Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008abg) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia (Monkey Nut) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2012az) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Red Boppel Nut - profile (NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH), 2013) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013)
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): July 2012)
Scientific name Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia [21189]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author F.Muell.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Southern Science Record 3 (Feb. 1883) 33.
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images
http://www.anbg.gov.au/images/photo_cd/630930714180/082.html

Scientific name: Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia 

Common name: Monkey Nut

Other common names: Bopple Nut, Red Bopple, Red Bopple Nut, Red Nut, Beef Nut, Red Apple Nut, Red Boppel Nut, Ivory Silky Oak

The Monkey Nut is a small tree growing to 12 m high. The leaves are up to 100 cm long, comprised of 7–32 leaflets (or lobes) 14–40 cm long and 2.5–7 cm wide. The maroon flowers grow in clusters on a central stem 14–50 cm long. The red fleshy fruits are to 3–5 cm long (Theis 1976; Weston 1995).

The Monkey Nut occurs from the Gold Coast hinterland in south-east Queensland to the Bellinger and Nambucca valleys in north-east NSW (Floyd 1989; Harden 1991; Weston 1995a). Much of the original habitat of the species has been cleared and the known populations remain small in size and fragmented in terms of their distribution (Barry & Thomas 1994; Weston 1995a).

NSW

In NSW, the Monkey Nut was common prior to extensive clearing of the Big Scrub subtropical rainforest of the Richmond River valley. Records of populations include: Missabotti, Upper Bellinger River, Dorrigo National Park (NP), Buffer Creek, Never Never State Forest (SF), Kyogle, Terania Creek, Whian Whian SF, Boomerang Falls, Durroughby, Rosebank, Rotary Park, Alstonville, Billinudgel, Mooball, Chillingham and Murwillumbah (Floyd 1989). More recent records include Couchy Creek, Porters Road at Crystal Creek (Gray pers. comm. cited in NSW DECC 2006b) and on the edge of Hogan’s Scrub (Sinclair pers. comm. cited in NSW DECC 2006b).

Currently, the Monkey Nut is rare in the disjunct, southern part of its NSW range, with records consisting of a single roadside tree at Thora, a small number of trees in Dorrigo NP (Rosewood Creek) and several trees on private property at Missabotti. The southern-most occurrence is at Stickers Creek in Gladstone SF where a few relict trees occur in a eucalypt plantation established in 1969 (Floyd pers. comm. cited in NSW DECC 2006b).

The species is locally noticeable in the northern part of its NSW range, particularly on the rhyolitic soils in and around Nightcap NP, Goonengerry and Wilson’s Creek, and on the metasediments around Main Arm, Inner Pocket, Billinudgel and the Burringbar Range (NSW DECC 2006b).

Forty per cent of known records in northern NSW are along roadsides, with approximately 30% on private land and 30% within the protected area estate. Current records are skewed towards easily accessible roadsides and there are likely to be more populations on private land and protected areas (NSW DECC 2006b).

Queensland

In Queensland, the Monkey Nut it has been recorded from the upper reaches of Currumbin Creek, Tallebudgera Creek and Mudgeeraba Creek (Stanley & Ross 1986).

In Queensland, most records occur around Tallebudgera and Currumbin, with an isolated population occurring over 30 km to the north at Mount Tamborine. There are 49 records, including 24 from roadside surveys along Tallebudgera and Lyrebird Ridge roads in the Gold Coast Hinterland. No information is available with respect to population size or abundance in Queensland. As in NSW, the population is likely to be substantially larger than current records suggest (NSW DECC 2006b). The species was noted to be very common at a site in Currumbin Creek in 1997 (BRI collection records).

In 1994, five sites were identified and surveyed in the upper Tallebudgera-Mt Cougal area with a total population of about 40 individuals. Three of the sites contained populations of two to four plants in areas ranging from 0.02 to 1 ha. The fourth site in Mt Cougal section of Springbrook NP contained eight plants in an area about 0.05 ha. The remaining site (road reserve) contained at least 25 plants in an area about 0.05 ha. Casual sightings were also made of the species from vehicle traverses in the Upper Tallebudgera catchment area and the actual population size of this species was estimated at least an order of magnitude higher than that recorded in the survey (Barry & Thomas 1994).

The Monkey Nut occurs as an understorey tree in subtropical rainforest, regrowth rainforest, moist eucalypt forest and Brush Box forest (NSW OEH 2013). This species grows up to 500 m altitude, sometimes extending into nearby wet sclerophyll forest with closed understorey (Barry & Thomas 1994; Stanley & Ross 1986). It usually grows on flat to gently inclined valley flats to steeply inclined slopes and on hillcrests. The soils are mostly slightly acid loams or clay loams and derived from a range of substrates (Barry & Thomas 1994), particularly basalt derived soils (Weston 1995a).

The Monkey Nut flowers sporadically throughout the year, but mostly during August to October (Floyd 1989; Weston 1995a). Fruit ripens in September to January (Floyd 1989). Kernels are edible, but can yield hydrogen cyanide. Leaves also reported to be cyanogenic but no field cases of poisoning have been noted (Stanley & Ross 1986). After land-clearing it often regenerates prolifically by suckering from the base (Weston 1995a).

Populations of the Monkey Nut outside of reserves are potentially threatened by clearing associated with roadworks, agriculture and rural residential development (Barry & Thomas 1994). The impact of fire is not known, but anecdotal reports suggest that this species is intolerant to even low intensity fires (McDonald 2001 pers. comm.). Collection of seed for horticulture may also threaten the species. (NSW OEH 2013).

Weeds threaten Monkey Nut through direct competion and increased fuel loads (McDonald 2001 pers. comm.). Lantana (Lantana camara var. camara) is a particularly threatening, others that may be of concern include Blue Billygoat Weed (Ageratum houstonianum), Camphor Laurel (Cinnamomum camphora), Asparagus Fern (Asparagus plumosus), Canna (Canna indica), Silver-leaf Desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum), Wild Tobacco Tree (Solanum mauritianum), Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis), Smooth Senna (Senna septemtrionalis), Crofton Weed (Ageratina adenophora) and Mistflower (Ageratina riparia) (Barry & Thomas 1994).

Key actions for recovery include (NSW OEH 2013):

  • Protect rainforest, moist eucalypt forest and Brush Box forest from fire.
  • Control introduced weeds.
  • Protect remnant subtropical rainforest habitat.
  • Initiate and support projects to rehabilitate remnant habitat and regenerate rainforest.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008abg) [Conservation Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008abg) [Conservation Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008abg) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008abg) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008abg) [Conservation Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008abg) [Conservation Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008abg) [Conservation Advice].

Barry, S.J. & G.T. Thomas (1994). Threatened Vascular Rainforest Plants of South-east Queensland: A Conservation Review. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.

Floyd, A.G. (1989). Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia. Melbourne: Inkata Press.

Harden, G.J. (ed.) (1991). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

McDonald, W.J.F. (2001). Personal Communication.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2006b). Draft recovery plan for Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia Red Boppel Nut. Sydney: NSW DECC.

NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH) (2013). Red Boppel Nut - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspeciesapp/profile.aspx?id=10405.

Stanley, T.D. & E.M. Ross (1986). Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Volume Two. Brisbane, Queensland: Department of Primary Industries.

Theis, N. (1976). Hicksbeachia, a neglected native Australian nut. West Australian Nutgrowing Society Yearbook. 2:46-52.

Weston, P.H. (1995a). Hicksbeachia. In: Flora of Australia. 16:410-413. Melbourne: CSIRO.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 24 Apr 2014 04:32:39 +1000.