Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis (Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006o) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement advice for predation, habitat degradation,competition and disease transmission by feral pigs (2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft Referral guidelines for the wallum sedge frog, Litoria olongburensis (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011q) [Admin Guideline].
 
Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Frogs. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.3 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010h) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets The modelled distribution of the wallum sedge frog, Litoria olongburensis (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011r) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Olongburra Frog - species profile Litoria olongburensis (New South Wales Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2005) [Internet].
NSW:Threatened Species Management Information Circular No.6 - Hygiene protocol for the control of disease in frogs (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2008b) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Predation by Gambusia holbrooki - The Plague Minnow (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2003i) [State Threat Abatement Plan].
QLD:Wallum sedgefrog (Department of Environment and Heritage Protection (DEHP), 2013bd) [Database].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): August 2014 list)
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Vulnerable (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Litoria olongburensis [1821]
Family Hylidae:Anura:Amphibia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Liem and Ingram,1977
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Litoria olongburensis

Common name: Wallum Sedge Frog

Other names: Olongburra Frog, Olongburra Tree Frog, Sharp-snouted Reed Frog, Wallum Tree Frog

Etymology: The specific name refers to the Aboriginal people, the Olongburra, who once lived in the northern half of Fraser Island (Liem & Ingram 1977).

The Wallum Sedge Frog is a small tree-frog that makes a soft 'buzzing' call (Barker et al. 1995). The snout-to-vent length (SVL) of adult males is approximately 25 mm, while the SVL of adult females is 27–31 mm (although measurements of 22–40 mm have been recorded). The tip of the snout is pointed and protrudes beyond the lower jaw. The canthus rostralis (angle formed by the meeting of the upper and lower eyelids) is sharp and angular in cross section and the loreal region (area between the between the eye and the nostril) is flat and vertical. The dorsal colouration is grey-brown, beige or bright green, occasionally with dark flecking. Skin is smooth or shagreened above, finely granular on the throat, but coarsely granular below. The venter (underside) of frogs is usually white except for the throat, which may be peppered with brown, or a shade of green. A dark brown stripe runs from the snout through the eye and tympanum (the ear). A prominent white streak, starting below the eye, runs back over the shoulder onto the flanks, breaking up into a series of raised (glandular) spots. The vomerine teeth are between the choanae and in short rows. The hindlimbs are long and the toes are partly webbed while the fingers have vestigial webbing. The finger discs and toepads are conspicuous. The species has a moderate oval inner and a small rounded outer metatarsal tubercle. The posterior thigh is light blue or purple-blue above and orange below, or orange-pink with faint brown wash above. Usually there is some blue colouration in the groin as well (Barker et al. 1995; Cogger 2000; Hines & Meyer n.d.; Liem & Ingram 1977).

Wallum Sedge Frog tadpoles are deep-bodied and high-finned. The snout is rounded in dorsal view and rounded to truncate in lateral view. The eyes are laterodorsal and the iris has a broad gold ring around the pupil. Nares open in the anterior direction with a very slight lateral tilt. The dorsum of the tadpole is a dark purple-brown or sooty grey colour with or without darker mottling. The tail, which terminates in a flagellum (long, lash-like appendage), is heavily mottled with dark brown or grey and sometimes orange. The flagellum is usually darkly pigmented and therefore conspicuous in the Wallum Sedge Frog tadpole. The venter is silver-white overlain with a copper sheen that continues halfway up the sides of the body, where it strongly contrasts with the dark dorsal pigmentation. Rolling blue sheen may be visible over the sides of the body. Best seen out of water, this blue sheen extends half-way along the tail. Tadpoles of the Wallum Sedge Frog reach a maximum total length of 37 mm (13 mm body length) and are found hovering in mid-water or, more commonly, resting or grazing on matted sedges (Anstis 2002; Meyer unpub. data cited in Meyer et al. 2006).

The Wallum Sedge Frog has been recorded in south-east Queensland and north-east NSW, from Lake Wongeel, Fraser Island (24° 53'S 153° 14'E) south to Woolgoolga (30° 08'S 153° 11'E). The Wallum Sedge Frog is also known to occur on several other offshore sand islands, including Bribie, Moreton and North Stradbroke Islands (Hines et al. 1999; Lewis & Goldingay 2005; Liem & Ingram 1977).

The species’ range is 1001–80 000 km² (Frogs Australia Network 2005). The present geographic range and extent of occurrence for the Wallum Sedge Frog is largely unchanged since pre-European times (Meyer et al. 2006).

The area of occupancy of the Wallum Sedge Frog is approximately 9000 km² (Hero et al. 2008). Since European arrival, the area occupied has declined by up to 75% (Frogs Australia Network 2005). Due to land clearing for agriculture, the establishment of pine plantations, resort and residential development, and sand mining (Ingram & McDonald 1993). Land clearing has also highly fragmented Wallum Sedge Frog habitat, especially on the mainland (Meyer et al. 2006).

Grainger (2005) recorded the habitat characteristics of the Wallum Sedge Frog and explored the relationship between these characteristics and the three life history stages of the Wallum Sedge Frog at the Gold Coast Airport. Surveying was conducted from February to June 2004.

Hopkins (2003) examined temporal patterns among species (including the Wallum Sedge Frog) and the environmental factors affecting breeding activity at the Gold Coast Airport. Surveys were conducted between February and September 2003.

Lewis and Goldingay (2005) conducted biannual monitoring of the Wallum Sedge Frog along transects, at 10 sites in NSW, over a 4 year period (1996–2000) to describe population fluctuations and to assess the influence of environmental parameters on populations indices.

