Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis (Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006o) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Background Paper to EPBC Act Policy Statement 3.19 - Nationally Threatened Species and Ecological Communities. Significant Impact Guidelines for the vulnerable green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009ac) [Admin Guideline].
 
EPBC Act Policy Statement 3.19. Significant Impact Guidelines for the vulnerable green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009ad) [Admin Guideline].
 
Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Frogs. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.3 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010h) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Predation by Gambusia holbrooki - The Plague Minnow (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2003) [Internet].
NSW:Best Practice Guidelines Green and Golden Bell Frog Habitat (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2008h) [Report].
NSW:Draft Recovery Plan for the Green and Golden Bell Frog (Litoria aurea) (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2005e) [State Recovery Plan].
NSW:Protecting and restoring Green and Golden Bell Frog habitat (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2008d) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Green and Golden Bell Frog - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010d) [Internet].
NSW:Green and Golden Bell Frog Threatened Species Information (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 1999bh) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines - Green and Golden Bell Frog (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2003j) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Vulnerable (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2011.2)
VIC: Listed as Vulnerable (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013)
Scientific name Litoria aurea [1870]
Family Hylidae:Anura:Amphibia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Lesson,1829)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.frogs.org.au/frogs/aurea.html

Scientific name: Litoria aurea

Common name: Green and Golden Bell Frog

The Green and Golden Bell Frog is a large dull olive to bright emerald-green frog reaching 85 mm in length (Cogger 2000). The frog has a number of distinguishable features which aid its identification; the dorsum (back) of the frog has large irregular blotches ranging from brown to rich golden-bronze and has a yellowish stripe running from behind the eye to the lower back which is bordered by a black stripe that can extend through the eye to the nostrils. The hind toes of the frog are almost fully webbed but the fingers of the front feet lack webbing. The frog also has a distinct tympanum (ear membrane) (Cogger 2000).

The Green and Golden Bell Frog occurs mainly along coastal lowland areas of eastern NSW and Victoria. The most northern extent of the species distribution is from Yuraygir National Park (NP) near Grafton on the North Coast of NSW (White & Pyke 2008) while the most southern extent of the species' distribution is in the vicinity of Lake Wellington, just west of Lakes Entrance in south-eastern Victoria (Gillespie 1996). The furthest inland record of the species is at a recently discovered population near Hoskinstown in the Southern Tablelands (referred to as the Molongolo population) (Osborne et al. 2008). The species was previously known from elsewhere in the Southern Tablelands, but is now considered to have disappeared from the ACT (Osborne 1990) and central slopes around Bathurst (NSW DEC 2005e).

Green and Golden Bell Frog populations occur on three offshore islands, Bowen Island in Jervis Bay, Kooragang Island and Broughton Island, north of Port Stephens (DEWHA 2009ac). It is unknown whether the frogs on Bowen Island and Broughton Island are relict populations (they were isolated from the mainland at the time when the islands were created by rising sea levels) or the result of assisted translocation (Mahony 1999). Populations also occur in the Pacific Islands having been introduced to New Zealand, New Caledonia and Vanuatu (NSW DEC 2005e).

The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 150 000 km² (Mahony 1999).

There were censuses of populations throughout the distribution of the Green and Golden Bell Frog during the 1990s (White & Pyke 1996).

A survey by the Ginninderra Catchment Group of the Frogwatch volunteers in 2006, located a single Green and Golden Bell Frog at a previously unknown site near Carwoola, NSW (Frogwatch 2006).

The Green and Golden Bell Frog is regarded as rare (White & Pyke 1996). Most populations consist of fewer than 20 adults. However, in NSW there are populations of around 100 adults at Captains Flat and over 1000 at Kooragang Island, Broughton Island and Homebush (Hamer et al. 2002). Similar to other pond-breeding frogs, the species exhibits high rates of population fluctuation assoicated with weather(Pickett et al. 2014). This life strategy is often associated with high dispersal and the ability to recolonise after local extinction, although recolonisation is less likely for the Green and Golden Bell Frog given the low level of connectivity between habitat (Pickett et al. 2014).

The number of calling frogs may also under represent the true abundance of frogs at a site. Goldingay and Newell (2005) made an estimate of calling males at Yuraygir NP on one night at 75 yet pit tagging at that site led to estimates of >100 males. In another example a maximum of 63 were counted around the periphery of Coomaditchy Lagoon on one night (distance of approximately 1000 m) (Goldingay & Lewis 1999) and subsequent pit tagging indicated a population of >340 adults (Goldingay & Newell 2005a). At Meroo NP and Termeil NP, 45 and 17 frogs were heard, repectively, with the inference that there are likely to be several hundred Green and Golden Bell Frog's in the vicinity (Daly et al. 2008).

Greater number of calling Green and Golden Bell Frog's are heard following rain and, in the case of coastal lakes, wne lakes are closed to the sea (Daly et al. 2008).

