Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Approved Conservation Advice for Heleioporus australiacus (giant burrowing frog) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2014aj) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis (Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006o) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzq) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Frogs. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.3 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010h) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Predation by Gambusia holbrooki - The Plague Minnow (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2003) [Internet].
NSW:NSW threatened species - Giant Burrowing Frog - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2005r) [Internet].
NSW:Threatened Species Management Information Circular No.6 - Hygiene protocol for the control of disease in frogs (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2008b) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines - Giant Burrowing Frog (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2001i) [Internet].
NSW:Giant Burrowing Frog Threatened Species Information (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2001j) [Information Sheet].
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 61-Giant Burrowing Frog Heleioporus australiacus (Mazzer, T., 2003) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): August 2014 list)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): May 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Vulnerable (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
VIC: Listed as Critically Endangered (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013 list)
Scientific name Heleioporus australiacus [1973]
Family Myobatrachidae:Anura:Amphibia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Shaw and Nodder, 1795)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.frogs.org.au/frogs/australiacus.html

Scientific name: Heleioporus australiacus

Common name: Giant Burrowing Frog

Other names: Owl Frog, Southern Owl Frog, Eastern Owl Frog, Spotted Owl Frog, Burrowing Owl Frog.

The taxonomic status of the Giant Burrowing Frog is currently under investigation (NSW NPWS 2001b). Two separate populations may exist, with a gap of about 100 km between records of the species. It has been suggested that there are morphological differences between the two populations. While recent genetic work suggests that there are significant genetic differences between the two populations, it should be noted that the recent genetic work is based on a small dataset, and requires further investigation (NSW NPWS 2001b).

Differences in the use of habitat between the two populations appears to be a product of the differing habitats available in the two regions, rather than different habitat preference (Penman et al. 2006a). Previously reported differences in the colouration are apparently not evident, with great variability in colouration being seen in both groups of frogs (F. Lemckert 2007, pers. comm.).

Adults
The Giant Burrowing Frog is a rotund frog with muscular forearms and hindlimbs, growing to about 95 mm. Its back colouring is quite variable, ranging from steely blue-grey to black and dark chocolate brown (Penman et al 2004). Varying degrees of white/yellowish spots can occur on the sides in all populations (including essentially no spots at all). The species is always white below with some brown on the throat. It has a yellowish splash in the armpits, and a flap of skin at the anterior corner of the eyes. Adult males have warts capped by black spines on the back and sides (Cogger 2000). This species eyes are prominent and large (NSW DECC 2005r). An in-depth description of this species can be found on the NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change Threatened Species Profile (NSW NPWS 2001b).

Tadpoles
Giant Burrowing Frog tadpoles are large in size and very plump. The body colour is usually black or very dark grey to brown. The tadpoles are very slow moving (Anstis 2002; Frogs Australia 2005; Watson & Martin 1973).

The Giant Burrowing Frog is confined to the eastern slopes of the Great Dividing Range and coastal regions from near Mt Coridudgy and Kings Cross in Wollemi National Park, New South Wales (NSW NPWS 2001b; Penman et al. 2005), to Walhalla in the central highlands of eastern Victoria (Littlejohn & Martin 1967). The species has been found from near sea level up to 1000 m, from the coast to almost 100 km inland along the escarpment of the Great Dividing Range (Australian Museum n.d.; Gillespie 1990; Rescei 1997). There is a notable disjunction in records between Jervis Bay and the Eden District, which might be due to either the rarity of the species or the limited survey effort in the region. However, recent records have begun to fill in this gap (F. Lemckert 2007, pers. comm.).

The extent of occurrence of the species is about 80 000 km² (Gillespie & Hines 1999; Lemckert et al. 2004).

Accurate survey information is lacking on the demography of the species and on the size of populations. Records of this species have usually been of single or few individuals (Daly 1996; Gillespie 1990), although larger numbers of frogs have been seen in the Eden area of far southern NSW (Penman 2005).

