In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable as Pomaderris halmaturina subsp. halmaturina|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Recovery plan for nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island South Australia (Taylor, D.A., 2012) [Recovery Plan] as Pomaderris halmaturina subsp. halmaturina.
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Pomaderris halmaturina subsp. halmaturina.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Pomaderris halmaturina subsp. halmaturina |
|Reference||Walsh, N.G. (1990) The Pomaderris oraria F.Muell. complex in Australia. Muelleria 7(2): 280-282, figs. 6, 9 (map) Y [autonym]|
|Other names||Pomaderris halmaturina halmaturina |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Pomaderris halmaturina subsp. halmaturina
Common name: Kangaroo Island Pomaderris
This subspecies is conventionally accepted as Pomaderris halmaturina subsp. halmaturina (CHAH 2012).
The Kangaroo Island Pomaderris is an erect to spreading shrub, growing up to 4 m high (Davies 1986). The species has large lance-shaped, wrinkled leaves that are dark green above. The underside of the leaves are whitish to brown and covered with soft hairs. Flowers are small, cream coloured and turn pink when old. The flower head is erect with racemes from the leaf bases as well as along the branch (Galbraith 1977; SA DEH 2004b).
This subspecies is endemic to South Australia. It is found on Kangaroo Island where it is restricted to four subpopulations on the Dudley Peninsula and one subpopulation on the Cygnet River floodplain. It also occurs on the South Australian mainland near Carpenter Rocks, 36 kms south-west of Mt Gambier, in remnant subpopulations north of Donovans (formerly Donovan's Landing), 30 km south-east of Mt Gambier, in the McEacherns (now part of the Dry Creek Nature Forest Reserve) and Honan and Snow Gum Forest Reserves (Davies 1992; Jusaitis 1993; Taylor 2008; Walsh 1990b).
The subpopulations on Kangaroo Island have a total extent of occurrence of 468 km2 (Taylor 2008). The extent of occurrence of mainland populations is unknown.
Identified important subpopulations on Kangaroo Island include (Taylor 2008):
|Location||No. of plants||Area of occupancy (km2)|
|Upper Willsons River||1058||9.9|
Cape Willoughby Road
and Lashmar Conservation Park
|Lower Willsons River||147||6.1|
|Cape Willoughby Road||1||0.9|
As the subspecies occurs in only a few fragmented, small populations on the mainland, all mainland populations are considered important for the long-term survival of the species.
Walsh (1990b) describes a specimen from Kelly Hill Conservation Park on Kangaroo Island as a possible intermediate between the Kangaroo Island Pomaderris and the Mallee Pomaderris (Pomaderris paniculosa subsp. paniculosa).
The Kangaroo Island Pomaderris is reserved in (Briggs & Leigh 1996; Davies 1992; Forestry SA 1999, 2005, 2007; Jusaitis 1993; Nature Foundation SA 2010; SA DEH 2004b):
Mainland South Australia
- Snow Gum Forest Reserve
- McEacherns Forest Reserve
- Honans Forest Reserve
- Carpenter Rocks Conservation Park
- Lesueur Conservation Park (formerly Cape Hart Conservation Park)
- Lashmar Conservation Park
- Cygnet Park Sanctuary
The Kangaroo Island Pomaderris typically grows in estuarine or riparian vegetation (Jessop & Toelken 1986; Jusaitis 1993; Taylor 2008; Walsh 1990b) or on slopes and plateaus overlooking river valleys (Jusaitis 1993).
The species has been identified in six main vegetation types on Kangaroo Island (Davies 1986; Jusaitis 1993):
- Yellow Gum (Eucalyptus leucoxylon) woodland and open woodland, with Pink Gum (E. fasciculosa) and/or White Mallee (E. cneorifolia) as codominants, with an understorey of Kangaroo Thorn (Acacia paradoxa), Blackthorn (Bursaria spinosa), Hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa), Native Currant (Acrotriche depressa), Scented Groundsel (Senecio odoratus) and Pimelea spp..
- White Mallee open forest, low open forest, woodland and open scrub with Pink Gum as an occasional codominant with an understorey of Kangaroo Thorn, Blackthorn and Hopbush.
- Coast Gum (Eucalyptus diversifolia) open forest and low woodland with Yellow Gum as a codominant with an understorey of Kangaroo Thorn, Blackthorn and Hopbush.
- Sugar Gum (Eucalyptus cladocalyx) and Red Gum (E. camaldulensis) woodland.