NSW
In NSW, the Green and Golden Bell Frog has been recorded at 54 locations since 1990, at least nine of which are now considered extinct. The following table presents population information in NSW (DEWHA 2009ac):

Population Subpopulation Status Year last recorded
Arncliffe   Extant 2008
Bellambi Lagoon   Extant 2007
Botany Swamp Eastlakes Golf Course Extinct 1993
Botany Swamp Mascot (Engine Pond) Extinct 1993
Botany Swamp La Perouse Extinct 1993
Bowen Island   Unknown 2000
Broughton Island   Extant 2007
Coomondery Swamp   Probably extinct 2007
Crookhaven River Floodplain Currambene Probably extinct 2000
Crookhaven River Floodplain Brundee Extant 2007
Crookhaven River Floodplain Lake Wollumboola/Culburra Probably extinct 2000
Crookhaven River Floodplain Greenwell Point Extant 2007
Crookhaven River Floodplain Meroo Lake Extant 2007
Davistown   Extant 2007
East Hills   Probably Extinct 1995
Georges River Hammondville Extant 2008
Georges River Holsworthy Probably Extinct 1994
Georges River Liverpool Probably Extinct 1992
Greenacre Cox's Creek Probably Extant 2004
Greenacre Enfield Marshalling Yards Probably Extant 2006
Greenacre Juno brick pit Extant 2007
Hat Head   Extant 2007
Jervis Bay Murray's Beach Probably Extant 2002
Jervis Bay Ryan's Swamp Extinct 1996
Killalea Lagoon   Probably Extinct 1992
Kioloa   Extant 2006
Kurnell Kurnell West Extant 2007
Kurnell Kurnell East Extant 2007
Lower Hunter Hexham Swamp and Sandgate Extant 2007
Lower Hunter Kooragang Is Extant 2007
Medowie   Extant 2007
Middle Hunter Wentworth Swamp Probably extant 2007
Middle Hunter Ellalong Lagoon Probably extant 2007
Milperra   Extinct 1992
Molonglo   Extant 2007
Mount Druitt   Extinct 1994
Nowra Bens Walk Extinct 1994
North Ryde   Extinct 1992
Nadgee   Unknown 1993
North Avoca   Extant 2007
Parramatta Clyde/Rosehill Extant 2008
Parramatta Homebush Bay Extant 2008
Parramatta Merrylands Extant 2008
Port Kembla Numerous subpopulations Extant 2007
Port Macquarie North Shore Probably Extant 2001
Port Macquarie Wangi Place Extant 2006
Ravensworth   Probably extant 1994
Riverstone   Extant 2007
Rosebery Dalmeny Extant 2008
Rosebery State Super Extinct 1999
Smiths Lake   Extant 2004
Sussex Inlet   Extant 2007
Woonona   Extant 2007
Yuragir Station Creek Extant 2006
Yuragir Diggers Camp Probably Extant 2000

Victoria
There is a lack of quantitative data on populations of Green and Golden Bell Frog in Victoria (Gillespie 1996). However, substantial populations are known from river terraces along the Brodribb River near Orbost, Tostaree, on the Bemm River and Lake Tyers (NSW DEC 2005e). Populations are also known from river terraces along the Cann and Genoa Rivers, Ewings Marsh Flora Reserve, Sydenham Inlet, near the south-east boundary of the Snowy River NP (Gillespie 1996), Croajingalong NP, Cupracambra NP, Cape Conran State Park (SP) and an unnamed state forest in East Gippsland (Tyler 1997).

Population trend
The Green and Golden Bell Frog was formerly common throughout its range (Tyler 1992). Since about 1960, severe declines in the distribution and abundance of the species have been observed, particularly in NSW and the ACT (Goldingay & Lewis 1999; Lewis & Goldingay 1999; Osborne et al. 1996; White & Pyke 1996). In the ACT and the Southern Highlands of NSW, the species disappeared suddenly in 1978–1981 (Osborne et al. 1996). In NSW, the species disappeared completely from all highland areas above 250 m (except for one population near Captains Flat). Coastal populations have reduced in number and are becoming more isolated from other populations (White & Pyke 1996). There has apparently been no similar decline in distribution and abundance in Victoria (Gillespie 1996).

 

The Green and Golden Bell Frog occurs in Booderee NP in the ACT, Croajingalong NP, Cupracambra SP, Ewings Marsh Flora Reserve and Cape Conran SP in Victoria, and Yuraygir NP, Seven Mile Beach NP, Nadgee Nature Reserve, Kilalea State Recreational Reserve, Myall Lakes NP and Botany Bay NP in NSW (White & Pyke 1996).

Green and Golden Bell Frogs have been found in differing habitat in NSW and Victoria. In NSW, the species commonly occupies disturbed habitats, and breeds largely in ephemeral ponds (Pyke & White 1996). However, in Victoria, the Green and Golden Bell Frog occupies habitats with little human disturbance and commonly breeds in permanent ponds, as well as ephemeral ponds (Pyke & White 1996). Goldingay (1996) argued that this is because most natural habitats are degraded or lost in NSW (Gillespie 1996).

Green and Golden Bell Frogs need various habitats for different aspects of their life cycle including foraging, breeding, over-wintering and dispersal. They will also use different habitats or habitat components on a temporal or seasonal basis (DEWHA 2009ac).