SKM (2009 cited in Parsons Brinckerhoff 2010) and Ingram and Agnew (2009) surveyed along the Caloundra-Mooloolaba Road and found eight populations near Sunshine TAFE and Bundilla Estate.

There is little information on the population size, structure or dynamics of the Wallum Sedge Frog (Hines et al. 1999). Data presented by Lewis and Goldingay (2005) for several sites in northern NSW shows the Wallum Sedge Frog can reach densities of over 100 individuals/100 m², although lower densities of 50 individuals/100 m² were recorded at most sites. In addition, Hines and Meyer (n.d.) recorded a maximum density of 181 individuals/100 m² at Bribie Island (as at July 2010). However, density is not even throughout the species' range and these figures are not representative of a national population estimate.

Due to the number and extent of threatening processes that affect the Wallum Sedge Frog and the decline in extent of its preferred habitat, the species is likely to have declined significantly since European settlement. Moreover, the species is likely to continue to decline due to a range of threatening processes acting on the smaller, more isolated populations (Byron Shire 2010). However monitoring in northern NSW suggests that Wallum Sedge Frog numbers remain stable at most sites though most of the survey sites were in conservation reserves (Ehmann 1997; Hines et al. 1999; Lewis & Goldingay 2005). There have been a number of important populations identified for reasons associated with population size, genetic divergence, land tenure and magnitude of threats.

Large populations

Populations of Wallum Sedge Frogs, which are important because of their size (Meyer et al. 2006), include:

  • Great Sandy National Park (Fraser Island and Cooloola sand mass), Queensland
  • Bribie Island National Park, Queensland
  • Moreton Island National Park, Queensland
  • North Stradbroke Island, Queensland
  • Broadwater National Park, NSW
  • Bundjalung National Park, NSW
  • Yuraygir National Park, NSW.

Genetically different populations

The Wallum Sedge Frog exhibits genetic structuring on a north-south gradient (James 1996). Northern NSW, North Stradbroke Island, Moreton Island and Cooloola-Fraser populations are genetically differentiated and significantly divergent from each other (James 1996). These populations are important for the maintenance of genetic diversity. Populations occurring on these islands should be considered separate management units (demographically independent sets of populations) due to their insular nature (James 1996).

Threatened populations

Populations under greatest threat, in the short term, are those which occur on freehold land in mainland coastal areas (i.e. coastal south-east Queensland and north-east NSW). Threats to Wallum Sedge Frog populations on the mainland are significant. Large scale destruction and damage to coastal wallum habitats has occurred due to urban, industrial/commercial, agriculture, forestry and recreational demands on coastal areas. These demands are likely to adversely affect the Wallum Sedge Frog's distribution and abundance (James 1996). In these areas, habitat has become highly fragmented, leaving small isolated populations. These populations may be at greater risk of local extinction because of limited gene flow, reduced likelihood of immigration, and greater vulnerability to random environmental, demographic fluctuations and genetic drift. Populations not on freehold land, but also under threat, include the Wallum Sedge Frog at Tugun (on the Queensland/NSW border) (McDonald n.d. pers. comm. cited in Meyer et al. 2006).

Sizeable populations of the Wallum Sedge Frog persist in protected areas in both Queensland and NSW.

Queensland

In Queensland, the Wallum Sedge Frog is known from:

  • Great Sandy National Park
  • Noosa National Park
  • Poona National Park
  • Bribie Island National Park
  • Naree Budjong Djara (North Stradbroke Island) National Park
  • Mooloolah River National Park
  • Mount Coolum National Park
  • Moreton Island National Park
  • Glass House Mountians National Park.

New South Wales

In New South Wales, the species is known from:

  • Broadwater National Park
  • Bundjalung National Park
  • Yuraygir National Park
  • Billinudgel Nature Reserve
  • Tyagarah Reserve
  • Broken Head Nature Reserve.

The Wallum Sedge Frog is found in ephemeral, semi-permanent and permanent wetlands with emergent reeds, ferns and/or sedges, in undisturbed coastal wallum. Griffith and colleagues (2003) describe wallum as sandmass heathland and shrubland, and various forest, woodland, sedgeland and grassland communities (Bantianoff & Elsol 1989; Coaldrake 1961).

While most common in swamps, the Wallum Sedge Frog may also be found around creeks and freshwater lakes in coastal wallum. At swamp sites, the Wallum Sedge Frog can be found sheltering amongst sedges, reeds and ferns all year round (Anstis 2002; Ehmann 1997; Ingram & Corben 1975; James 1996; Lewis & Goldingay 2005; Liem & Ingram 1977; Neilson 2000).

Altitude

The altitude range of the Wallum Sedge Frog is less than 200 m above sea level (ASL) with the highest populations in perched lakes on Fraser Island. They are typically found below 20 m ASL, and always above tidal influence (Ehmann 1997).

Geology

Where the species is found, soils are mostly deep, siliceous sands (e.g. the coastal sandy lowlands or wallum of south-east Queensland/northern NSW (Coaldrake 1961), or shallow sandy soils overlying clay or sandstone. Perched watertables are known to form over organic hardpan layers in coastal wallum soil profiles giving rise to some of the ephemeral to permanent wetlands preferred by the Wallum Sedge Frog (Bayly 1964; Bensink & Burton 1977).

Water

The Wallum Sedge Frog is typically associated with oligotrophic (nutrient poor) and acidic (pH between 3.5 and 6.0) water (Meyer et al. 2006). Water is typically clear, still and tannin stained (Ehmann 1997).