- Moonah (Melaleuca lanceolata) open scrub and Blackthorn tall shrubland; the understorey associated with this vegetation type typically includes Kangaroo Thorn and Morning Flag (Orthrosanthus multiflorus).
- Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha) and Coast Bitterbush (Adriana klotzschii) open scrub to tall shrubland; the dominant understorey species associated with this vegetation type included Correa sp., Lasiopetalum schultzenii and Morning Flag.
On Kangaroo Island, roadside vegetation associated with the Kangaroo Island Pomaderris included (Jusaitis 1993):
- Open to tall shrubland with Acacia leiophylla, Coast Bitterbush, Rough Guinea Flower (Hibbertia aspera), Morning Flag and Pimelea stricta.
- Tall shrubland with White Mallee, Lasiopetalum schulzenii, Golden Wattle, A. leiophylla, Mat Heath Myrtle (Thryptomene ericaea), Common Correa (Correa reflexa), Morning Flag, Cherry Ballart (Exocarpos cupressiformis), Billardiera spp., Pimelea stricta, and Rough Guinea Flower.
- Shrubland-low woodland with Coast Bitterbush, White Mallee, and Acacia spp..
Associated vegetation at mainland sites includes (Davies 1992):
- Brown Stringybark (E. baxteri) open forest or Swamp Gum (E. ovata) low woodland with Coastal Beard-heath (Leucopogon parviflorus), Lance Beard-heath (L. lanceolatus), Blackwood Wattle (A. melanoxylon), Austral Bracken (Pteridium esculentum), Coastal Wattle (A. sophorae), Lasiopetalum schulzenii, Paper Flower (Thomasia petalocalyx) and Moonah.
The species is recorded on a wide variety of soil types, ranging from silty clay and clayey sands, sandy loam and fine sandy loams to shallow red-brown sandy soils with calcrete intrusions (Jusaitis 1993). Soils in which this species grow generally have a pH in the range of 4.9—9.0 (Davies 1986; Jusaitis 1993).
The mean annual rainfall in the vicinity of known populations on Kangaroo Island ranges from 485 mm at Kingscote to 543 mm at Cape Willoughby. The mean annual maximum and minimum temperatures at Cape Willoughby are 17.8 °C and 12.6 °C respectively (Mooney & Grinter 2000, cited in Taylor 2008).
Flowers are mainly borne from September to November (Davies 1986; Jessop & Toelken 1986; Jusaitis 1993), although flowering has been recorded as late as January (Davies 1986). Seeds ripen during early summer (Jusaitis 1993).
Jusaitis (1993) found that the species exhibits a high degree of resilience to disturbance involving damage to the upper foliage. No research has been conducted to determine the impact of fire on subpopulations of the Kangaroo Island Pomaderris (Taylor 2008).
Utilising the known habitat and heterospecific associations, presence/absence surveys for the Kangaroo Island Pomaderris should be targeted to these areas where the subspecies is most likely to occur.
Quadrats should be sized and numbered in a way that is appropriate for the vegetation type. The survey group should also include persons who are experienced in identification of plant species, including the Kangaroo Island Pomaderris.
Although the subspecies is conspicuous throughout the year due to its size, surveys are ideally carried out between September to November, when the plant is flowering.
The Australian Government 'Yellow Book' Field Survey for Vegetation classification 2008 (Hnatiuk et al. 2008) provides general guidance on the design and execution of vegetation surveys.
The main identified threats to the Kangaroo Island Pomaderris are (Davies 1986, 1992; Jusaitis 1993; Kueh et al. 2012; Neagle 2002; SA DEH 2010a):
- Invasion of exotic species, particularly grasses such as Phalaris (Phalaris aquatica) and Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides).
- Road maintenance activities including the accidental introduction of the root rot fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi.
- Visitor trampling and potentially off-road vehicle activities at mainland sites.
- Inappropriate fire management.
- Stock grazing of populations on private land.
- Dieback, possibly due to increased salinity in riverbank and floodplain populations.
Documents relevant to the management of the Kangaroo Island Pomaderris can be found at the start of this profile. Other documents that are relevant to the management of the subspecies include:
- The Bungandijt Native Forest Reserves Management Plan (ForestrySA 1999).
- The Snow Gum Native Forest Reserve Draft Revised Management Plan (ForestrySA 2007) and the Honan Native Forest Reserve Draft Revised Management Plan.
- The Mt Burr Forest Management Plan (ForestrySA 2010).