Habitat in NSW
In NSW, the Green and Golden Bell Frog has been found in a wide range of water bodies except fast flowing streams (Pyke & White 1996). It inhabits many disturbed sites, including abandoned mines and quarries (Pyke et al. 2002). Breeding habitat in NSW includes water bodies that are still, shallow, ephemeral, unpolluted (but the frog can be found in polluted habitats), unshaded, with aquatic plants and free of Mosquito Fish (Gambusia holbrooki) and other predatory fish, with terrestrial habitats that consisted of grassy areas and vegetation no higher than woodlands, and a range of diurnal shelter sites (Pyke & White 1996). Breeding occurred in a significantly higher proportion of sites with ephemeral (temporary) ponds, rather than sites with fluctuating or permanent ponds, and where predatory fish were absent. Mahony (1999) suggested that the study's results do not necessarily identify the requirements of the species prior to declines. The use of ephemeral breeding sites was not a feature associated with members of the bell frog group in earlier habitat descriptions (Mahony 1999).

A bell frog study in 2002, on Kooragang Island in the Hunter River estuary, found that greater vegetation diversity on the banks of waterbodies was positively associated with the presence of Green and Golden Bell Frogs, and that the frogs were more likely to occur together with the plants Juncus kraussii, Schoenoplectus litoralis and Sporobolus virginicus. Individuals were found sheltering in and basking on these plants (Pyke & White 2002).

Habitat in Victoria
In Victoria, the Green and Golden Bell Frog has been recorded in a range of lentic (still water) and terrestrial habitats in the coastal plains and low foothills of the hinterland including lowland forest, Banksia woodland, wet heath land, riparian scrub complex, riparian forest, damp forest, shrubby dry forest, limestone box woodland and cleared pastoral areas (Gillespie 1996).

Breeding habitat for the Green and Golden Bell Frog in Victoria includes dams in both forested and cleared areas, swamps in farmlands, gravel pits, billabongs, marshes, coastal lagoon wetlands, wet swale herblands and isolated streamside pools. These habitats are mostly permanent but include some ephemeral water bodies. All habitats are characterised by stationary water. Virtually all isolated water bodies containing Green and Golden Bell Frogs are free of native fish species, and they typically have dense emergent vegetation (Gillespie 1996).

The Green and Golden Bell Frog is known to breed during late winter to early autumn, but generally during September–February with a peak around January–February after heavy rain or storms (Daly 1995; White 2001). Males call mostly at night, but occasionally by day (NSW DEC 2005e). Populations at a higher altitude in the south appear to have a narrower window of opportunity for breeding than populations in the north at lower altitudes. Populations in the north are more commonly known to start breeding earlier and continue longer than southern populations which appear to have a much shorter breeding period (NSW DEC 2005e).

The Green and Golden Bell Frog has a high fecundity with recorded clutch sizes from eight egg mass counts ranging between 2463–11 682 eggs (van de Mortel & Goldingay 1996). Estimations from Pyke and White (2001a) suggest the average clutch size is about 3700 eggs. Spawn is laid among aquatic vegetation and has been observed in December, January and February (Daly 1995). Eggs hatch within 2–5 days after ovipositing/fertilisation (Anstis 2002), and metamorphosis can take 2–11 months (Anstis 2002; Daly 1995; Pyke & White 2001a) however, six weeks appears to be an average duration in the field (DEWHA 2009ac).

On the NSW south coast, Daly and colleagues (2008) observed the Green and Golden Bell Frog breeding in shaded areas and semi-saline lakes with native fish present. This broadens Pyke and White's (2002) definition: still, relatively unshaded, low salinity (fewer than 7.3 parts per thousand) ponds that are smaller than 1000 m², less than a metre deep, are ephemeral or fluctuate substantially in water level, are free of predatory fish, and have emergent aquatic vegetation (Pyke & White 2002). Although the species is known to tolerate semi-saline water (7-8 ppt) (Pyke & White 2001) the significance of Sea Tassel (Ruppia maritima) for breeding has not been previously recorded

Goldingay and Lewis (1999) suggest that the Green and Golden Bell Frog is highly mobile, and may move among breeding sites, however, dispersal patterns can vary between populations (NSW DEC 2005e). Various studies have revealed that the species is capable of moving long distances in a single day/night of up to 1–1.5 km, and mark/recapture studies found individuals moved up to 3 km (Pyke & White 2001a). Observations suggest movements of up to 5 km may be common, and the frog may possibly disperse as far as 10 kilometres (White & Pyke 2008). Isolated occurrences of Green and Golden Bell Frogs have been reported several hundred metres from major drainage lines or other waterbodies (Gillespie 1996).

Methods that have been successfully used in the past to survey the Green and Golden Bell Frog are visual encounter surveys, call surveys and night drives (UC 2003). Call surveys should be conducted during the known calling period, September–January (Anstis 2002; Brook 1980; Dankers 1977; Hero et al. 1991; Littlejohn 1969). Night driving surveys should focus on forest roads, in the non-breeding seasons, and grassy areas where foraging may occur (Pyke & White 1996).

Surveys should be designed to maximise the chance of detecting the Green and Golden Bell Frog, and should be used to determine the context of the site within the broader landscape. Consideration should be given to the timing, effort, methods and area to be covered in the context of the proposed action. In the absence of adequate surveys, the species should be assumed to be present on sites where suitable habitat exists (DEWHA 2009ac).