Vegetation

In general, vegetation types where the species may occur include wet and dry heathlands, sedgelands, woodlands and forests. There is considerable variation in plant species composition and vegetation structure between suitable habitat types for the Wallum Sedge Frog. As such, there is no clear delineation between vegetation types in terms of their suitability for the species (Wallum Sedge Frog Workshop 2010; Meyer et al 2006). However, surveys indicate that the species frequently occurs in areas of sedge swamp habitat in preference to wet heath and, to a greater extent, dry heath (Lewis & Goldingay 2005).

Breeding habitat

Suitable breeding habitats for the Wallum Sedge Frog occur in acidic, permanent to ephemeral, freshwater wetlands with emergent vegetation, most notably sedges, reeds or ferns, and occasionally Melaleuca (paperbark) woodlands. These wetlands (wallum swamps, bogs, lakes or creeks), which are considered habitats critical to the survival of the species, typically overlie deep, low-nutrient, sandy soils where groundwater levels are characteristically high (Wallum Sedge Frog Workshop 2010).

Queensland Regional Ecosystems

Queensland Regional Ecosystem (RE) types, within which suitable breeding habitats for the Wallum Sedge Frog (as described above) are likely to occur, are (Wallum Sedge frog Workshop 2010):

  • all wet heathlands (RE 12.2.12).
  • most sedgelands (RE 12.2.15 except 12.2.15a).
  • Corymbia spp., Banksia integrifolia, Callitris columellaris, Acacia spp. open-forest to low closed-forest on beach ridges usually in southern half of bioregion (RE 12.2.5), especially Melaleuca quinquenervia dominated vegetation in coastal dune swales (RE 12.2.5a).
  • Melaleuca quinquenervia or M. viridflora open-forest to woodland on sand plains (RE 12.2.7).

New South Wales vegetation types

New South Wales vegetation types, within which suitable breeding habitats for the Wallum Sedge Frog (as described above) are likely to occur, are (NSW DECC 2005):

  • Wallum sedgeland and rushland of near coastal lowlands of the North Coast.
  • Wet heathland and shrubland of coastal lowlands of the North Coast.
  • Coastal freshwater meadows and forblands of lagoons and wetlands.

Non-breeding habitat

Under wet conditions (i.e. resulting from significant rainfall events), the Wallum Sedge Frog is known to utilize heathlands, grasslands, woodlands and forests adjoining breeding habitats in wallum environments and on near-coastal alluvial (clay) plains. The extent to which wallum frog species, including the Wallum Sedge Frog, rely on vegetation away from breeding sites is largely unknown; however, it is likely to facilitate the dispersal of frogs and gene flows between potential metapopulations. Vegetation surrounding lakes and swamps may also play an important role in maintaining hydrology and water quality at breeding site. Vegetation within swamp and lake catchments may, therefore, be considered habitat critical to the survival of the species (Wallum Sedge Frog Workshop 2010; Meyer et al. 2006).

Queensland Regional Ecosystems

Queensland Regional Ecosystem (RE) types, within which suitable non-breeding habitats for the Wallum Sedge Frog (as described above) are likely to occur, are:

  • Araucarian vine forest on parabolic high dunes (RE 12.2.3).
  • Syncarpia hillii/Lophostemon confertus tall open to closed-forest on parabolic high dunes (RE 12.2.4).
  • Eucalyptus racemosa woodland on dunes and sand plains. Deeply leached soils (RE 12.2.6).
  • Eucalyptus pilularis open-forest on parabolic high dunes (RE 12.2.8).
  • Banksia aemula woodland on dunes and sand plains. Deeply leached soils (RE 12.2.9).
  • Mallee Eucalyptus spp. and Corymbia spp. low woodland on dunes and sand plains, especially southern sand mass islands. Deeply leached soils (RE 12.2.10).
  • Corymbia spp./Eucalyptus spp./Acacia spp. open-forest to low closed-forest on beach ridges in northern half of bioregion (RE 12.2.11).
  • Melaleuca quinquenervia/Eucalyptus robusta open-forest on or near coastal alluvial plains (RE 12.3.4).
  • Melaleuca quinquenervia open-forest on coastal alluvial plains (RE 12.3.5).
  • Melaleuca quinquenervia/Eucalyptus tereticornis/Lophostemon suaveolens woodland on coastal alluvial plains (RE 12.3.6).
  • Closed heathland on seasonally waterlogged alluvial plains near coast (RE 12.3.13).

New South Wales vegetation types

New South Wales vegetation types, within which suitable non-breeding habitats for the Wallum Sedge Frog (as described above) are likely to occur, are (NSW DECC 2005):

  • Banksia aemula dry shrubland on coastal sands of the North Coast.
  • Graminoid clay heaths of the coastal lowlands of the North Coast.
  • Coastal floodplain sedgelands, rushlands and forblands.
  • Melaleuca quinquenervia swamp forest of the coastal lowlands of the North Coast.

Habitat suitable for breeding by the Wallum Sedge Frog may be found anywhere within the above mentioned habitat types where permanent to ephemeral wetlands occur.

Sympatry

Meyer and colleagues (2006) state that the Wallum Sedge Frog is rarely found sympatric with the Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog (Litoria fallax). However, Fitzgerald and Newell (2010) indicate that the two species are commonly in sympatry around Byron Bay. Hines (2010) explains that whilst the Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog is a highly mobile species and may survive in wetlands where the Wallum Sedge Frog occurs, it cannot successfully breed at most of these sites.

