In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable as Gastrolobium lehmannii|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Gastrolobium lehmannii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006df) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gastrolobium lehmannii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008za) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008adh) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Nemcia lehmannii.
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (44) (14/8/2006) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2006h) [Legislative Instrument] as Gastrolobium lehmannii.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Gastrolobium lehmannii.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Gastrolobium lehmannii |
|Reference||Plantae Preissianae 1: 70 (19-21 Sep. 1844).|
|Other names||Nemcia lehmannii |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Gastrolobium lehmannii Meisn. (1844)
Common name: Cranbrook Pea (Brown et al. 1998)
This species was originally described by Meissner (1844) as Gastrolobium lehmannii Meisn. The species name Nemcia lehmannii (Meisn.) Crisp was published by Crisp (1987) but the species was later returned to Gastrolobium lehmannii by Chandler (et al. 2002).
The Cranbrook Pea is an erect, domed shrub, growing to 1.5 m high with soft hairy branches and oblong leaves. The pea flowers are orange, yellow and red (Brown et al. 1998; WA Herbarium 2005).
The Cranbrook Pea was first collected by J. Drummond in 1841 from the interior of Western Australia and later by C.A. Gardner in 1918 between Cranbrook and the Stirling Ranges (Hopper et al. 1990) and from the Blackwood River (Brown et al. 1998).
This species was presumed to be extinct. However, a population of about 90 plants was rediscovered in 1994 near Cranbrook, at the western end of the Stirling Ranges (Chandler et al. 2002).
The species is endemic to Western Australia and is currently known from six populations near Tunney, approximately 120 km north-west of Albany (CALM 2005).
The extent of occurrence for the Cranbrook Pea is approximately 300 km². There are no data to indicate a decline in the extent of occurrence since the species was rediscovered (CALM 2005).
The current area of occupancy of the Cranbrook Pea is 0.08935 km². There are no data to indicate a decline in the area of occupancy (CALM 2005).
The known populations of the Cranbrook Pea occur in a very fragmented area. Much of the Western Australian Wheatbelt has been cleared for agriculture and some of the Cranbrook Pea populations occur on roadside verges (CALM 2005).
Reports of surveys and the current known distribution of the Cranbrook Pea (CALM 2005):
A CALM Regional Herbarium Volunteer initially found a population in September 1994 and re-collected in September 2000. However, the specimen was not properly identified as Gastrolobium lehmannii until determined by Mike Crisp in 2001.
During a property visit in November 2000, a Bushcare Support Officer noticed plants that she believed may be the presumed extinct Cranbrook Pea. A CALM Conservation Officer subsequently sent a specimen to Mike Crisp for identification and it was confirmed to be the Cranbrook Pea.
A CALM officer then found a small road verge population while driving along Tunney Hall Road, Tunney (February 2001).
A small population was brought to a CALM officer's attention in April 2001 by a landowner that had recognized the plants from an article/photograph in the local paper about the rediscovery of the species.
A CALM Conservation Officer located a large population in August 2001 in a shire gravel reserve.
An employee from Nindethana Seed noticed a plant he believed to be Cranbrook Pea while driving along Yonka Road in January 2002.
A number of CALM officers opportunistically visited three sites in the Tunney area in February 2001 to look in suitable areas of remnant vegetation for Cranbrook Pea without any success.
The total population size for the Cranbrook Pea has been recorded as 1622 (CALM 2005).
The Cranbrook Pea is known from six separate populations (as of 12/02/02), which could be considered subpopulations under IUCN criteria. Several of these populations can be further separated into smaller populations due to geographic separation and differences in land tenure. Three populations occur on private property and one occurs in a shire gravel reserve (CALM 2005).
Prior to its rediscovery in 1994, the Cranbrook Pea had not been collected in the wild since 1918. The majority of known populations consist of an extensive number of young plants that have recently matured. The number of new seedlings in the known populations is currently low, though the implications of this are unknown (CALM 2005).
It has been observed that there has not been an abundance of deaths, recent or old, which would suggest a natural aging process/senescence/succession. The current age structure amongst the known populations indicates that they are viable as they consist primarily of recently matured individuals (CALM 2005).
The Cranbrook Pea occurs in red and brown loam and gravel, which is common to all six populations. Three of the six populations occur on sloping topography, while the remaining two occur on a breakaway and hilltop. All known populations occur in low open woodland scrub (CALM 2005). The population is known to occur in low woodland of Eucalyptus marginata and E. falcata with Hakea lissocarpha, Austrostipa sp. and Austrodanthonia sp. (Chandler et al. 2002).
Associated species include Eucalyptus marginata, E. wandoo, E. falcata, E. decipens, Allocasuarina humilis, Dryandra sessilis, D. armata, D. drummondii, Acacia applanta, A. varia, Hakea lissocarpha, Hovea chorizemifolia, Pultenaea verruculosa, Bossiaea ornate, Xanthorrhoea preissii and Dianella revoluta (CALM 2005; WA Herbarium 2005).