Surveys for the Green and Golden Bell Frog should (DEWHA 2009ac):

  • be done by a suitably qualified person with experience in frog surveys
  • maximise the chance of detecting the species
  • determine the context of the site within the broader landscape
  • account for uncertainty and error.

Habitat assessment
A habitat assessment should be the first step in assessing the likelihood of Green and Golden Bell Frog presence. This habitat assessment should then be followed up with targeted field survey for the species. The following questions should be asked during habitat assessment to determine and support whether a site contains or is likely to contain suitable habitat for the Green and Golden Bell Frog (DEWHA 2009ac):

  • Is the site within the expected range of the species?
  • Are there records of the species within the local area/catchment?
  • Does the site support potentially suitable habitat for the species?
  • Are there other frog species on site? If so, what species?
  • What vegetation occurs on and around the site?
  • How close is the nearest water body?
  • How many water bodies occur within 10 km?
  • Is there habitat connectivity (terrestrial or aquatic) between water bodies on site, and between on-site water bodies and those on neighbouring sites?
  • Is there any evidence of disturbance on site?
  • Has this habitat been modified as a result of previous development actions?
  • Are water bodies infested with Mosquito Fish or other predatory species that prey on Green and Golden Bell Frogs?
  • Are there other threats to Green and Golden Bell Frogs occurring on site?

During drought, the assessment of the importance of ephemeral water bodies (likely to be dry at the time) should not be underestimated (DEWHA 2009ac).

Field survey
Field surveys for the Green and Golden Bell Frog should be done either in conjunction with, or after, a habitat assessment, and should be done (DEWHA 2009ac):

  • over a minimum of four nights to increase the detection rate
  • in September–March, at the time of peak activity for the species
  • during warm and windless weather conditions following rainfall
  • using a combination of diurnal surveys for basking frogs, nocturnal spotlight surveys, call detection, call playback and tadpole surveys.

Where possible, surveys should include use of a nearby reference site. This reference site should be a site where Green and Golden Bell Frogs are known to occur and should be visited before the survey of the site of interest to confirm that Green and Golden Bell Frogs are active and calling on that particular night. Use of a reference site will provide a measure of detectability. Where imperfect detectability is a reality of the field work, detection or occupancy modelling should be included in the assessment (DEWHA 2009ac).

Small wetlands (less than 50 m at greatest length) should be covered in a period of about one hour by searching banks and emergent vegetation. Larger wetlands (more than 50 m) should be searched by sampling multiple units systematically. The multiple units should be stratified by some ecological feature, and sampling based on equitable sampling of each of the units. Green and Golden Bell Frogs use a series of water bodies, not all of which will be permanently occupied. The presence of the species in neighbouring water bodies provides an indicator of the likely use of on-site water bodies. Surveys should therefore try to include connected and surrounding suitable habitat during field surveys (DEWHA 2009ac).

Major threats identified for the Green and Golden Bell Frog include (DEWHA 2009ac):

  • habitat removal
  • habitat degradation (which includes siltation, changes to aquatic vegetation diversity or structure reducing shelter, increased light and noise, grazing, mowing, fire)
  • habitat fragmentation
  • reduction in water quality and hydrological changes (for example, pollution, siltation erosion and changes to timing, duration or frequency of flood events)
  • disease (for example, infection of the frog with chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) resulting in chytridiomycosis)
  • predation (for example, by the introduced Mosquito Fish, Cats (Felis catus) or Foxes (Vulpes vulpes))
  • introduction or intensification of public access to Green and Golden Bell Frog habitats.

Habitat removal, degradation and fragmentation
The distribution of the Green and Golden Bell Frog in the coastal lowlands of NSW, and the high development pressures associated with these areas have resulted in the large scale loss and degradation of Green and Golden Bell Frog habitat (DEWHA 2009ac). Goodrick (1970) has estimated that 60% of the wetlands in NSW had been extensively modified or reclaimed by 1969 and Goldingay (2008) believes that this extent of modification must have had an impact on populations of Green and Golden Bell Frogs, and cannot be ignored as a contributing factor in the decline of the species. Recent studies by White and Pyke (2008) indicates that habitat decline has emerged as the most significant factor in NSW population losses, with the likelihood of extinction increasing with greater habitat loss.

Development projects that contribute to the significant loss and ongoing degradation of Green and Golden Bell Frog habitat include (NSW DEC 2005e):

  • flood mitigation
  • irrigation works
  • dam construction (that has changed river flow regimes, hence flooding events sustaining floodplain wetlands)
  • pasture conversion (channelling wetlands to drain)
  • market gardens or turf growing
  • landfill/waste disposal operations
  • sewage treatment plants
  • industrial developments
  • golf courses
  • playing fields, parklands recreation areas
  • residential development including canal estates.

The various types of development, particularly road projects and residential development, fragment habitat and block frog movement. Habitat fragmentation isolates populations, and over time is likely to reduce the evolutionary potential of populations through inbreeding. It also predisposes local populations to extinction (NSW DEC 2005e).