Records of the Giant Burrowing Frog from the south of its range are sparse and recent surveying in Victoria has failed to locate this species. The 100 km disjunction in records between Ulladulla and Narooma may be due to its absence from this area, but it may also be a result of the limited survey effort in the region (Penman et al 2004).

The Giant Burrowing Frog is a cryptic species, and this characteristic has hampered the detection of the species during fauna surveys and assessments of relative abundance. This characteristic also makes rigorous assessment of changes in local abundance or population trends difficult (Gillespie & Hines 1999; Penman et al 2004).

There are no available population estimates for the Giant Burrowing Frog. However, information indicates that the species is now rare (Gillespie 1990; Rescei 1997; Webb 1987), and populations appear to have declined. The IUCN listed this species as Vulnerable based of an inferred population decline, estimated to be more than 30% over the last ten years. This decline was inferred from an observed decline in numbers, and from habitat destruction and degradation (Lemckert et al. 2004).

The Giant Burrowing Frog may exist as two distinct subpopulations: a northern population largely confined to the sandstone geology of the Sydney Basin and south to Jervis Bay, and a southern population occurring in disjunct regions from around Narooma southwards to eastern Victoria (Penman et al. 2004). Smaller breeding populations appear to be scattered within these two broad areas and the connectivity of these smaller populations is not known.

The Giant Burrowing Frog has been recorded in the following National Parks: Ben Boyd, Biamanga, Blue Mountains, Booderee, Budderoo, Brisbane Water, Dharug, Garigal, Heathcote, Jervis Bay, Ku-ring-gai Chase, Marramarra, Morton, Mount Imlay, Popran, Royal, South-East Forest, Watagan, Wollemi and Yengo; Nature Reserves: Barren Grounds, Muogamarra, Nadgee, Nattai, Red Rock; and State Forests: Bondi, Broadwater, Dampier-Wandella, Maroota, Newnes, Olney, Strickland, Tanja/Mumbulla, Timbillica and Yambulla (Daly 1996; Lemckert & Brassil 2003; NSW NPWS 2001e; Penman et al. 2004; Recsei 1997; Webb 1991, 1993). It also occurs in Bargo, Dharawal and Parr State Recreation Areas (NSW NPWS 2001e).

Across its range, the Giant Burrowing Frog appears to be dependent on areas with native vegetation (Penman et al. 2004) as no Giant Burrowing Frogs have been recorded from cleared lands (Daly 1996; Gillespie 1990). However, it should be noted that no targeted surveys for the species have occurred in such lands. A BIOCLIM analysis suggests that the species is not climatically suited to large river valleys, most of which have been cleared for agriculture (Penman et al. 2005).

In the northern portion of its range, the Giant Burrowing Frog occurs in hanging swamps on sandstone shelves and beside perennial creeks (Daly 1996; Webb 1993). In the Watagan Mountain area, central coast of New South Wales, the species is associated with sandy soil on sandstone ridges that support heath vegetation (Mahony 1993). It occurs in semi-permanent to ephemeral sand or rock based streams, and infrequently in semi-permanent to permanent constructed dams with a sandy silt or clay base. It is also found in ephemeral to permanent artificial drainage ditches and culverts on roadsides (with a rock or sand/clay base) (Recsei 1997). Giant Burrowing Frogs are not restricted to watercourses. Most radio-tracking locations in Yambulla and Olney State Forests were on the mid and upper slopes, more than 50 m from a stream, and up to 500 m from water (Lemckert & Brassil 2003).

In the southern portion of its range, the Giant Burrowing Frog has been reported to occur in a wide range of forest communities including montane sclerophyll woodland, montane riparian woodland, as well as wet and dry sclerophyll forest (Gillespie 1990; Lemckert et al. 1998; Littlejohn & Martin 1967; Penman et al. 2005).

A critical examination of these data suggests that most records occur in dry sclerophyll forests and reported use of wet habitats are all associated with breeding sites (Penman et al. 2005), which the species occupy for relatively short periods each year (Penman et al. 2006c). The species appears to be associated with Devonian igneous and sedimentary rock and Ordovician metamorphic rock formations that support forest vegetation (NSW NPWS 2001b). The NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC 2005r) suggests that this species is found in heath, woodland and open forest with sandy soils.