The flowering period for the Cranbrook Pea is September to October. Little is known about the levels of flower and fruit production, pollination mechanisms or the requirements for flower and seed production. It has been noted that flowering time varies between populations, with many fruits aborting part way through development in some seasons. There are usually two seeds per fruit, but commonly only one seed is fertile while the other is small and shrivelled (CALM 2005; Chandler et al. 2002). Fruiting usually occurs in November to December (Chandler et al. 2002).
The leaves of this species are similar to G. crenulatum but the latter differs in having leaves in whorls of three or four, glabrous or glabrescent and with conspicuously crenulate margins (Chandler et al. 2002).
Any additional survey of Cranbrook Pea should be focused on similar soil and vegetation types that include roadside verges, remnant habitat and private property. However, survey efforts to date in similar soil and vegetation types have failed to locate additional populations (CALM 2005).
Threats to the Cranbrook Pea (CALM 2005) are listed below;
|1||Land Clearing||Rabbits, Possibly power-line maintenance||Habitat loss/climate change|
|2||Land Clearing||Road Maintenance disturbance, Rabbits||Habitat loss/climate change|
|3||Land Clearing||Road Maintenance disturbance||Habitat loss/climate change|
|4||Land Clearing||Fire from burning of adjacent rubbish tip||Habitat loss/climate change|
|5||Land Clearing||Disease, Possibly gravel extraction||Habitat loss/climate change|
|6||Land Clearing||Road Maintenance disturbance, Disease, Weeds, Grazing by stock moved along the road||Habitat loss/climate change|
The main current threats to the Cranbrook Pea are fire, habitat loss, road maintenance, weeds, disease and grazing. The species occupies a fire prone habitat, however regeneration after fire has been poor. The species occurs in a number of roadside verges and is therefore subject to potential disturbance and habitat loss. Weeds were noted at population 6 and a sooty black fungal disease was noted at populations 5 and 6 although the long-term impact of this on the population is unknown (CALM 2005).
Given that populations 2, 3a and 6 occur within road verges, population 1, 3b and 4 occur on private property and populations 5a and 5b are in a shire gravel reserve, and in light of the above described threats, the future of the Cranbrook Pea appears uncertain (CALM 2005).
Current threat abatement and recovery actions include;
- Notifying all land managers who have populations of this species on their property of their legislative responsibilities to protect the Cranbrook Pea. Legislative protection under the Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 and clearing provisions under the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1986 provide legal protection from clearing and other human physical disturbance to the plants and population sites,
- Fencing populations 1, 4, 5a and b to exclude grazing by stock,
- Errecting Rare Flora markers at populations 2 and 6 to notify road workers of the presence of the plants,
- A small amount of seed material was collected from population 2 during 2003 and this is currently stored at the West Australia Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC 2005).
Future recovery actions are recommended to secure the survival of this species into the future. These include;
- Weed control for wild oats at population 6,
- Investigation of the black soot mould on plants at population 5 and 6,
- Liaison with shire staff to ensure that road maintenance activities do not impact on populations 2, 3a and 6 and gravel extraction does not impact on population 5a and b,
- Possible rabbit control at populations 1 and 2,
- Liaison with private property owners to ensure that the remnant bushland containing populations 1, 3 and 4 are managed for the conservation of this species (CALM 2005).
The Cranbrook Pea is mentioned in the CALM publications; Declared Rare Flora in the Katanning District and in the West Australian Wildlife Management Program No 25 (2000). However, these documents were produced at the time when this species was considered extinct. There is little documentation on the recovery and conservation of this species (Graham & Mitchell 2000).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Gastrolobium lehmannii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006df) [Listing Advice].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Gastrolobium lehmannii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006df) [Listing Advice].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Gastrolobium lehmannii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006df) [Listing Advice].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gastrolobium lehmannii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008za) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gastrolobium lehmannii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008za) [Conservation Advice].|
|Protected status:Protected status:Lack of secure conservation land tenure|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gastrolobium lehmannii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008za) [Conservation Advice].|
Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Chandler, G.T., M.D. Crisp, L.W. Cayzer & R.J. Bayer (2002). Monograph of Gastrolobium (Fabaceae: Mirbelieae). Australian Systematic Botany. 15(5):619-739. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.
Crisp, M. (1987). Advances in Legume Systematics.:619-739.
Graham, M. & M. Mitchell (2000). Declared Rare Flora in the Katanning District. [Online]. Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.
Hopper, S.D., S. van Leeuwen, A.P. Brown & S.J. Patrick (1990). Western Australia's Endangered Flora and other plants under consideration for declaration. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Consrvation and Land Management.
IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1. IUCN, Gland Switzerland.
Meissner (1844). Plantae Preissianae.:70.
Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC) (2005). Records held in the Department of Conservation and Land Management's Threatened Flora Seed Centre database. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2005). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and Rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.
Western Australian Herbarium (2005). FloraBase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Gastrolobium lehmannii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 18 Sep 2014 08:50:56 +1000.