Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Small Two-coloured Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor) National Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2008p) [Recovery Plan] as Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Fitzgerald Biosphere Recovery Plan: A Landscape Approach to Threatened Species and Ecological Communities Recovery and Biodiversity Conservation (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2012) [Recovery Plan] as Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Esperance District (Craig, G.F. & D.J. Coates, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor
Scientific name Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor [21241]
Family Haemodoraceae:Liliales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author  
Infraspecies author (Benth.) Hopper
Reference Hopper, S.D in George, A.S. (Ed) (1987), Flora of Australia 45: 455 (123, Fig. 49, Map 131) [stat. nov.]
Other names Anigozanthos bicolor var. minor [66630]
Anigozanthos bicolor minor [67328]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/photo?f=055&level=s&id=12102

Scientific name: Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor

Common name: Little Kangaroo Paw

Other names: Two-coloured Kangaroo Paw, Small Two-coloured Kangaroo Paw

Conventionally accepted as Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor (CHAH 2010).

The Little Kangaroo Paw is a small rhizomatous herb with flattened leaves that are 5–10 cm long. A solitary flower is held on a scape (leafless stalk), 5–20 cm high. Both stem and flowers are hairy. Each plant has several scapes flowering together. Flowers have a green perianth (outer section), 30–45 mm long, and a red ovary. The perianth is strongly constricted above the middle and is 3–5 mm wide at the narrowest point (Brown et al. 1998; Hopper et al. 1990).

The Little Kangaroo Paw is known historically from thirteen well separated localities over a range of 290 km between the Fitzgerald River National Park, Lake King and Condingup, in the southern coastal region of Western Australia (Craig & Coates 2001; WA DEC 2008p). Many locations do not have herbarium specimens for verification (WA DEC 2008p), and many have not been disturbed for long periods. Some plants have not been resighted since their initial discovery and may only be represented in the seedbank (WA DEC 2008p).

The location and tenure of known Little Kangaroo Paw populations are (WA DEC 2008p):

Population number and location District Tenure Year Number of plants Threats
1. Condingup Esperance Recreation area 1982
1999
2003
1
700–800
0
Lack of disturbance, inappropriate fire regimes, grazing by kangaroos (Macropus spp.) and the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
2. North of Cascades Esperance Vacant Crown Land 1983
2003
5000+
0
Lack of disturbance, inappropriate fire regimes
3. Dalyup (Population not confirmed) Esperance Nature Reserve 1988
1999
0
0
Lack of disturbance, inappropriate fire regimes
4. North-east of Gibson Esperance Private Property 1987
1999
40
0
Extinct (location cleared for farmland)
5. Fitzgerald (Population not confirmed) Albany Road reserve 1967
1999
Unknown
0
Lack of disturbance, inappropriate fire regimes
6. Twertup (Population not confirmed) Albany National Park 1967
1999
Unknown
0
Lack of disturbance, inappropriate fire regimes
7. Jerdacuttup -Stokes Inlet (Population not confirmed) Esperance National Park 1999 0 Lack of disturbance, inappropriate fire regimes
8. North-east of Gibson Esperance Road reserve 1963
1999
2004
Herbarium record
2
0
Lack of disturbance, inappropriate fire regimes, road maintenance, salinity, weeds
9. North west of Ravensthorpe (Population not confirmed) Albany Road reserve 1999 0 Lack of disturbance, inappropriate fire regimes, road maintenance
10. Pallarup Great Southern   1935
1999
Herbarium record
0
Lack of disturbance, inappropriate fire regimes
11.West of Hopetoun (Population not confirmed) Albany Private Property     Lack of disturbance, inappropriate fire regimes
12a. North west of Ravensthorpe (Population not confirmed) Albany Private Property 1987 0 Lack of disturbance, inappropriate fire regimes
12b. North west of Ravensthorpe (Population not confirmed) Albany Private Property 1987 4 Lack of disturbance, inappropriate fire regimes
13. West of Hopetoun Esperance Nature Reserve 2004 160 Lack of disturbance, inappropriate fire regimes
14. West of Hopetoun Esperance Nature Reserve 2004 67 Lack of disturbance, inappropriate fire regimes

The Little Kangaroo Paw prefers moist sandy soil in heath communities, however it has also been found in shallow soil near granite outcrops. A record of the species occurs for a wet, gravely clay site in which the plants were standing in water (Venning 1971). Associated native plants include Adenanthos sp., Allocasuarina sp., Showy Banksia (Banksia speciosa), Pincushions (Borya sphaerocephala), Calothamnus sp., Calytrix spp., Chamelaucium sp., Conostylis petrophiloides, Common Donkey Orchid (Diuris laxiflora), White Marlock (Eucalyptus x tetragona), Yellow Mallee (Eucalyptus incrassata), Fine-leaved mallee (E. perangusta), Leptospermum sp., Lysinema sp., Patersonia sp., Verticordia sp. and Thryptomene sp. (WA DEC 2008p).

