In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum goldsackii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2006ei) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Prasophyllum goldsackii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008yo) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (48) (10/11/2006) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2006b) [Legislative Instrument].
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Prasophyllum goldsackii |
|Species author||J.Weber & R.Bates|
|Reference||Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 1 (6 Jun. 1978) 167, fig. 1.|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Prasophyllum goldsackii
Common name: Goldsack's Leek-orchid
Other common names: Quaint Leek-Orchid
Goldsack's Leek-orchid is a conventionally accepted species, and there is currently no disagreement over its taxonomy. A variety, Prasophyllum goldsackii var. aenigmum, which has not been formally described but is listed in the recent Census of South Australian Vascular Plants as P. sp. Enigma, may be a separate species (Barker et al. 2005). This variety extends through the range of Goldsack's Leek-orchid and occurs in the Southern Mount Lofty Ranges (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2006ei). It can be distinguished from Goldsack's Leek-orchid on floral characteristics.
Goldsack's Leek-orchid is a small, slender terrestrial orchid that grows 1030 cm high (Weber & Bates 1978). It has a single, limp leaf that is coloured red or green at its base (Bates & Weber 1990). The flowers are green with dark purple edges and tips, and arranged in loose groups of 512 flowers (Weber & Bates 1978). The leaf and stem (scape) are glabrous (without hairs), and arise from a glabrous tuber. The base of the stem is enclosed in fibrous sheaths. The leaf is green, slender (24 mm) and long (100300 mm), often being longer than the raceme (flower-bearing stem) (200300 mm) (Weber & Bates 1978).
The flowers occur on small stalks (4080 mm long) emerging from the unbranched stem (Jones 2006). Like other orchids, Goldsack's Leek-orchid has three sepals and two regular petals, and a third, greatly modified petal known as a labellum or lip (Jones 2006). The sepals are modified leaves that usually function as protection for the petals while in bud stage. In this species they are green-purple to very dark-brown (Bates & Weber 1990). The dorsal (upper) sepal is ovate 45 mm long by 22.5 mm wide, and forms a protective hood over the inner parts of the flower (Jones 2006). It has an acute tip and is green grading to purple at the apex (Weber & Bates 1978). The lateral (side) sepals are broad-lanceolate 45 mm long by 1.5 mm wide (Jones 2006), and are green with a purple central stripe and apex (Weber & Bates 1978). The petals are much shorter than the sepals and are green with purple edges hanging free, 33.5 mm long by 1.5 mm wide (Jones 2006). The labellum is triangular, recurved and green with pale-prune coloured edges and a free apex, 44.5 mm long by 1.52 mm wide. The callus plate, a fleshy, ridged plate-like structure found on the labellum, is greenish to brown or purple ending with two prominent ridges (Bates & Weber 1990; Jones 2006). Flowers rarely open, perhaps only during hot weather, and may appear withered (Weber & Bates 1978).
Goldsack's Leek-orchid is endemic to South Australia, found only on the Yorke Peninsula and the lower Eyre Peninsula at altitudes of 20150 m above sea level (Jones 2006). It occurs in four general locations, two on the Eyre Peninsula (in the south-western to central part of the peninsula and within 50 km of Port Lincoln in the southern part of the peninsula) and two on Yorke Peninsula (the southern tip of the peninsula and near the townships of Minlaton, Maitland and Moonta in the central to northern part of the peninsula) (Adelaide Herbarium 2005). This distribution corresponds to the Eyre Peninsula, Northern Yorke, Agricultural Districts Natural Resource Management (NRM) regions and the Eyre Yorke Block Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia (IBRA) region.
The extent of occurrence of Goldsack's Leek-orchid is disjunct on the two peninsulas. The current extent of occurrence is estimated to be 5250 km², with 3000 km² on Eyre Peninsula and 2250 km² on Yorke Peninsula (Adelaide Herbarium 2005; SA DEH 2005a).
There is limited data to indicate a past decline in extent of occurrence, but it appears to have been reduced in the agricultural districts on Eyre and Yorke Peninsula's where there has been extensive vegetation clearance. Weber and Bates (1978) described the species as being abundant on the Yorke Peninsula in areas that are now under cultivation. The species was first collected from Corny Point (south-west Yorke Peninsula) in 1953 (Adelaide Herbarium 2005) but there are no recent records for this locality. Likewise, the population at Hundred of Koppio, on the Eyre Peninsula is presumed to be extinct (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).
