In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus hallii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008oh) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Eucalyptus hallii |
|Reference||Australian Forest Research 7: 11, fig. 1 (Jul. 1975).|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
|Other illustrations||Google Images|
Scientific name: Eucalyptus hallii
Common name: Goodwood Gum
Other names: Clayton's Grey Gum
Conventionally accepted as Eucalyptus hallii (CHAH 2010).
The Goodwood Gum is a small to medium-sized tree growing up to 17 m in height. The species has smooth, mottled to dark grey bark on the trunk, which is shed continuously. New bark exposed after shedding can be orange or pink-grey in colour. The adult leaves are lance-shaped to sickle-shaped, 15 cm long by 2.5 cm wide and a glossy green or grey-green colour on both sides. The juvenile leaves are lance-shaped to ovate, measure 15 cm long by 8 cm wide and are arranged in pairs along the branches (Brooker & Kleinig 2004; Qld DERM 2010).
Up to seven white flowers are grouped into clusters. These clusters are found on laterally flattened stalks that reach up to 1 cm in length. The flower clusters arise from the junction between the leaf and the stem. Mature flower buds are egg-shaped, have a rounded or cone-shaped cap, measure up to 9 mm long by 4 mm wide and are without a stalk. The seed capsules are conical, with the pointed end joined to the stalk, have protruding valves and comprise of 3–4 chambers. The capsules are 5–8 mm long and 5–7 mm in diameter (Brooker & Kleinig 2004; Qld DERM 2010).
The Goodwood Gum is endemic to the coastal lowlands of Queensland. The species is found in scattered populations between Bundaberg and Maryborough (Qld DERM 2010).
In 1998, the species was thought to have an area of occurrence of approximately 1300 km² and an area of occupancy of 45 km² (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998).
A small number of populations are protected in Burrum Coast National Park (Woodgate, Kinkuna and Burrum River sections) (Qld DERM 2010a). The species is mostly found on freehold and vacant crown lands, with one population in State Forest 840 (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998; Queensland Herbarium 2008).
Goodwood Gum is found in open eucalypt forest or woodland in coastal areas on low, flat to undulating terrain with gentle slopes to broad rises (Chippendale 1988; Erskine 1992; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998). Soils preferred by the species are grey, sandy to silty in texture with an acidic reaction and derived from tertiary sedimentary rocks (Halford 1998). Also, a gleyed (waterlogged, often sticky and clay based) layer in the soil at a depth of between 35–60 cm is preferred. The altitudinal range of the species is between 7–70 m above sea level (Erskine 1992; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998). Much of this habitat has been cleared for agriculture and urban development.
The Goodwood Gum is often the dominant canopy tree, but does grow in association with a number of other tree species, notably White Mahogany (Eucalyptus latisinensis), Brown Bloodwood (Corymbia trachyphloia), Pink Bloodwood (Corymbia intermedia), Smooth-barked Apple (Angophora leiocarpa), Turpentine (Syncarpia glomulifera) and Broad-leaved Paperbark (Melaleuca quinquenervia) (Halford 1995l; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998; Queensland Herbarium 2008).
The Goodwood Gum flowers from December to February, however trees have been found with flower buds or fruits on them throughout the year (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998; Qld DERM 2010; Queensland Herbarium 2008). The species can sprout in the early stages of its life cycle from an underground lignotuber which is an underground swelling of the root crown containing buds and nutrients. It may also sprout from epicormic shoots which are dormant buds often found on old wood of trees. The species appears to become sexually reproductive when its girth exceeds 30 cm (Erskine 1992; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998). Juvenile trees can tolerate fire at 1–2 years of age (Erskine 1992; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998).
The species is garden cultivable and is tolerant of drought, poor drainage and infertile soils (SGAP Qld 2010).
The most common pollinators for Australian Myrtaceae, are insects. More specifically, anecdotal evidence (Erskine 1992) indicates native bees would be effective pollinators of the Goodwood Gum. Many tropical eucalypt species, like the Goodwood Gum, shed their seeds and drop their fruit after flowering. This is in contrast to southern species which may retain fruits for more than a year. No adaptation exists for secondary dispersal of eucalypt seeds by animals, with wind being the dispersal vector. Reasonable moisture and temperature conditions are all that is required for germination (Pryor & Johnson 1981; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998).