- The Bridal creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) Management Strategy for Kangaroo Island
2006—2010 (Wilson 2010).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Sea level rise:Inundation associated with climate change||Pomaderris halmaturina subsp. halmaturinain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006tz) [Internet].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use||Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking||Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Asparagus asparagoides (Bridal Creeper, Bridal Veil Creeper, Smilax, Florist's Smilax, Smilax Asparagus)||Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity||Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers||Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads||Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].|
Briggs, J.D. & J.H. Leigh (1996). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants - Revised Edition. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Davies, R.J.P. (1986). Threatened Plant Species of the Mt Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island Regions of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.
Davies, R.J.P. (1992). Threatened Plants of the Murray Mallee, Mt Lofty Range and Kangaroo Island Region of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.
Department of the Environment (2014a). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/threat-abatement-plan-disease-natural-ecosystems-caused-phytophthora-cinnamomi.
ForestrySA (1999). Bungandijt Native Forest Reserves Management Plan- final December 1999. [Online]. Available from: http://www.forestry.sa.gov.au/Portals/0/Publications/NFRMgtPlans/GT/NFR001_Bunganditj.pdf.
ForestrySA (2005). Honan Native Forest Reserve Revised Management Plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.forestry.sa.gov.au/Portals/0/Publications/NFRMgtPlans/GT/NFR005_Honan.pdf.
ForestrySA (2007). Snow Gum Native Forest Reserve Draft Revised Management Plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.forestry.sa.gov.au/Portals/0/Publications/NFRMgtPlans/GT/NFR016_SnowGum.pdf.
ForestrySA (2010). The Mt Burr Forest Management Plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.forestry.sa.gov.au/Portals/0/Publications/ForestMgtPlans/NFR029_Mt_Burr_Forest_Management_Plan.pdf.
Galbraith, J. (1977). Collins Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of South-east Australia. Sydney; Collins.
Hnatiuk, R., R. Thackaway & J. Walker (2008). Field survey for vegetation classification. [Online]. Available from: http://adl.brs.gov.au/brsShop/data/old_yellowbook.pdf.
Jessop, J.P. & H.R. Toelken, eds. (1986). Flora of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: SA Government Printing Division.
Jusaitis, M. (1993). Conservation Studies on four endangered plants from Kangaroo Island, SA. Adelaide; SA DELM.
Kueh, K.H., S.F. McKay, E. Facelli, J.M. Facelli, R.M.A. Velzeboer, A.J. Able & E.S. Scott (2012). Response of selected South Australian native plant species to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Plant Pathology. [Online]. Early View. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2012.02593.x/full.
Nature Foundation SA (2010). Cygnet Park Sanctuary, a model of ecological recovery. Nature Matters. Winter. [Online]. Available from: http://www.naturefoundation.org.au/publications/newsletters/2010/NL-Winter10.pdf.
Neagle, N. (2002). National Land and Water Resources Audit: Conservation Strategy Case Study: Kangaroo Island Subregion, South Australia. Adelaide: National Parks and Wildlife South Australia, Department for Environment and Heritage.
South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2004b). Threatened Flora on Kangaroo Island - Pomaderris halmaturina subsp. halmaturina. Page(s) 1. [Online]. South Australian Government. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/biodiversity/pdfs/ki_pomaderris.pdf.
South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2010a). Threatened Flora of South Australia Fact Sheet - Threatened Flora on Kangaroo Island. Vulnerable Kangaroo Island Pomaderris Pomaderris halmaturina spp. halmaturina. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/biodiversity/pdfs/ki_pomaderris.pdf.
Taylor, D.A. (2008). Draft Recovery Plan for 15 Nationally Threatened Plant Species, Kangaroo Island, South Australia, second edition 2003-2013. [Online]. Department for Environment and Heritage, Government of South Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/Plants_Animals/Threatened_species_ecological_communities/Recovery_planning/Plans_for_threatened_plants_in_SA.
Walsh, N.G. (1990b). The Pomaderris oraria F.Muell. complex in Australia. Muelleria. 7(2):267-287.
Wilson, C.G. (2006). The Bridal creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) Management Strategy for Kangaroo Island 2006-2010. [Online]. Prepared for the Kangaroo Island Asparagus Weeds Committee. Available from: http://www.weeds.org.au/WoNS/bridalcreeper/docs/BridalCreeperManagementStrategyKI.pdf.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Pomaderris halmaturina subsp. halmaturina in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 24 Sep 2014 16:03:50 +1000.