Association with a listed threatened ecological community

The distribution of the Wallum Sedge Frog coincides with the distribution of the Littoral Rainforest and Coastal Vine Thickets of Eastern Australia threatened ecological community, which is listed as Critically Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Breeding occurs after rain, in spring, summer and autumn (potentially all year round). Males call from sedges above water. Usually, the Wallum Sedge Frog breeds in ephemeral and semi-permanent swamps with thick emergent vegetation. Water at breeding sites is usually clear, heavily tannin-stained and acidic (pH< 6.0) (Anstis 2002; Ehmann 1997). Fish are generally scarce where the Wallum Sedge Frog successfully breeds (Ehmann 1997; Hopkins 2003; Lewis unpub. data cited in Meyer et al. 2006; Meyer unpub. data cited in Meyer et al. 2006).

Ehmann (1997) recorded males calling in spring, summer and early autumn at night and by day when swamps were rising or ample water was available. The Wallum Sedge Frog mainly breeds following heavy rain in perched swamps, among sedges and/or Bungwall Fern (Blechnum indicum) in still water 0.5 to 1.5 meters deep.

Amplexus is axillary and eggs are laid singly in water at the base of sedges. Minimum age at which females are thought to first reproduce is <2 years. The average number of eggs deposited per adult female per year is 201–1000 eggs (Frogs Australia Network 2005).

Anstis (2002) notes that metamorphosis has been observed in January, though it is likely to occur throughout summer and autumn. However, there are no published estimates regarding the requisite time period for larval development (Grainger 2005).

Wallum Sedge Frog tadpoles forage on biofilm that covers submerged reed and sedge stems (James 1996). Metamorphs are reported to take mosquitoes (Anstis 2002). Adults have been observed eating Damselflies (Suborder: Zygoptera) (Wallum Sedge Frog Workshop 2010).

The home range of the Wallum Sedge Frog is yet to be documented. During the day, individuals may seek shelter near the base of vegetation and at night climb to higher positions to forage and call. They are sometimes recorded in exposed positions during the day, particularly wet weather. They remain in shelter near the base of vegetation during dry weather, but appear to move freely across the landscape in wet conditions (Byron Shire 2010; Lewis & Goldingay 2005). As a result, the Wallum Sedge Frog appears to be sedentary during dry periods, moving away from breeding areas during wet periods (Lewis & Goldingay 2005).

Lewis and Goldingay (2005) suggest that individuals may recolonise habitat over distances of 500 m with Goldingay and Taylor (2006 cited in Byron Shire 2010) recording Wallum Sedge Frog being killed crossing roads near Lennox Heads, which indicates the species disperses.

Distinctiveness and detectability of the species

The Wallum Sedge Frog has a sharply-pointed snout that distinguishes it from Leaf Green Tree Frog (L. phyllochroa), Pearson's Frog (L. pearsoniana) and Cooloolah Tree Frog (L. cooloolensis), which each have a rounded snout. Distinguishing the Wallum Sedge Frog from the Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog can be quite difficult, particularly for less mature individuals. The Wallum Sedge Frog has a more pointed snout. The back of the thigh can be orange in both species, but is typically bordered above by a broad dark-purple to bright-blue stripe on the Wallum Sedge Frog. The Wallum Sedge Frog has a sharply defined white line from below the eye to the hind leg, although the line may be broken into spots along the side. The Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog also has a white line from below the eye but usually stopping at the arm (Ingram & Corben 1975).

The following advice is recommended for presence-absence surveys (Wallum Sedge Frog Workshop 2010). Such surveys should:

Other relevant information

Lewis and Goldingay (2005) noted that counts of adults were negatively influenced by rain during the previous day, but positively influenced by rain the previous week. Counts of juveniles were influenced by rain during the previous three months.

Habitat loss

The habitat utilised by the Wallum Sedge Frog, particularly that on the mainland, has been extensively cleared and/or drained for agriculture, sand-mining, resort/residential development and the establishment of pine plantations (Ehmann 1997; Ingram & McDonald 1993; Lewis & Goldingay 2005). This is especially relevant to mainland coastal areas of south-east Queensland and northern coastal NSW, which have seen a marked increase in residential and resort development in the last 10-15 years (Abbott 2003). This trend is expected to continue with rapid population growth predicted for south-east Queensland and northern coastal NSW (Abbott 2003; ABS 2010; Maganov et al. 2003). Thus, much of the remaining wallum habitat on freehold land may be under threat of development. In the longer term, predicted rises in sea levels with global warming could also bring about habitat loss on both the mainland and offshore sand islands, including the loss of habitat in conservation reserves (Meyer et al. 2006).

Habitat degradation

The degradation of Wallum Sedge Frog habitat, associated with urban and resort development and other human activities, includes the trampling of reed beds, changes in hydrology, altered water chemistry, and increases in soil and water nutrient levels (Meyer et al. 2006).

Trampling of reed beds

In areas with high levels of human visitation (e.g. lakes on Fraser Island and North Stradbroke Island), trampling of reed beds has led to significant loss of sedgefrog habitat. This could impact seriously on Wallum Sedge Frog numbers at a local level (Meyer et al. 2006).

Changes in hydrology

Changes in hydrology may impact negatively on the Wallum Sedge Frog in several ways, for example, a reduction in the hydroperiod for ephemeral swamps (i.e. a reduction in the permanency of water) may limit reproductive success. Conversely, increased permanence of water could lead to the establishment of predatory fish in otherwise fish-free ephemeral swamps. Changes in hydrology could affect water pH, making conditions favourable for less acid-tolerant species which might displace the Wallum Sedge Frog (i.e. the Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog (Litoria fallax), Rocket Frog (Litoria nasuta), Common Eastern Froglet (Crinia signifera) and the Eastern Sign-bearing Frog (Crinia parinsignifera)) (Meyer et al. 2006).