The Goodwood Gum may be confused with Bancroft's Red Gum (also known as Orange Gum) (E. bancroftii), which is another smooth bark species with a similar distribution. The Goodwood Gum can be distinguished from Bancroft's Red Gum by the former's ovoid buds with hemispherical or conical operculums ('lids' that cover the bud). In addition, the Goodwood Gum grows in comparatively drier and slightly more elevated sites than Bancroft's Red Gum (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998).
Sugarcane production, grazing by livestock, pine plantations, power line easements and housing development all threaten the habitat of the Goodwood Gum. Indeed, a large proportion of presently known populations of the species are estimated to be on land that may, in the future, be converted to agriculture (for example sugarcane), semi rural blocks or forestry. Conversion of the remaining populations' habitat to any of the aforementioned uses could be detrimental for the species, considering its naturally restricted distribution (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998).
Changes in soil hydrology, through irrigation or water drainage, may affect the ability of this species to colonise new areas or persist in known populations. This is likely due to a connection between the species' distribution and the level of soil waterlogging in the area (Erskine 1992; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998).
Some populations occur in areas of remnant vegetation (Qld EPA 2008a), as defined under the Queensland Vegetation Management Act 1999, and therefore have legislative protection from broad-scale clearing (Halford 1998).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Eucalyptus hallii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006it) [Internet].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Wood and Pulp Plantations:Habitat destruction due to forestry activities||Eucalyptus hallii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006it) [Internet].|
|Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to firewood collection||Eucalyptus hallii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006it) [Internet].|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Utility and Service Lines:Powerline easement maintenance and construction; mortality due to collision with powerlines|
Brooker, M.I.H. & D.A. Kleinig (2004). Field Guide to Eucalypts, vol. 3 (2nd edition). Melbourne: Bloomings Books.
Chippendale, G.M. (1988). Myrtaceae - Eucalyptus, Angophora. In: Flora of Australia. 19:1-540. Canberra: AGPS.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Erskine, P. (1992). The Ecology, Population Dynamics and reasons for the restricted distribution of the rare Eucalyptus hallii. Hons. Thesis. Department of Botany, University of Queensland.
Halford, D. (1995l). Eucalyptus hallii. Species Management Profile, Oct. 1995. Flora and Fauna Information System. 2. Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Brisbane.
Halford, D. (1998). Survey of Threatened Plant Species in South-East Queensland Biographical Region. [Online]. Brisbane: Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee. Available from: http://www.daff.gov.au/rfa/regions/qld/environment/threatened-plant.
Pryor, L.D. & L.A.S. Johnson (1981). Eucalyptus, the universal Australian. In: Keast, A, ed. Ecological Biogeography of Australia. 1. The Hague, Dr W. Junk Publishers.
Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee (1998). Survey of Threatened Plant Species in South East Queensland Biogeographical Region. [Online]. Available from: http://www.daff.gov.au/rfa/regions/qld/environment/threatened-plant.
Queensland Department of Environment and Resources Management (Qld DERM) (2010). Species information Eucalyptus hallii. [Online]. Available from: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/wetlandinfo/site/factsfigures/FloraAndFauna/Species/13905.html.
Queensland Department of Environment and Resources Management (Qld DERM) (2010a). Endangered Plants. [Online]. Available from: http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife-ecosystems/wildlife/threatened_plants_and_animals/endangered/endangered_plants/index.html.
Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA) (2008a). Copy of the certified Regional Ecosystem map for the purpose of the Vegetation Management Act 1999 Online RE maps. [Online]. Brisbane: Environmental Protection Agency. Available from: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/REMAP.
Queensland Herbarium (2008). Specimen label information. Viewed 26 June 2008.
Society for Growing Australian Plants, Queensland Region (SGAP Qld), (2010). Eucalyptus hallii - The Clayton's Grey Gum. [Online]. Available from: http://www.sgapqld.org.au/article32.html.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eucalyptus hallii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 2 Sep 2014 22:20:49 +1000.