Breeding activity has been recorded throughout the year, but mating calls are most commonly heard in late summer or autumn following heavy rains (Penman et al. 2004). Males call from partially flooded burrows at the base of creek banks, beneath dense vegetation beside creeks and swampy ground, or in exposed locations (Gillespie 1990; Littlejohn & Martin 1967; Penman 2005). Mating occurs in ephemeral pools, slow or standing water such as small soaks formed in eroded sandstone drainage lines, and is rarely associated with permanent ponds or streams (Mahony 1993; Watson & Martin 1973).

Watson and Martin (1973) recorded 775–1239 un-pigmented eggs (2.6 mm diametre) from four foamy egg masses deposited in standing or flowing water concealed in vegetation or in burrows. Daly (1996) recorded 698–807 pigmented eggs in concealed positions within creeks under organic debris (Daly 1996). There has been speculation that the southern group of frogs may also be distinguished by a lack of pigment in their eggs (Watson & Martin 1973), but recent gravid (egg-heavy) females from Eden had pigmented eggs in their body cavities (F. Lemckert 2007, pers. comm.), suggesting that clutches in general are probably pigmented.

Tadpoles are free-living and metamorphosis occurs between three and 11 months (Daly 1996). The tadpoles are large in size, very plump and very slow moving (Anstis 2002; Frogs Australia 2005; Watson & Martin 1973). Tadpoles have been recorded in clear water with a pH 4.3–6.5 and with a temperature range of 8.5 to 26.5 °C (Recsei 1997)

The species is considered to be a generalist terrestrial predator (Penman et al. 2004). Studies of the gut contents of voucher specimens have revealed that the frog consumes ground dwelling invertebrates including ants, beetles, spiders, scorpions, centipedes and cockroaches (Littlejohn & Martin 1967; Rose 1974; Webb 1983; Webb 1987). Occasionally the diet has included aerial invertebrates such as moths (Webb 1987).

The Giant Burrowing Frog is most commonly found on ridges away from breeding sites (Penman et al. 2004; Penman 2005; Penman et al. 2007). Observations from a radio-tracking study indicate that daylight hours are nearly always spent below ground in unformed burrows, but occasionally under logs or fallen branches, in grass trees or sitting on the leaf litter (Lemckert & Brassil 2003; Penman 2005).

The activity patterns of the species are strongly climate driven, with the animals being most active after 5 mm of rain, on nights with low wind and high humidity (Penman et al. 2006b). Most animals are active within discrete activity areas and migrate to breeding sites irregularly (Lemckert & Brassil 2003; Penman 2005).

The Giant Burrowing Frog spends significant periods of time underground during unfavourable conditions and during the day (to avoid detection). This species also shows an ability to range widely with observations frequently occurring considerable distance from suitable riparian habitat, or other moist habitat. Studies suggest this species can move 200–300 metres a night and can take advantage of soft soil from the diggings of other animals (NSW NPWS 2001b).

Detectability
The burrowing habit and slow movements of this species makes individuals difficult to detect, even when active (Penman et al. 2004). In addition, the species is only active under a strict set of climatic conditions (Penman et al. 2006b). While preferred habitat aries, small slow flowing clear water courses, broad upland gullies, stream headwaters and permantly moist soaks and pondages are preferred (NSW NPWS 2001b).

Recommended Methods
This species is particularly difficult to find, even in preferred habitat. Nights of thunderstorm activity during summer or after substantial rainfall are the best times for detection. This species can be easily overlooked so extended surveys are desirable (NSW NPWS 2001b).