In Victoria, it is assumed that key threats to the Green and Golden Bell Frog, such as habitat loss and degradation, are relatively few compared to those in NSW, largely due to the very low human population in the areas of preferred habitat and smaller scale of agriculture (Gillespie 1996).

Reduction in water quality and hydrological changes
Green and Golden Bell Frog habitat may become unsuitable from factors such as water pollution. Many populations in NSW are close to housing or industry, and, as a result, are subject to potential wastes or landscape changes that may alter the water quality (Christy & Dickman 2002a; Goldingay 1996). Hamer and colleagues (2002) suggested that increased fertiliser use in the 1960s and 1970s has led to a build up of fertiliser being washed into water bodies after heavy rain, affecting tadpole development. The higher survival rates of Green and Golden Bell Frog tadpoles compared with those of Common Eastern Froglet (Crinia signifera) tadpoles, however, weakens any conclusions about the effects of fertiliser (Goldingay 2008).

Possible threats to the Green and Golden Bell Frog include the artificial and natural opening of coastal lagoon estuaries, changes to flow/flooding regimes of streams and associated wetlands, spring tides and storm and flood events which introduce predatory fish and result in increases in salinity (NSW DEC 2005e). Christy and Dickman (2002a) recognised saltwater intrusion in coastal wetlands as a consequence of landscape changes to be a potential threat to Green and Golden Bell Frog breeding sites, however, detailed field data is required to determine the extent of this threat. It is also suspected that deteriorating run off water quality and increased soil erosion and sedimentation reduces an area's suitability for frogs, including the Green and Golden Bell Frog (NSW DEC 2005e).

Disease
Australia's native amphibians are threatened by the pathogenic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, known as amphibian chytrid fungus, which causes the infection known as chytridiomycosis (AGDEH 2006o). This highly virulent fungal pathogen of amphibians is capable, at the minimum, of causing sporadic deaths in some populations, and 100% mortality in others (AGDEH 2006o). The role of chytrid fungus in the decline of the Green and Golden Bell Frog is not well documented, but the disappearance of this species from other locations where causal agents could not be implicated (Osborne et al. 1996; Mahony 1999) suggests it has had an impact on the Green and Golden Bell Frog (Goldingay 2008). The chytrid fungus has only been investigated and detected in NSW populations (Speare & Berger 2005).

Mortality as a result of chytridiomycosis has been observed in NSW (Penman & Lemkert 2008; Stockwell et al. 2008). However, despite its widespread infection across amphibian populations in NSW, some Green and Golden Bell Frog populations are free from, or resistant to, chytridiomycosis. It is suggested that these populations are located in areas inhospitable to the growth of the disease (Threfall et al. 2008). Possible explanations are fluctuating salinity and elevated concentrations of trace metals (Johnson et al. 2003; Osborne et al. 2008).

Predation
The predation of Green and Golden Bell Frog tadpoles by the introduced Mosquito Fish in association with the decline of the Green and Golden Bell Frog has been well documented (Daly 1996a; Goldingay 1996; Goldingay & Lewis 1999; Lewis & Goldingay 1999; Mahony 1996; Morgan & Buttemer 1996; Pyke & White 2001a; White & Pyke 1996). The conclusion to be drawn from existing studies is that Mosquito Fish does prey on Green and Golden Bell Frog tadpoles, and is likely to be influencing this species' population size and recovery in NSW (Goldingay 2008).

Despite the extensive literature about the negative effects of Mosquito Fish on Green and Golden Bell Frogs, it has also been discovered that breeding and persistence has occurred at sites with Mosquito Fish (White & Pyke 2008), and that the species has disappeared from sites where Mosquito Fish is absent (Mahony 1999; Osborne et al. 1996). It has also been suggested that certain site conditions may partially reduce the impacts of Mosquito Fish. For example, submergent vegetation may have allowed tadpoles to escape predation (Hamer et al 2002; van de Mortal & Goldingay 1996). Very high densities of fish, along with waterbody characteristics such as being ephemeral and having steep pond banks may contribute to poor breeding at some sites (Goldingay & Lewis 1999). The dates of introduction of Mosquito Fish to many regions are not well documented, and this lack of information has hampered research into declines (Mahony 1999).

In addition to Mosquito Fish, it has also been suggested that Green and Golden Bell Frogs could be exposed to predation by Cats and Foxes, but Cats more so given the frogs' occurrence in urban areas (Daly 1995; Goldingay 1996).

Significant populations
Locations in NSW with more than 20 individual Green and Golden Bell Frogs include Captains Flat, Coomonderry Swamp, Homebush Bay, Port Kembla, Wanda, Kooragang Island and Broughton Island (White & Pike 1996). In NSW, breeding has been recorded at Arncliffe, Coomonderry, Eastlakes Golf Course, Greenacre, Greenwell Point, Hammondville, Homebush, Kemblawarra, Kurnell, North Ryde, Primbee, Rosebery, Shoalhaven Heads and Wanda (Hamer et al. 2002; Pyke & White 1996).

The Bowen Island population is thought to be important due to its isolation from the mainland (Osborne & McElhinney 1996).