The Little Kangaroo Paw is a short-lived post-disturbance opportunist (i.e. germinates post-fire) (Craig & Coates 2001). Germination for the species is stimulated by summer fire however, fire at other times may not stimulate germination (WA DEC 2008p).

Flowering occurs from mid July, with the peak in September, and may continue until early December (Hopper et al. 1990; Hopper 1993; Venning 1971). Whilst the species can flower without a disturbance trigger, flowering is noted as most prolific after fire (Brown et al. 1998; Dixon 1991). The subspecies readily hybridises with the Red and Green Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos manglesii) and the Green Kangaroo Paw (A. viridis) and occasionally with Cat's Paw (A. humilis) (Dixon 1991).

All species of Anigozanthos have hermaphroditic (both male and female) flowers. The plants are commonly pollinated by bird species, however small mammals and honey bees may also assist in pollination. Yellow-throated Miners (Manorina flavigula) and honeyeaters have been seen feeding on the nectar of the Little Kangaroo Paw at Condingup Peak (WA DEC 2008p).

The Little Kangaroo Paw is susceptible to fungal diseases such as ink-spot (Alternaria alternata) and rust (WA DEC 2008p).

The Little Kangaroo Paw has similar flowers to the Red and Green Kangaroo Paw and the Dwarf Kangaroo Paw (A. gabrielae). However, the Little Kangaroo Paw flowers are smaller and more slender than those of the Red and Green Kangaroo Paw, with smaller anthers (2–6 mm long) on longer filaments (1.5–7.5 mm) (Hopper 1993). Flowers of the Little Kangaroo Paw are larger than those of the Dwarf Kangaroo Paw and the perianth is curved rather than straight (WA DEC 2008p).

There are four recognised subspecies of Anigozanthos bicolor; A. b. bicolor, A. b. exstans, A. b. decrescens and A. b. minor. A distinguishing feature is the distribution of the Little Kangaroo Paw, which is disjunct from all other subspecies, occurring much further south-east. The strong constriction of the perianth also distinguishes the Little Kangaroo Paw from other subspecies except A. bicolor subsp. decrescens. The Little Kangaroo Paw differs from Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. decrescens in its shorter leaves (5–10 cm long compared to 10–25 cm long), shorter stems (5–20 cm compared to 10–45 cm), smaller perianth (30–45 mm long compared to 45–65 mm long) and ovary hair colour (red compared to purple-red) (Brown et al. 1998; Hopper 1987, 1993; Craig & Coates 1994 cited in WA DEC 2008p).

The Little Kangaroo Paw is threatened by (WA DEC 2008p):

  • inappropriate disturbance and fire regimes
  • habitat fragmentation and loss of remnants
  • inappropriate slashing or road maintenance works
  • grazing and trampling by the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), kangaroos (Macropus spp.) and livestock
  • altered hydrology causing salinity
  • weeds.

Management documents relevant to the Little Kangaroo Paw can be found at the start of the profile. Other relevant plans include the South Coast Threatened Species and Ecological Communities Strategic Management Plan (Gilfillan et al. 2009) and the Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Esperance District (Craig & Coates 2001) management plan.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Small Two-coloured Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor) National Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2008p) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Small Two-coloured Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor) National Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2008p) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Inappropriate disturbance regimes Small Two-coloured Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor) National Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2008p) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Small Two-coloured Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor) National Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2008p) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Small Two-coloured Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor) National Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2008p) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minorin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006aw) [Internet].
Small Two-coloured Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor) National Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2008p) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity Small Two-coloured Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor) National Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2008p) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Stress caused by rising water tables Small Two-coloured Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor) National Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2008p) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Small Two-coloured Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor) National Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2008p) [Recovery Plan].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Craig, G.F. & D.J. Coates (2001). Declared rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Esperance District. [Online]. WA CALM. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

Dixon, B. (1991). Kangaroo Paw-The wild species, description, propagation and cultivation. Australian plants. 16(126):77-86. Society for Growing Australian Plants (SGAP).

Gilfillan, S., P. Mitchell, J. Newell, A. Danks & S. Comer (2009). South Coast Threatened Species and Ecological Communities Strategic Management Plan. [Online]. Albany: Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.conservation.wa.gov.au/media/14355/ref%207%20gilfillian_etal_2009_scregionaltsplan.pdf.

Hopper, S.D. (1987). Anigozanthos. In: Flora of Australia. 45:112-126.

Hopper, S.D. (1993). Kangaroo Paws and Catspaws. CALM.

Hopper, S.D., S. van Leeuwen, A.P. Brown & S.J. Patrick (1990). Western Australia's Endangered Flora and other plants under consideration for declaration. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Consrvation and Land Management.

Venning, H.C. (1971). Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor. Australian Plants. 6:64, 76. Society for Growing Australian Plants.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2008p). Small Two-coloured Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor) National Recovery Plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/223-anigozanthos-bicolor/index.html.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 31 Jul 2014 13:40:36 +1000.