 'priority' species in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area of Australia. In: 7th Australasian Bat Conference Abstracts, Australasian Bat Society, Naracoorte.
de Oliveira, M.C. & C.R. Pavey (1995). In search of Hipposideros semoni at St. Mary's State Forest, north-east Queensland. Australasian Bat Society News. 4:46-48.
de Oliveira, M.C. & M. Schulz (1997). Echolocation and roost selection in Semon's leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros semoni. In: Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 42:158.
Department of Environment and Water (DEW) (2004). The Collaborative Australian Protected Areas Database (CAPAD). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/parks/nrs/capad/2004/qld/index.html.
Dixon, J.M. & L. Huxley (1985). Donald Thompson's Mammals and Fishes of Northern Australia. TienWah Press, Singapore.
Duncan, A., G.B. Baker & N. Montgomery (1999). The Action Plan for Australian Bats. [Online]. Canberra: Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/bats/index.html.
Gopalakrishna, A. & D. Bhatia (1980). Storage of spermatozoa in the epididymis of the bat Hipposideros speoris . Current Science. 49:951-953.
Hall, L., G. Richards, N. McKenzie & N. Dunlop (1997). The importance of abandoned mines as habitat for bats. In: Hales, P and D. Lamb, eds. Conservation Outside Nature Reserves. Page(s) 326-333. Centre for Conservation Biology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Hall, L.S. (2002). Semon's Leafnosed-bat Hipposideros semoni. In: R Strahan, ed. Mammals of Australia: Nature Focus, photographic library at the Australian Museum. Page(s) 461-462. Australian Museum, Reed New Holland: Sydney.
Hall, L.S. (2008). Semon's Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros semoni. In: S Van Dyck, ed. Mammals of Australia 3rd edition. Page(s) 465-466.
Hall, L.S. & Richards, G.C. (1979). Bats of Eastern Australia. In: Queensland Museum Booklet. 12:66. Brisbane: Qld Museum.
Hill, J.E. (1963). A revision of the genus Hipposideros. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology. 11:1-129.
Matschie, P. (1903). Die Chiropteren, Insectivoren und Muriden der Semon'chen Forschungsreise. Denkschr. med. naturw. Ges. Jena. 8:771-778.
Schulz, M. & M.C. de Oliveira (1995). Microchiropteran fauna of Kroombit Tops, central Queensland, including a discussion on survey techniques. Australian Zoologist. 30:71-77.
Tate, G.H.H. (1952). Results of the Archbold Expeditions No 66. Mammals of Cape York Peninsula, with notes on the occurrence of rainforest in Queensland. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 98:563-616.
Thomson, B. (2002). Australian Handbook for the Conservation of Bats in Mines and Artificial Cave-Bat Habitats. [Online]. Melbourne: Australian Centre for Mining Environmental Research. Available from: http://www.acmer.uq.edu.au/publications/attachments/BatReportAmeef15.pdf.
Thomson, B. (2007a). Personal communication. Queensland Environment Protection Agency.
Thomson, B. (undated). Unpublished reports. Queensland Environment Protection Agency.
Thomson, B., C. Pavey, and T. Reardon (2001). Recovery plan for cave-dwelling bats, Rhinolophus philippinensis, Hipposideros semoni and Taphozous troughtoni 2001-2005. [Online]. Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/cave-dwelling-bats/index.html.
Tuttle, M.D. & D. Stevenson (1982). Growth and survival of bats. In: Kunz, T.H, ed. Ecology of Bats. Page(s) 105-150. New York, Plenum Press.
Van Deusen, H.M. (1975). The natural history of Semon's Horseshoe bat in Australia. North Queensland Naturalist. 42:4-5.
Wilkinson, G.S. & J.M. South (2002). Life history, ecology and longevity in bats. Aging Cell. 1:124-131.
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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Hipposideros semoni in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 25 Apr 2014 18:33:49 +1000.