Habitat eutrophication and pollution

Studies have shown that increased nitrate levels in water can inhibit larval growth and development as well as reduce larval survivorship in frogs and toads (Mann & Bidwell 1999). Breeding naturally in oligotrophic (nutrient poor) waters, wallum-dependent species may be especially sensitive to increased nitrate levels in water. Nutrient-laden runoff from urban areas and golf courses could therefore render wallum habitat unsuitable for wallum frog species. Nutrient enrichment of nutrient-poor wallum soils may also favour the establishment of non-wallum native plant species, including problem 'weed' species (e.g. Typha spp.). This could render wallum habitat unsuitable for the Wallum Sedge Frog (Meyer et al. 2006).

In addition to nutrients, runoff from urban areas may contain other toxicants such as surfactants and oils. Accumulation of these toxicants in wetland areas could also have a negative impact on the Wallum Sedge Frog in areas adjacent to developed areas (Meyer et al. 2006).

Habitat fragmentation as a result of land clearing

The distribution of the Wallum Sedge Frog is highly fragmented. This fragmentation is due in part to natural processes thousands of years old, most notably a rise in sea levels at the end of the last glacial period (beginning circa 19 000 years ago) (Coaldrake 1961). More recently, land clearing has increased fragmentation of wallum frog habitat especially in mainland areas (where most land clearing has taken place) (Ehmann 1997; Hines et al. 1999).

Increased fragmentation of habitat may further reduce opportunities for dispersal/ movement of frogs between wetland catchments or subpopulations within catchments. This could potentially increase the likelihood of extinction of 'sink' populations whose viability is dependent on immigration of frogs from other ('source') populations. Habitat fragmentation may also reduce the likelihood of recolonisation following local extinction of frog populations/sub-populations after severe habitat disturbance (e.g. fire). Lack of movement of animals between populations or subpopulations may also lead to genetic problems (e.g. inbreeding, genetic drift), which could compromise the long-term viability of populations (Meyer et al. 2006).

Inappropriate fire regimes

An increase in the frequency or intensity of fires could significantly affect frog numbers through direct mortality or loss of vegetation, the loss of cover exposing frogs to predators, extremes of temperature and dehydration. Monitoring data from Lennox Head, NSW, show fire may have a significant impact on Wallum Sedge Frog numbers, at least in the short term (Lewis & Goldingay 2005). Long term monitoring data from Western Australia also suggest frog numbers may be slow to recover following fire, even when heath vegetation is quick to do so (Driscoll & Roberts 1997). Frequent fires, especially over large areas, could therefore pose a serious threat to the long-term viability of wallum frog populations.

Lennox East, NSW, was extensively burnt by wildfire in the summer of 1997-98 and no Wallum Sedge Frogs were recorded during survey effort for 18 months following this event (Lewis & Goldingay 2005). Surveys in subsequent years recorded both adults and juveniles, and suggest recruitment from nearby sites had occurred. This indicates that Wallum Sedge Frogs are capable of recolonising suitable habitat over relatively short distances (i.e. ~500 m), but the effects of repeated wildfire over larger areas may preclude recruitment for many years, if at all (Lewis & Goldingay 2005).

Dry periods, when sedge swamps are devoid of water, are likely to increase the vulnerability of Wallum Sedge Frog populations to fire. Water in the swamps may allow frogs to shelter from the path of fire (Lewis & Goldingay 2005).

Also see Lowe Katrin, Castley J. Guy, Hero Jean-Marc (2013) Acid frogs can stand the heat: amphibian resilience to wildfire in coastal wetlands of eastern Australia. International Journal of Wildland Fire 22, 947–958.

Predation

Mosquito Fish

Predation by the introduced Mosquito Fish, Gambusia affinis, (listed as a key threatening process in NSW) poses a significant threat to native species (Gillespie & Hero 1999; Komak & Crossland 2000). Most of the water bodies, which wallum frog species breed in, are free of fish (Hopkins 2003; Meyer unpub. data cited in Meyer et al. 2006). These frog species may, therefore, not have evolved effective means for dealing with fish predators, especially exotic fish like the Mosquito Fish. As a result, wallum frog species may be highly susceptible to Mosquito Fish predation (Meyer et al. 2006).

Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog and the Cane Toad

Competition with the related native Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog and the Cane Toad in disturbed areas is of concern (Meyer et al. 2006; Wallum Sedge Frog Workshop 2010).

Use of biocides in weed and mosquito control

Many widely used pesticides have been shown to be toxic to frogs causing deformities, hermaphroditism and death (Mann & Bidwell 1999). The widespread use of pesticides in weed and mosquito control in coastal areas is another potential threat to wallum frog species (Meyer et al. 2006).

Pig damage

Feral pigs, which are known to occur in wallum frog habitat, are a potential threat to wallum frog species. Feral pigs may destroy breeding habitat when foraging or using breeding sites as wallows, rendering them unsuitable for wallum frog species (NSW DEH 2003). The threat posed by pigs to native species has led to the listing of predation and habitat degradation by pigs as a key threatening process under the EPBC Act (Meyer et al. 2006).

Population decline at Broadwater West, NSW, was noted during surveying between 1996-2000 by Lewis and Goldingay (2005). Searches of adjacent habitat revealed that Wallum Sedge Frogs still occurred broadly throughout the site and the localised disappearance may have been due to habitat disturbance by feral pigs (Lewis & Goldingay 2005).