Goldsack's Leek-orchid has a very disjunct distribution with several populations occurring on private property. The loss of these populations would result in substantial declines in the extent of occurrence (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).
The area of occupancy of Goldsack's Leek Orchid is estimated to be 0.002 km². This estimate is based on an area of occupancy of one hectare at each collection location for the species, and assumes (R. Bates 2005, pers comm. cited in TSSC 2006ei):
- that orchid populations typically do not cover large areas
- the populations occur in small remnants on private property or in small reserves
- known populations typically do not exceed 50 plants.
Extensive vegetation clearance within the agricultural districts of the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas would indicate that the area of occupancy of the species has declined in the past (Weber & Bates 1978). Very few of the populations of Goldsack's Leek-orchid are protected in the South Australian reserves system, and the loss of any of these populations would result in future changes to the area of occupancy.
The distribution of Goldsack's Leek-orchid is considered to be severely fragmented. The population is distributed across 14 small subpopulations that are geographically isolated by intervening areas of unsuitable habitat (Adelaide Herbarium 2005; TSSC 2006ei).
When Weber and Bates (1978) first described the species, they suggested that collectors had probably overlooked it in the past because it only flowers occasionally and the flowers rarely open. The species was collected by Bates in the early 1980s (Adelaide Herbarium 2005) and more recent collections have been made for the South Australia Department of Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) Surveys and Reserves Databases. However, there have been no surveys specifically targeting Goldsack's Leek-orchid. Current records are inadequate to provide high reliability estimates of population size and distribution (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).
There is limited data available on the population size of Goldsack's Leek-orchid. The species is described as "locally common" in the southern Yorke Peninsula (Bates & Weber 1990); as comprising a "few" plants at a locality south of Port Lincoln (Adelaide Herbarium 2005); and as "common" in the Curramulka scrubs on Yorke Peninsula (Adelaide Herbarium 2005). The known populations typically do not exceed 50 plants (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2006ei), indicating that the total population size probably consists of between 5001000 mature plants (TSSC 2006ei).
Goldsack's Leek-orchid has been recorded from 14 small populations on the Eyre and Yorke Peninsula's. These may be described as subpopulations as they are geographically isolated and there is not likely to be genetic exchange between them (TSSC 2006ei). All are presumed extant with the exception of those at Corny Point, Yorke Peninsula and in the Hundred of Koppio, Eyre Peninsula. There are further reports of very small populations occurring on private property, but these are not included in the following table as they comprise less than 10 plants (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2006ei). The following table lists the known subpopulations of Goldsack's Leek-orchid:
|Locality||Most recent record date||Number of individuals||Land tenure||Source|
|Lincoln National Park||1982||No data||National park||Adelaide Herbarium 2005|
|20 km south of Port Lincoln||1982||"few plants"||Unknown||Adelaide Herbarium 2005|
|10 km west of North Shields||1982||No data||Private property||Adelaide Herbarium 2005|
|Hundred of Koppio||Prior to 1977||Presumed Extinct||Unknown||Adelaide Herbarium 2005|
|North of Charlton Gully, near Koppio||2004||No data||Private property||Adelaide Herbarium 2005|
|Wanilla Forest||1980||No data||Aboriginal Lands Trust||SA DEH 2005a|
|Bascombe Well Conservation Park||1986||No data||Conservation park||SA DEH 2005a|
|North-east of Mount Hope||1995||No data||Unknown||SA DEH 2005a|
|Near Wangarry||1995||No data||Private property||SA DEH 2005a|
|Warrenben Conservation Park||1994||No data||Conservation park||Adelaide Herbarium 2005; SA DEH 2005a|
|Curramulka Scrubs||2003||"common"||Unknown||Adelaide Herbarium 2005|
|10 km north of Maitland||1983||No data||Roadside||Adelaide Herbarium 2005|
|10 km south-east of Moonta||1974||No data||Unknown||Adelaide Herbarium 2005|
|Corny Point||1953||Presumed Extinct||Unknown||Adelaide Herbarium 2005|
The presumed extinction of two of the 14 known subpopulations, based on the age of the records and the lack of recent records from these locations (Adelaide Herbarium 2005), indicates a decline in population numbers over the past 3050 years. It is possible that the historical decline in the population size of Goldsack's Leek-orchid has been due to extensive clearing of native vegetation for agriculture on the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas. On the Eyre Peninsula, only 31.2% of native vegetation remains (SA DEH 2002a). Clearing of vegetation on the Yorke Peninsula has been extensive with the exception of the southern tip area (SA DEH 2002a, 2002b). Remnant native vegetation in South Australia is concentrated in areas that are not suitable for agriculture, such as sheet limestone, deep sands or saline soils or regions with low rainfall (Graham et al. 2001; SA DEH 2002a). Goldsack's Leek-orchid occurs on shallow limestone areas which has enabled this species to survive in remnant vegetation on southern Yorke Peninsula (TSSC 2006ei).