The methods that have successfully been used in the past to survey the Giant Burrowing Frog include: visual encounter surveys (VES), call surveys, night driving, pitfall trapping, egg mass surveys and larval sampling (Gillespie 1997b; UC 2003). However, most records of the species have been derived from nocturnal road transects, with fewer records from pitfall trapping, auditory surveys and larval sampling (Penman et al. 2004). Noctural road transects are most successful when driven at no more than 5 km/hr and the road surface and gutters are thoroughly examined in appropriate climatic conditions (see 'Movement Patterns', above). Pitfall trapping is of limited success with detection rates being approximately one animal in 800–1000 trap nights, although this is likely to be climate driven. Auditory surveys have been successful at some sites (White 1999), however they are difficult as the species calls softly and irregularly (Penman et al. 2004). Call playback techniques are apparently not appropriate for this species because of their infrequent and unpredictable reproductive efforts. Tadpole surveys for this species have had some success, but the value of this technique has not been fully tested. The tadpoles of the species are relatively conspicuous and tadpoles are usually present at the breeding site throughout the year (Recsei 1997).

Penman and colleagues (2004) provide a review of the current known threats to the Giant Burrowing Frog. These include timber harvesting, cattle grazing, fuel reduction burning, introduced terrestrial and aquatic predators, high nutrient flows and pH changes in waterbodies, disturbances such as headwater erosion and habitat loss resulting from urbanisation (particularly in the northern part of the range), and clearing for agriculture (particularly in the southern part of the range). Other threats include forestry activities that directly disturbs forest habitat or breeding sites (however, many southern reports are from logged areas) and inappropriate fire regimes (NSW NPWS 2001b). Road mortality has also been observed (Mahony 1993), and there have been reports of Giant Burrowing Frogs being mistaken for Cane Toads and killed (NSW NPWS 2001b). The potential impacts of these processes have not been examined.

In addition, chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus, has been identified in Giant Burrowing Frogs collected from Springwood, NSW in 1998 (Speare & Berger 2000). Chytridiomycosis is an infectious disease affecting amphibians worldwide. The disease has been recorded in four regions of Australia, namely the east coast, south-west Western Australia, Adelaide, and more recently Tasmania. This highly virulent fungal pathogen of amphibians is capable at the minimum of causing sporadic deaths in some populations, and 100 per cent mortality in other populations.

Foxes and cats are common and widespread throughout south-eastern Australia and are potentially a major threatening process to terrestrial frog species such as the Giant Burrowing Frog. While frog bones have been reported in fox scats and stomachs (Gillespie & Hines 1999), the potential impact of foxes and cats on frog populations has not been examined.

A study of sedimentation on Giant Burrowing Frog tadpoles showed that the species tolerates high levels of sedimentation for short periods (Green et al. 2004). However, long term sedimentation, such as in waterways that sustain high levels of traversing, can alter water pH levels and this, along with continual high sedimentation loads, canbe detrimental to Giant Burrowing Frog tadpoles (Green et al. 2004).

The NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC 2005r) outlines the following priority actions in the management of this species:

  • Determine the threats and other management issues affecting key populations.
  • Determine priorities for regions and populations to be included in a gene bank to provide an assurance for populations that may become extinct.
  • Develop a captive husbandry protocol in case rapid declines occur.
  • Encourage and support community projects that benefit the conservation of the Giant Burrowing Frog.
  • Resolve the taxonomic uncertainty regarding the northern and southern populations.
  • Integrate the recovery actions for the Giant Burrowing Frog with Threat Abatement Plans and recovery actions for other threatened species, populations or ecological communities.
  • Ensure records are accurately collated.
  • Develop and test a protocol for monitoring populations of the Giant Burrowing Frog throughout its range. Once a monitoring protocol is developed, incorporate it into site management plans.
  • Develop habitat management guidelines that can be used by land managers to protect local populations and habitats across the landscape.
  • Facilitate the adequate consideration of Giant Burrowing Frogs during biodiversity certification of environmental planning instruments.
  • Prepare and implement site specific management plans to protect key Giant Burrowing frog populations from identified threats.
  • Develop a list of key populations of the Giant Burrowing Frog to focus recovery actions.
  • Encourage and support research projects that contribute to the conservation and management of the Giant Burrowing Frog.
  • Conduct surveys for the Giant Burrowing Frog in Victoria around historic locations and within areas of likely high quality habitat to assess the status of the species at the southern end of its range.