Exotic disease

Exotic disease has emerged as a significant threat to amphibian populations here and internationally. In Australia, amphibian chytridiomycosis, an exotic disease caused by the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis), is believed to be responsible for the recent decline and extinction of a number of frogs (Daszak et al. 2003). It is now listed as a key threatening process under the EPBC Act and NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995. Until more information is known about the threat this disease poses to wallum frog species, a precautionary approach, is advisable.

Vehicular traffic

In northern NSW, significant mortality of adult Wallum Sedge Frogs is known to occur on busy roads bisecting wallum swamps (Goldingay unpub. data cited in Meyer et al. 2006). Thus, in some areas, vehicular traffic may pose a threat to populations of this species (Meyer et al. 2006). From survey work undertake by Goldingay (cited in Dorey 2009), it is estimated that 10 000 Wallum Sedge Frogs are killed per annum on a 4 km section of the Coast Road near Lennox Head.

Commonwealth Government management recommendations

The National Recovery Plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer et al. 2006) details six main management requirements:

1. Identify and assess essential habitat

Protection of habitat critical to survival is essential for the recovery of wallum frog species. Essential habitat of wallum frog species must, therefore, be accurately defined. As a result, knowledge of non-breeding habitat usage, abundance and genetic diversity within species will need to be improved as follows:

  • determine non-breeding habitat usage
  • map wallum frog habitat
  • conduct surveys
  • acquire genetic data for prioritising areas/populations for conservation.

2. Protect wallum frog populations and manage habitat

The protection of wallum frog habitat from human impacts is essential for the recovery of the species, as is management of habitat/populations in parks, reserves and State forest. The protection and management of wallum frog populations and habitat on freehold and crown land (protected or otherwise) will require the following actions:

3. Acquire additional information on threats to inform management

To ensure effective management of wallum frog species in the future, knowledge of threatening processes will need to be improved. Of particular concern are potential threats about which little is known including: the impact of biocides, the effect of predicted sea level rises, and the impact of storm water drainage pollution, weed invasion and competition from invading species. Research into these threatening processes is needed to inform management as well as prioritise actions. Information from this research will be particularly important in assessing the adequacy of management practices.

4. Engage stakeholders and the broader community in recovery of wallum frog species

Recovery of wallum frog species is possible only through the cooperation and involvement of stakeholders and the broader community. The actions identified below will help raise awareness amongst stakeholders and the community at large, facilitating implementation of actions outlined in this plan.

  • Produce and distribute fact sheets and poster boards.
  • Disseminate information on important habitat and management guidelines.
  • Conduct training workshops on habitat management, as disease management and identification techniques.
  • Expand the South-east Queensland Threatened Frog Recovery Team to ensure adequate representation of stakeholders.

5. Rehabilitate degraded wallum frog habitat

Rehabilitation of disturbed wallum frog habitat in protected areas can help offset habitat loss. Revegetation of corridors linking protected areas can also help, facilitating movement of wallum frogs between wetlands.

6. Monitor frog numbers and distribution

Monitoring is needed to assess population trends for all wallum-dependent frog species. Knowledge gained from monitoring will help provide a clearer picture of the current conservation status of these species as well as providing baseline data against which the effectiveness of recovery actions can be judged.

Commonwealth Government management practices

Management practices outlined in the National Recovery Plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer et al. 2006) are discussed below.

Minimise soil disturbance

Earthworks may adversely affect soil hydrology and water quality at breeding sites. Of particular concern is the breaching of organic hardpans holding water, increased water turbidity (due to runoff) and liberation of sub-soil aluminium. Soil disturbance should therefore be kept to a minimum near wallum swamps and lakes. Where earthworks are carried out in the vicinity of breeding habitat, runoff from earthworks must be appropriately contained.

Retain vegetation

Natural vegetation surrounding water bodies may provide cover and foraging habitat for frogs and should be left intact. Bushland linking wetlands may also provide an important route for dispersal of animals and should, likewise, be retained. Thus, further clearing of vegetation within wallum swamp and lake catchments, especially in mainland areas where much vegetation has been cleared already, should be avoided.

Prevent nutrient enrichment

Habitat eutrophication may have a significant adverse impact on wallum frog species. It is therefore important that storm water runoff from golf courses, urban areas and agricultural land be directed away from breeding sites or treated to remove nutrients and other contaminants before being discharged into wetland areas. To further reduce the likelihood of habitat eutrophication, residents in wallum areas should be discouraged from fertilising lawns and encouraged to plant native species that tolerate nutrient-poor sandy soils.

Use adaptive fire management

An adaptive approach is needed to fire management in areas of wallum frog habitat. This will necessitate monitoring the response of wallum frogs to fire and modifying burning practices as necessary.

Limit use of biocides in wallum frog habitat

Until their impact on wallum frogs is ascertained, biocides (a range of herbicide chemical treatments) should not be used in the immediate vicinity of wallum frog breeding sites.

Manage recreational use of coastal lakes

In a number of conservation parks and reserves with high visitation (e.g. Brown Lake Conservation Park and Great Sandy National Park), trampling of reed beds has led to significant loss of breeding habitat and cover for the Wallum Sedge Frog and Cooloola Sedgefrog. To reduce the impact of human visitation at these sites, visitor numbers and access to lakes and swamps must be reduced or boardwalks constructed to allow visitors access to water without reed beds being trampled.

Manage the impact of feral animals

Repeated trampling and browsing of vegetation and fouling of water by livestock must not be allowed at breeding sites. Where this is a problem, fencing should be erected to exclude stock from breeding areas. Where pigs are causing significant damage to wallum frog habitat, pig numbers must also be reduced. Every effort must be made to exclude the Mosquito Fish from wallum swamps or lakes. Increased connectivity between water bodies or increased water permanence, caused by changes to hydrology, may increase the chance of introduction of the mosquito fish and therefore should be avoided. Changes in hydrology, which may affect this introduction, can be caused by urban development.