Recovery planning
The key recovery actions identified in the draft recovery plan for the Green and Golden Bell Frog (NSW DEC 2005e) are consistent with key threats associated with the decline of the species, and include:

  • liaising with public authorities and private landholders
  • implementing strategic planning instruments
  • implementing environmental impact assessment guidelines
  • identifying and assessing threats
  • preparing guidelines for the construction, improvement and maintenance of Green and Golden Bell Frog habitat
  • undertaking habitat improvement activities
  • preparing Green and Golden Bell Frog plans of management for key populations
  • implementing a frog disease management strategy
  • integrating the recovery plan with relevant threat abatement plans and other threat reduction initiatives
  • creating a database of population localities
  • implementing a systematic monitoring program on public lands
  • promoting and coordinating research programs for the Green and Golden Bell Frog.

Reintroductions should focus on sites where localised extinction has occurred (Pickett et al. 2014). 

Key population management
The draft recovery plan for the Green and Golden Bell Frog (NSW DEC 2005e) recommends developing managment plans for key populations. The aim of these plans is to indentify threats to key populations and outline suitable threat mitigation measures. Key populations that have an endorsed management plan include:

  • Coomonderry Swamp (NSW DECC 2007g)
  • Greenacre (NSW DECC 2007h)
  • Kurnell (NSW DECC 2007i)
  • Port Kembla (NSW DEC 2007c)
  • Sussex Inlet - Swan Lake (NSW DECC 2007j)
  • Middle Hunter (NSW DECC 2007k)
  • Upper Hunter (NSW DECC 2007l)
  • Georges River (NSW DECC 2007m)
  • Lower Cooks River (NSW DECC 2007n)
  • Crookhaven River Floodplain (NSW DECC 2007o)
  • Lower Hunter (NSW DECC 2007p)
  • Parramatta (NSW DECC 2007q).

Habitat creation and restoration
Given the species high rates of population fluctuation, habitat connectivity (including recreation of connecting habitat) is essential to allow recolonisation after localised extinction events (Pickett et al. 2014). The NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change has produced Best Practice guidelines for the creation or restoration of Green and Golden Bell Frog habitat(NSW DECC 2008h). These guidelines outline the best practice in the creation and maintenance of habitat. These guidelines aim to help (NSW DECC 2008h):

  • homeowners who would like to create Green and Golden Bell Frog habitat in their garden
  • farmers and other rural property owners who would like to adapt a farm dam and its surroundings to benefit the frog
  • managers of industrial sites or business premises who wish to enhance parts of their site to benefit the local Green and Golden Bell Frog population
  • councils and other organisations that wish to enhance or provide Green and Golden Bell Frog habitat in areas they manage.

Specific projects
Development at Sydney Olympic Park in 2000 saw the loss of 9 of 26 ponds in a disused quarry ('the Brickpit'). The population in the area is one of the largest in Australia and mitigation of the development required offsets that increased pond area 19-fold and pond edge 8.9-fold (Pickett et al. 2013). Following development, there has been a 1.2–3.5-fold increase in population size. Disparity between offset area and populaion increase may be the result of lower density of offset area inhabitants or inability to colonise offset areas (Pickett et al. 2013).

The Village Building Company has been involved in creating and restoring Green and Golden Bell Frog habitat on the Edgewood Estate, in the north Wollongong suburb of Woonona. Two frogs were discovered on this estate in 1998. Subsequent monitoring indicated a fluctuating population from no frogs to six frogs in any given year up to 2002. Breeding ponds have been established and several hundred juvenile frogs were subsequently recorded in the area (VBC 2007).

A road construction project in the Hunter region identified an area of Green and Golden Bell Frog important habitat. Although no individuals were located during surveys the following amelioration measures were undertaken including (Roads and Traffic Authority Environmental Technology 2006):

  • ensuring connectivity between habitats to the north of the proposed road and south of the road by:
    • provision of an underpass north of the railway
    • provision of frog exclusion fencing to limit frog access to the road (design details to be determined)
  • modification of construction sediment basins after completion of works to provide frog habitat
  • provision of some foraging habitat north of the roadway (details to be determined)
  • revegetation of road batters and disturbed areas after construction.

The Friends of the Green and Golden Bell Frog (NSW) received $18 692 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2004–05 for the creation of breeding ponds and monitoring of habitat, as well as enhancement of movement corridors between populations at Davistown.

Significant impact guidelines
Significant impact thresholds
The Significant impact guidelines for the vulnerable Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea (DEWHA 2009ad) outlines actions that may have significant impacts relevant to the EPBC Act. Activities that may have a significant impact on the species include actions that exceed the following thresholds (DEWHA 2009ad):

1. the removal or degradation of aquatic or ephemeral habitat either where the Green and Golden Bell Frog has been recorded since 1995 or habitat that has been assessed as being suitable according to these guidelines; this can include impacts from chytrid and Mosquito Fish that originate off-site
2. the removal or degradation of terrestrial habitat within 200 m of the habitat identified in threshold 1
3. breaking of the continuity of vegetation fringing ephemeral or permanent waterways or other vegetated corridors linking habitats meeting the criteria in threshold 1.