The Department of the Environment and Water Resources has developed a Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis (AGDEH 2006o) which aims to:

  • Prevent amphibian populations or regions that are currently chytridiomycosis-free from becoming infected by preventing further spread of the amphibian chytrid within Australia.
  • Decrease the impact of infection with the amphibian chytrid fungus on populations that are currently infected.

The NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change have a number of documents helpful in the management of the Giant Burrowing Frog, including:

  • Environmental Impact Assessment Guideline: Giant Burrowing Frog Heleioporus australiacus (Shaw and Nodder, 1795) (NSW NPWS 2001e)
  • Hygiene protocol for the control of disease in frogs (NSW NPWS 2001d)
  • Predation by Gambusia holbrooki - The Plague Minnow (NSW NPWS 2003).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Heleioporus australiacus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nd) [Internet].
Distribution, habitat and conservation status of the giant burrowing frog, Heleioporus australiacus (Anura: Myobatrachidae), in Victoria. Victorian Naturalist. 107:144-153. (Gillespie, G.R., 1990) [Journal].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Distribution, habitat and conservation status of the giant burrowing frog, Heleioporus australiacus (Anura: Myobatrachidae), in Victoria. Victorian Naturalist. 107:144-153. (Gillespie, G.R., 1990) [Journal].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Heleioporus australiacus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nd) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Habitat deterioration due to soil degradation and erosion Heleioporus australiacus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nd) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Heleioporus australiacus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nd) [Internet].
Status of temperate riverine frogs in south-eastern Australia. In: A. Campbell, ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 109-130. (Gillespie, G.R. & H.B. Hines, 1999) [Book].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Heleioporus australiacus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nd) [Internet].
Status of temperate riverine frogs in south-eastern Australia. In: A. Campbell, ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 109-130. (Gillespie, G.R. & H.B. Hines, 1999) [Book].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Heleioporus australiacus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nd) [Internet].
Distribution, habitat and conservation status of the giant burrowing frog, Heleioporus australiacus (Anura: Myobatrachidae), in Victoria. Victorian Naturalist. 107:144-153. (Gillespie, G.R., 1990) [Journal].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Chytridiomycosis in amphibians in Australia (Speare, R & L. Berger, 2000) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:pest animal control Heleioporus australiacus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nd) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Heleioporus australiacus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nd) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Heleioporus australiacus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nd) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Distribution, habitat and conservation status of the giant burrowing frog, Heleioporus australiacus (Anura: Myobatrachidae), in Victoria. Victorian Naturalist. 107:144-153. (Gillespie, G.R., 1990) [Journal].
Pollution:Pollution:Habitat degradation and loss of water quality due to salinity, siltaton, nutrification and/or pollution Heleioporus australiacus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nd) [Internet].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Heleioporus australiacus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nd) [Internet].
Distribution, habitat and conservation status of the giant burrowing frog, Heleioporus australiacus (Anura: Myobatrachidae), in Victoria. Victorian Naturalist. 107:144-153. (Gillespie, G.R., 1990) [Journal].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Heleioporus australiacus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nd) [Internet].

Anstis, M. (2002). Tadpoles of South-eastern Australia. A guide with keys. Sydney, NSW: Reed New Holland.

Australian Museum (n.d.). Australian Museum records.

Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2006o). Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/chytrid.html.

Daly, G. (1996). Observations on the eastern owl frog Heleioporous australiacus (Anura: Myobatrachidae) in southern New South Wales. Herpetofauna. 26:33-42.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2010h). Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Frogs. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.3. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-frogs.html.

Frogs Australia (2005). Australian Frogs Database, Heleioporous australiacus. [Online]. Available from: http://www.frogsaustralia.net.au. [Accessed: 21-Sep-2007].