Minimise impact of road construction

Roads should be built around or over, not through, wallum frog breeding habitat so as to avoid habitat disturbance and prevent mortality of frogs on roads. This is most important where roads are likely to carry high volumes of traffic.

Monitor habitat and populations

Habitat condition and frog numbers should be monitored to ensure threats to wallum frog species are properly managed. Monitoring should include tadpole surveys (to identify breeding sites) and must be undertaken with sufficient regularity (i.e. quarterly) to detect significant changes in recruitment success. Where the impact of development is to be assessed, monitoring must be carried out a year or preferably more, before development starts.

Byron Shire mitigation methods

Mitigation methods recommended by the Byron Shire (2010) include:

  • Prevent livestock and feral animal access to Wallum Sedge Frog habitat.
  • Determine and implement appropriate fire regimes in and adjacent to Wallum Sedge Frog habitat.
  • Restore Wallum Sedge Frog habitat and habitat links through targeted projects involving the removal of foreign soil used for fill, removal of drains, weed control and revegetation with sedgeland and heathland species, and establishing effective Cane Toad control programs for suitable coastal wetlands by restricting breeding opportunities. This will require the removal of dams and other permanent and semi-permanent water bodies, or the establishment of dense fringing ground cover around such water bodies.

State Government management recommendations

The NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW DECC 2005) outlines the following priority actions:

  • Ensure ongoing assessment of the effectiveness of current management strategies. Incorporate the results of surveys, monitoring and research to develop and implement more cost-efficient and effective management strategies.
  • Educate and involve the community and other stakeholders. Use production and dissemination of fact sheets on acid frogs, recovery processes, and habitat management and protection. Create a web page. Survey/monitoring training and display boards.
  • Queensland Environment Protection Agency, NSW Department of Environment & Conservation and South East Queensland Frog Recovery Team to coordinate implementation of the Recovery Plan.
  • Develop and implement measures to minimise the spread of the disease chytridiomycosis to and between habitats.
  • Manage/control, and where practicable, eradicate Cane Toads, Feral Pigs and Mosquito Fish.
  • Implement fire regimes that do not degrade or destroy habitat.
  • Control (stormwater) runoff, drainage, ground water extraction and associated changes in water chemistry, pH, quality and quantity that may adversely impact on habitats and/or species' populations.
  • Control the invasion of weeds that may adversely impact on habitats.
  • Investigate, and where appropriate and landowners agree, implement relevant land protection and/or management mechanisms on freehold, leasehold and crown lands.
  • Rehabilitate or re-create former habitat degraded or destroyed by grazing, sand mining or other activities. Create habitat in corridors linking existing or rehabilitated habitat.
  • Monitor selected populations of the species to determine population trends and species' responses to threatening processes.
  • Monitor populations and habitat of sites before and after development to determine the impacts post development and the effectiveness of any ameliorator measures.
  • Help prepare a national wallum-dependent frog species Recovery Plan. Determine most effective and cost-efficient monitoring and survey methods for the species, for both recovery and proposed development impact assessment objectives.
  • Determine the impacts of pesticides and herbicides (from agriculture, weed and mosquito control etc) on habitat and species.
  • Determine the potential nature and extent of competition from other frog species following habitat modification.
  • Improve knowledge and understanding of aspects of the species' biology and ecology (e.g. non-breeding habitat use and population dynamics), taxonomy and genetics that are related to or are impacted on by conservation and management and habitat fragmentation.
  • Investigate impacts of (stormwater) runoff, drainage, groundwater extraction and associated changes in water chemistry, pH, quantity and quality on species' habitats and/or populations.
  • Investigate the impacts of current fire management practices on habitats and populations, and identify fire management practices that minimise impacts on habitat.
  • Investigate the nature and potential degree of impacts of the disease chytridiomycosis on species' populations.
  • Determine the impacts of the Mosquito Fish on Wallum Sedge Frogs in accordance with the Gambusia Threat Abatement Plan.
  • Investigate the potential impacts of global climate change (particularly sea level rises) on habitat nature and extent.
  • Map (and refine existing mapping of) potential habitat areas and group into habitat value categories.
  • Survey areas identified as potential habitat to determine presence/absence of target species, habitat condition, tenure and management priorities.

The following table outlines the main threats to the Wallum Sedge Frog, their impacts and mitigation measures required to reduce impact (DSEWPaC 2011q).

Threat Impact Mitigation Measures
Habitat removal

Both directly and indirectly through actions including:

  • Urban development
  • Tourism development
  • Mining and extractive industries
  • Transport infrastructure
  • Water and wastewater management infrastructure
  • Direct - through clearing, flooding, infilling or draining.
  • Indirect - through changes to hydrology, water quality or flows, channel alterations, water extraction, catchment changes.
  • Relocate the project.
  • Design the project to protect habitat critical to the survival of the species.
  • Reconfigure the project to remove threatening processes.
Habitat degradation
  • Alteration of existing hydrology, for example increased freshwater inflows to wetlands, changes in timing, duration or frequency of flood events or increased sedimentation from storm-water and surface-water runoff.
  • An increase or reduction in permanence of water, change in pH and increased nutrient levels (in particular nitrates).
  • Permanent degradation of terrestrial habitat immediately adjacent and/or linking wetland areas.
  • Introduction of predators and competitors such as the Eastern Sedge Frog, the Cane Toad, feral Pigs and Mosquito Fish.
  • Introduction of exotic disease such as chytridiomycosis caused by the amphibian chytrid fungus.
  • Extensive trampling of habitat (including reed beds).
  • Maintain existing hydrology within wetland catchments (including flood regime, water flow and quality).
  • Capture, treat and redirect storm-water and surface-water run-off away from Wallum Sedge Frog habitat.
  • Establish a buffer of natural vegetation of at least 100 m around areas identified as containing or linking known or likely Wallum Sedge Frog habitat.
  • Retain habitat corridors.
  • Ensure no changes to microhabitat.
  • Maintain geological and soil integrity (i.e. avoid disturbance of indurated layers impending drainage and no significant soil disturbance).
  • Ensure no development within overland flow catchment.
  • Control predators and competitors such as the Cane Toad and the Eastern Sedge Frog. This includes ensuring retention water bodies are at least 500 m away from known habitat. Such water bodies must remain free of vegetation (e.g. sedge, lily pads and emergent trees and shrubs) used by the Eastern Dwarf Tree frog, and have dense vegetation coverage above the waterline to minimise the occurrence of Cane Toads.
  • Ensure no chemicals, including fertilisers and pesticidesenter Wallum Sedge Frog habitat..
Habitat fragmentation
  • Construction of physical barriers which limit movement between water bodies, such as roads or buildings.
  • Net reduction in the number and/or diversity of water bodies available to an important population.
  • Removal or alteration of available terrestrial or aquatic habitat corridors (including alteration of connectivity during flood events).
  • Establish a buffer of natural vegetation of at least 100 m around areas identified as containing or linking Wallum Sedge Frog habitat.
  • Design the project to protect movement corridors and retaining connectivity of habitat critical to the survival of the species.

Management documents for the Wallum Sedge Frog include:

  • The National Recovery Plan for the Wallum Sedge Frog and other wallum-dependant frog species (Meyer et al. 2006)
  • Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis (AGDEH 2006o)
  • Threat abatement plan for predation, habitat degradation, competition and disease transmitted by feral pigs (AGDEH 2005p)
  • Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened frogs (DEWHA 2010h)
  • Predation by Gambusia holbrooki - The Plague Minnow (NSW NPWS 2003i)
  • Threatened Species Management Information Circular No. 6 - Hygiene protocol for the control of disease in frogs (NSW DECCW 2008b)
  • The Action Plan for Australian Frogs (Tyler 1997).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 44-63. (Hines, H., M. Mahony & K. McDonald, 1999) [Book].
National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Wood and Pulp Plantations:Habitat destruction due to forestry activities National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Remnant bushland of South East Queensland in the 1990s: Its distribution, loss, ecological consequences and future prospects (Catterall, C.P. & M. Kingston, 1993) [Book].
An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 44-63. (Hines, H., M. Mahony & K. McDonald, 1999) [Book].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 44-63. (Hines, H., M. Mahony & K. McDonald, 1999) [Book].
National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Gambusia holbrooki (Eastern Gambusia, Mosquitofish) Wallum Sedgefrog, Litoria olongburensis. In: H. Ehmann, ed. Threatened Frogs of New South Wales: Habitats, Status and Conservation. Page(s) 213-220. (Ehmann, H., 1997) [Book].
National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rhinella marina (Cane Toad) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Wallum Sedgefrog, Litoria olongburensis. In: H. Ehmann, ed. Threatened Frogs of New South Wales: Habitats, Status and Conservation. Page(s) 213-220. (Ehmann, H., 1997) [Book].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, grazing, predation and/or habitat degradation by rats An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 44-63. (Hines, H., M. Mahony & K. McDonald, 1999) [Book].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Negative impact from animals National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 44-63. (Hines, H., M. Mahony & K. McDonald, 1999) [Book].
National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 44-63. (Hines, H., M. Mahony & K. McDonald, 1999) [Book].
Pollution:Pollution:Changes to water and sediment flows leading to erosion, siltation and pollution National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Habitat degradation and loss of water quality due to salinity, siltaton, nutrification and/or pollution National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Canal development National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 44-63. (Hines, H., M. Mahony & K. McDonald, 1999) [Book].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:unspecified National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Transportation and Service Corridors:Road and rail maintenance works National recovery plan for the wallum sedgefrog and other wallum-dependent frog species (Meyer, E., J.M. Hero, L. Shoo & B. Lewis, 2006) [Recovery Plan].

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New South Wales Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005). Olongburra Frog - species profile Litoria olongburensis. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10489. [Accessed: 14-Jun-2006].

NSW Department of Environment and Heritage (NSW DEH) (2003). Predation, habitat degradation, competition and disease transmission by Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) - key threatening process. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/KeyThreateningProcessesByDoctype.htm.

NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2008b). Threatened Species Management Information Circular No.6 - Hygiene protocol for the control of disease in frogs. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/hyprfrog.pdf.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2003i). Predation by Gambusia holbrooki - The Plague Minnow. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/ThreatAbatementPlanPlaqueMinnow.pdf.

Parsons Brinckerhoff (2010). MultiModal Transport Corridor - Supplementary Response to Information Request. Referral reference number: 2008-4361. Department of Transport and Main Roads.

Tyler, M.J. (1997). The Action Plan for Australian Frogs. [Online]. Wildlife Australia. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/frogs/index.html.

Wallum Sedge Frog Workshop (2010). Wallum Sedge Frog Workshop for the development of the Wallum Sedge Frog Policy Statement. Proceedings 6-7 May 2010.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Litoria olongburensis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 21 Sep 2014 02:29:16 +1000.