Mitigation of significant impacts
The Significant impact guidelines for the vulnerable Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea (DEWHA 2009ad) outline mitigation activities that may reduce the impacts of actions. Mitigation activities outlined include (DEWHA 2009ad):

  • avoidance of activities
  • minimisation of impacts (e.g. buffer zones, enhancing/maintaining habitat quality, maintaining existing hydrology, avoiding work during September– February and hygiene protocols)
  • impact management (e.g. monitoring and exotic fish management).

There are a number of documents that may assist in the management of the Green and Golden Bell Frog, including:

  • Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis (AGDEH 2006o)
  • Best Practice Guidelines Green and Golden Bell Frog Habitat (NSW DECC 2008h)
  • Draft Recovery Plan for the Green and Golden Bell Frog (Litoria aurea) (NSW DEC 2005e)
  • Environmental Impact Aessessment Guidelines: Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea (NSW NPWS 2003f)
  • Threatened Species Management Information Circular No. 6. Hygiene Protocol for the Control of Disease in Frogs (NSW NPWS 2001d)
  • Predation by Gambusia holbrooki - The Plague Minnow (NSW NPWS 2003)
  • Significant impact guidelines for the vulnerable Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea (DEWHA 2009ad).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Litoria aurea in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ni) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Sea level rise:Inundation associated with climate change Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Litoria aurea in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ni) [Internet].
The Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea - from riches to ruins: conservation of a formerly common species. Australian Zoologist. 30(2):248-56. (Goldingay, R.L., 1996) [Journal].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Litoria aurea in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ni) [Internet].
The Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea - from riches to ruins: conservation of a formerly common species. Australian Zoologist. 30(2):248-56. (Goldingay, R.L., 1996) [Journal].
The Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea: Biology and Conservation, May 1996. Pyke, G.H., & W.S. Osborne, eds. Australian Zoologist (Special Edition). 30(2):131-258. (Pyke, G.H., & W.S. Osborne (eds.), 1996) [Journal].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Gambusia holbrooki (Eastern Gambusia, Mosquitofish) Litoria aurea in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ni) [Internet].
Review of the declines and disappearances within the bell frog species group (Litoria aurea species group) in Australia. In: A. Campbell, ed. Declines and disappearances of Australian frogs. Page(s) 81-93. (Mahony, M., 1999) [Book].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rhinella marina (Cane Toad) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Litoria aurea in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ni) [Internet].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Personal Communication (Osborne, W., 2001) [Personal Communication].
Chytridiomycosis in amphibians in Australia (Speare, R & L. Berger, 2000) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality The Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea - from riches to ruins: conservation of a formerly common species. Australian Zoologist. 30(2):248-56. (Goldingay, R.L., 1996) [Journal].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Habitat degradation due to agricultural chemical pollution Litoria aurea in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ni) [Internet].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Vehicle related mortality Litoria aurea in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ni) [Internet].

Anstis, M. (2002). Tadpoles of South-eastern Australia. A guide with keys. Sydney, NSW: Reed New Holland.

Bower, D.S., E.J. Pickett, M.P. Stockwell, C.J. Pollard, J.I. Garnham, M.R. Sanders, J. Clulow & M.J. Mahony, M. J. (2014). (2014). Evaluating monitoring methods to guide adaptive management of a threatened amphibian (Litoria aurea). Ecology and Evolution. Early View. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.980.

Brook, A.J. (1980). The breeding seasons of frogs in Victoria and Tasmania. Victorian Naturalist. 97:6-11.

Christy, M.T. & C.R. Dickman (2002a). Effects of salinity on tadpoles of the Green and Golden Bell Frog (Litoria aurea). Amphibian-Reptilia. 23:1-11.

Cogger, H.G. (2000). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia - 6th edition. Sydney, NSW: Reed New Holland.

Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2006o). Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/chytrid.html.

Daly, G. (1995). Observations on the Green and Golden Bell-Frog Litoria aurea (Anura: Hylidae). Herpetofauna. 25:2-9.

Daly, G. (1996a). Some problems in the management of the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea (Anura: Hylidae) at Coomonderry Swamp on the south coast of New South Wales. Australian Zoologist. 30:233-36.

Daly, G., P. Craven & A. Hyatt (2008). Surveys for the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea at Meroo National Park on the south coast of New South Wales. Australian Zoologist. 34(3):303-313.

Dankers, N.M.J.A. (1977). The ecology of an anuran community. Ph.D. Thesis. Sydney, NSW: University of Sydney.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009ac). Background Paper to EPBC Act Policy Statement 3.19 - Nationally Threatened Species and Ecological Communities. Significant Impact Guidelines for the vulnerable green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea). [Online]. Canberra, ACT: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/litoria-aurea.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009ad). EPBC Act Policy Statement 3.19. Significant Impact Guidelines for the vulnerable green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/litoria-aurea.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2010h). Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Frogs. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.3. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-frogs.html.

Frogwatch (2006). Frogwatch Field Data Sheet Results Collected October 2006. ACT Frogwatch.

Gillespie, G.R. (1996). Distribution, habitat and conservation status of the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea (Lesson 1829) (Anura:Hylidae) in Victoria. Australian Zoologist. 30(2):199-207.

