In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia araneosa (Spidery Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afu) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Goats (Environment Australia (EA), 1999d) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Acacia araneosa |
|Reference||Contributions from the Herbarium Australiense 14 (23 Apr. 1976) 1, figs 1-4.|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Acacia araneosa
Common name: Spidery Wattle
Other common name: Balcanoona Wattle
Conventionally accepted as Acacia araneosa (CHAH 2010).
Spidery Wattle is a small, erect, wispy tree, 3–8 m high (Whibley & Symon 1992). The branchlets are slender, flexuose (bendy and winding), smooth and red-brown in colour. Leaves (known as phyllodes) are pendulous, thickly filiform (thread-like), 18–35 cm but sometimes up to 69 cm long, usually 1–2 mm wide, delicately narrowed at the apex, and most often smooth though sometimes with a scale-like texture on the surface (ABRS n.d.).
The inflorescences (flowerheads) are bunched along a stalk 7–10 mm long, with globular heads of 50–70 flowers, which are small, yellow and arranged in groups of five. Seed pods are linear, somewhat constricted between seeds, and approximately 14.5 cm long by 4–6 mm wide, smooth and leather or paper like in texture. Seeds are dull to slightly shiny, black and 4.5 mm long (ABRS n.d.).
Spidery Wattle is restricted to a small area of northern Flinders Ranges in South Australia. It is confined to Vulkathunha–Gammon Ranges National Park and the adjacent Arkaroola Sanctuary (Davies 1995b; TSSC 2008afu). The species has an estimated extent of occurrence of 8 km2 (Davies 1995b).
Spidery Wattle has a population of approximately 1000 individuals (Davies 1995b).
Spidery Wattle is known from Gammon Ranges National Park and Arkaroola Sanctuary (Davies 1995b). The species is also cultivated in the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide, South Australia (Leigh et al. 1984; Meredith & Richardson 1990).
Spidery Wattle grows on calcareous soil on hillsides and ridges. Associated vegetation is dry open woodland of Curly Mallee (Eucalyptus gillii) and Porcupine Grass (Triodia irritans) (Orchard & Wilson 2001; Whibley 1976; Whibley & Dashorst 1985; Whibley & Symon 1992). The soil is a crusty alkaline neutral red duplex. The annual rainfall average is about 200 mm (Whibley & Symon 1992).
Spidery Wattle flowers are produced irregularly throughout the year (Jessop & Toelken 1986; Leigh et al. 1984; Whibley & Dashorst 1985; Whibley & Symon 1992) whilst fruiting is recorded in October and November (Whibley 1976). The species often occurs in dense stands (Whibley & Dashorst 1985). Frequent juveniles have been observed at Arkaroola, which indicates healthy recruitment (Davies 1995b).
A reported hybrid of the Spidery Wattle with Silver Wattle (Acacia rivalis), occurs within the main population, near Nudlamutana Well (Orchard & Wilson 2001).
High mortality of adult plants and poor regeneration have been recorded, and this is likely the result of grazing (Davies 1990 in Davies 1995b). During drought, the impact of grazing and ringbarking is greater (Leigh et al. 1984).
Spidery Wattle was threatened by domestic livestock grazing in Gammon Ranges NP prior to the creation of the reserve (Leigh et al. 1984). After stock removal, the park was heavily impacted by feral Goats (Capra hircus) and Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (Baulderstone et al. 1999). Goat browsing is also reported at Arkaroola (Davies 1990 cited in Davies 1995b). Grazing is particularly severe south of Gammon Ranges NP near Munyallina Creek (Davies 1990 in Davies 1995b). The high number of goats in the area is demonstrated by the harvest of approximately 38 000 goats in the area between 1979 and 1987 (Davies 1990 in Davies 1995b).
At Gammon Ranges NP, Spidery Wattle increased from 3 to 49 individuals in a Rabbit and Goat proof enclosure and from 1 to 15 individuals where only rabbits had access. In five control plots where access was not restricted, a decrease from a total of 14 to 9 individuals occurred (Baulderstone et al. 1999). Goat control has been reported at Arkaroola (Davies 1990 cited in Davies 1995b).
Mining was previously a potential threat to the Spidery Wattle (Davies 1995b), but exploration leases in Arkaroola were cancelled in 2011 (Government of South Australia 2011). The rest of the population occurs in Gammon Ranges NP, therefore, mining is not an issue.
Refer to the Commonwealth Conservation Advice (TSSC 2010afu) for information on research priorities and recovery priority actions to mitigate threats including habitat loss, disturbance and modification, weeds and trampling. Raising awareness of the species and enabling recovery of additional populations are also encouraged in the Advice.
Management documents relevant to the Spidery Wattle include:
- Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Goats (EA 1999d)
- Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (EA 1999c)
- Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park Management Plan (SA DEH 2006k).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||Acacia araneosa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006w) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit)||Acacia araneosa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006w) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia araneosa (Spidery Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afu) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Capra hircus (Goat)||
Gammon Ranges National Park - Vegetation Monitoring, and Rare and Threatened Plant Species 1987 Page(s) 92. (Davies, R.J.P., 1990) [Book].
Acacia araneosa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006w) [Internet].
Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS) (no date). Flora of Australia Online. [Online]. ABRS. Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/.
Baulderstone, C.S., H. Owens, M.L. Possingham & H.P. Possingham (1999). Gammon Ranges National Park: Flora and Fauna Survey, and Vegetation Monitoring, 1993-1995. Adelaide: Nature Conservation Society of South Australia Inc.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Davies, R.J.P. (1995b). Threatened Plant Species Management in National Parks and Wildlife Act Reserves in South Australia. Athelstone, South Australia: Black Hill Flora Centre, Botanic Gardens of Adelaide.
Environment Australia (EA) (1999c). Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits. [Online]. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/rabbits08.html.
Environment Australia (EA) (1999d). Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Goats. [Online]. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/goats08.html.
Government of South Australia (2011). Arkaroola to be protected forever. [Online]. News release 22 July 2011. Premier Mike Rann, the Honourable Paul Ciaca, Minister for Environment and Conservation and the Honourable Tom Koutsantonis, Minister for Mineral Resources Development. Available from: http://www.savearkaroola.com.au/pdfs/ArkaroolaProtected_media_release_20110722.pdf.
Jessop, J.P. & H.R. Toelken, eds. (1986). Flora of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: SA Government Printing Division.
Leigh, J., R. Boden & J. Briggs (1984). Extinct and Endangered Plants of Australia. Melbourne, Victoria: Macmillan.
Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Orchard, A.E. & A.J.G. Wilson (eds) (2001). Flora of Australia, Volume 11A, Mimosaceae, Acacia Part 1.
South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2006k). Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park Management Plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/parks/pdfs/VULKAGAMN_MP.PDF.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008afu). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia araneosa (Spidery Wattle). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/20767-conservation-advice.pdf.
Whibley, D.J.E. (1976). Acacia araneosa (Fabaceae subfam. Mimosoideae), a new species from South Australia. Contributions from Herbarium Australiense. 14:1-7.
Whibley, D.J.E. & D.E. Symon (1992). Acacias of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbook Committee.
Whibley, D.J.E. & G.R.M. Dashorst (1985). Plant portraits - 17 Acacia araneosa. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens. 7(3):307-308.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Acacia araneosa in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 12 Mar 2014 12:32:09 +1100.