Gillespie, G.R. (1990). Distribution, habitat and conservation status of the giant burrowing frog, Heleioporus australiacus (Anura: Myobatrachidae), in Victoria. Victorian Naturalist. 107:144-153.

Gillespie, G.R. (1997b). Survey design and management prescriptions for the giant burrowing frog (Heleioporus australiacus) and the stuttering frog (Mixophyes balbus). Victoria: Wildlife Research, Arthur Rylah Institute, Department of Natural Resources and Environment.

Gillespie, G.R. & H.B. Hines (1999). Status of temperate riverine frogs in south-eastern Australia. In: A. Campbell, ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 109-130. Canberra: Environment Australia.

Green, M., M.B. Thompson & F.L. Lemckert (2004). The effects of suspended sediments on the tadpoles of two stream-breeding and forest dwelling frogs, Mixophyes balbus and Heleioporus australiacus. Lunney, D., ed. Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition). Page(s) 713-720.

Lemckert, F. (2007). Personal Communication.

Lemckert, F. & T. Brassil (2003). Movements and habitat use by the giant burrowing frog, Heleioporus australiacus. Amphibia-Reptilia. 24:207-211.

Lemckert, F., G. Gillespie, P. Robertson & M. Littlejohn (2004). Heleioporus australiacus. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [Online]. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/41046/all. [Accessed: 21-Sep-2007].

Lemckert, F.L., T. Brassil & K. McCray (1998). Recent records of the giant burrowing frog (Heleioporus australiacus) from the far south coast of New South Wales. Herpetofauna. 28(1):32-39.

Littlejohn, M.J. & A.A. Martin (1967). The rediscovery of Heleioporous australiacus (Shaw) (Anura: Leptodactylidae) in eastern Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 80:31.

Mahony, M. (1993). The status of frogs in the Watagan mountains area the central coast of New South Wales. In: D. Lunney & D. Ayers, eds. Herpetology in Australia. Page(s) 257-264. Sydney: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2003). Predation by Gambusia holbrooki - The Plague Minnow. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/ThreatAbatementPlanPlaqueMinnow.pdf. [Accessed: 21-Jun-2006].

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005r). NSW threatened species - Giant Burrowing Frog - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10398.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2001b). Threatened Species Information Sheet: Giant Burrowing Frog. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/tsprofileGiantBurrowingFrog.pdf.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2001d). Threatened Species Management Information Circular No. 6. Hygiene Protocol for the Control of Disease in Frogs. [Online]. Sydney, NSW: NPWS. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/hyprfrog.pdf.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2001e). Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines: Giant Burrowing Frog. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/Giantburrowingfrogeia0501.pdf.

Penman, T., F. Lemckert & M. Mahony (2004). Two hundred and ten years of looking for giant burrowing frog. Australian Zoologist. 32 (4):597-604.

Penman, T., F. Lemckert & M. Mahony (2006b). Meteorological effects on the activity of the giant burrowing frog (Heleioporus australiacus) in south-eastern Australia. Wildlife Research. 33:35-40.

Penman, T., F. Lemckert, C. Slade & M. Mahony (2006a). Non-breeding haibtat requirements of the giant burrowing frog (Heleioporus australiacus) in south-eastern Australia. Australian Zoologist. 33:251-257.

Penman, T., F. Lemckert, C. Slade & M. Mahony (2006c). Description of breeding sites of the giant burrowing frog Heleioporus australiacus in south-eastern NSW. Herpetofauna. 36:102-105.

Penman, T.D. (2005). Applied Conservation Biology of a Threatened Forest Dependent Frog, Heleioporus australiacus. Ph.D. Thesis. Univeristy of Newcastle.

Penman, T.D., M.J. Mahony, A.L. Towerton & F.L Lemckert (2007). Spatial models of giant burrowing frog distributions. Endangered Species Research. 3:115-124. [Online]. Available from: http://www.int-res.com/articles/esr2007/3/n003p115.pdf.

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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Heleioporus australiacus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 23 Sep 2014 14:19:26 +1000.