Goldingay, R. (2001). Personal Communication.

Goldingay, R. & B. Lewis (1999). Development of a conservation strategy for the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea in the Illawarra Region of New South Wales. Australian Zoologist. 31:376-387.

Goldingay, R.L. (1996). The Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea - from riches to ruins: conservation of a formerly common species. Australian Zoologist. 30(2):248-56.

Goldingay, R.L. (2008). Conservation of the endangered green and golden bell frog: what contribution has ecological research made since 1996?. Australian Zoologist. 34(3):334-339.

Goldingay, R.L. & D.A. Newell (2005). Aspects of the population ecology of the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea at the northern end of its range. . Australian Zoologist. 33:49-59.

Goldingay, R.L. & D.A. Newell (2005a). Population estimation of the green and golden bell frog at Port Kembla. Australian Zoologist. 33:210-16.

Goodrick, G.N. (1970). A survey of wetlands of coastal New South Wales. Technical Memorandum No 5. Division of Wildlife Research, CSIRO.

Hamer, A.J., S.J. Lane & M.J. Mahony (2002). Management of freshwater wetlands for the endangered green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea): roles of habitat determinants and space. Biological Conservation. 106:413-424.

Hero, J-M., M. Littlejohn & G. Marantelli (1991). Frogwatch Field Guide to Victorian Frogs. [Online]. Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Conservation and Environment. Available from: http://frogs.org.au/frogs/index.html.

Johnson, M.L., L. Berger, L. Phillips & R. Speare (2003). Fungicidal effects of chemical disinfectants, UV light, desiccation and heat on the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases of Aquatic organisms. 65:181-86.

Lewis, B. & R. Goldingay (1999). A preliminary assessment of the status of the Green and Goldern Bell Frog in north-eastern NSW. In: A. Campbell, ed. Declines and disappearances of Australian frogs. Page(s) 94-98. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia.

Littlejohn, M.J. (1969). Amphibia of East Gippsland. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 82:105-112.

Mahony, M. (1996). The decline of the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea viewed in the context of declines and disappearances of other Australian frogs. Australian Zoologist. 30:237-47.

Mahony, M. (1999). Review of the declines and disappearances within the bell frog species group (Litoria aurea species group) in Australia. In: A. Campbell, ed. Declines and disappearances of Australian frogs. Page(s) 81-93. Canberra: Environment Australia.

Morgan, L.A. & W.A. Buttermer (1996). Predation by the non-native fish Gambusia holbrooki on small Litoria aurea and L. dentata tadpoles. Australian Journal of Zoology. 30:143-149.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2003). Predation by Gambusia holbrooki - The Plague Minnow. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/ThreatAbatementPlanPlaqueMinnow.pdf. [Accessed: 21-Jun-2006].

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007g). The Green and Golden Bell Frog Key Population at Coomonderry Swamp. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/Coomonderryggbfmp.htm.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007h). The Green and Golden Bell Frog Key Population at Greenacre. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/Greenacreggbfmp.htm.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007i). The Green and Golden Bell Frog Key Population at Kurnell. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/Kurnellggbfmp.htm.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007j). The Green and Golden Bell Frog Key Population at Sussex Inlet - Swan Lake. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/SussexInletSwanLakeggbfmp.htm.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007k). The Green and Golden Bell Frog Key Population in the Middle Hunter. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/MiddleHunterggbfmp.htm.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007l). The Green and Golden Bell Frog Key Population in the Upper Hunter. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/UpperHunterggbfmp.htm.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007m). The Green and Golden Bell Frog Key Population of the Georges River. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/GeorgesRiverggbfmp.htm.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007n). The Green and Golden Bell Frog Key Population of the Lower Cooks River. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/LowerCooksRiverggbfmp.htm.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007o). The Green and Golden Bell Frog Key Population within the Crookhaven River Floodplain. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/Crookhavenggbfmp.htm.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007p). The Green and Golden Bell Frog Key Populations in the Lower Hunter (PDF - 481KB). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/LowerHunterggbfmp.htm.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007q). The Green and Golden Bell Frog Parramatta Key Population (PDF - 421KB). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/Parraggbfmp.htm.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2008h). Best Practice Guidelines Green and Golden Bell Frog Habitat. [Online]. South Sydney, NSW: DECC. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/threatenedspecies/08510tsdsgreengoldbfbpg.pdf.

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2005e). Draft Recovery Plan for the Green and Golden Bell Frog (Litoria aurea). [Online]. Hurstville, NSW: DEC. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/recoveryplanGreenGoldBellFrogDraft.pdf.

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2007c). The Green and Golden Bell Frog Key Population at Port Kembla. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/PortKemblaggbfmp.htm.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2001d). Threatened Species Management Information Circular No. 6. Hygiene Protocol for the Control of Disease in Frogs. [Online]. Sydney, NSW: NPWS. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/hyprfrog.pdf.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2003f). Environmental Impact Aessessment Guidelines: Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea. [Online]. Sydney, NSW: NPWS. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/GAndGbellfrogEia0703.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Litoria aurea in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 17 Apr 2014 16:46:49 +1000.