There have been no reports of extreme fluctuations in population numbers, extent of occurrence or area of occupancy for Goldsack's Leek-orchid (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).
The generation length of Goldsack's Leek-orchid is not known. However, orchids are potentially long-lived plants as they reappear annually from a tuber. Prasophyllum species are mature at five years and usually do not flower two years in succession. One plant of Goldsack's Leek-orchid is known to have survived for 30 years (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2006ei).
Three subpopulations of Goldsack's Leek-orchid are contained within conservation reserves: Lincoln National Park and Bascombe Well Conservation Park on Eyre Peninsula; and Warrenben Conservation Park on Yorke Peninsula. There is also one subpopulation within a Heritage Agreement area near Wangary on Eyre Peninsula and one in Wanilla Forest on Eyre Peninsula (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).
There is a management plan for the Lincoln National Park (SA DEH 2004) and for the Memory Cove Wilderness area (SA DEH 2005b) within the Park. However, Goldsack's Leek-orchid is not listed in either of these plans. Wanilla Forest is a former state forest that is now managed for the conservation of the Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus funereus). The reserve is managed by the Port Lincoln Aboriginal Community Council and the South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage. A management plan for this Park is currently in preparation (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).
Goldsack's Leek-orchid occurs in areas of travertine limestone on terra-rosa soils or calcareous sands (Bates & Weber 1990). It has been collected from limestone ridges in the Lincoln National Park and from cracks in barren limestone in Warrenben Conservation Park (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).
It occurs in mallee woodlands or in open scrublands (Bates & Weber 1990). On the lower Eyre Peninsula, plants have been collected from Sugar Gum (Eucalyptus cladocalyx) forests, as well as tea-tree and sheoak scrub. On the Yorke Peninsula, it has has been collected from scrubland, sedgeland and Broom Honey-myrtle (Melaleuca uncinata) heathland. Associated species include Velvet Leek-orchid (Prasophyllum fitzgeraldii), Sweet Leek-orchid (P. odoratum), Tall Leek-orchid (P. elatum) and Dianella longifolia (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).
The climate in the region is Mediterranean with cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers; the annual rainfall is 400600 mm (BOM 2007).
The species can be distinguished from the morphologically similar Prasophyllum sp. Enigma (also known as P. goldsackii var. aenigmum) on floral characters. Goldsack's Leek-orchid has non-opening, blackish, shiny flowers whilst Prasophyllum. sp. Enigma has partly opening flowers that are not blackish or shiny (R. Bates 2005, pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2006ei).
Habitat Loss and Fragmentation
Bates and Weber (1990) suggest that the most significant threat to Goldsack's Leek-orchid has been native vegetation clearance. Within the Eyre Yorke Block IBRA region only 31.2% of native vegetation remains (SA DEH 2002a). Clearing has also been extensive on the Yorke Peninsula, with the exception of the southern tip of the peninsula (SA DEH 2002b). This is particularly important as South Australian orchid species occur in regions receiving more than 250 mm of annual rainfall, and are thus concentrated in the primary agricultural districts (Bates & Weber 1990). Remnant native vegetation is now restricted to areas that are not suitable for agriculture, including areas of sheet limestone, deep sands or saline soils, or regions with low rainfall unsuitable for cropping (Graham et al. 2001; SA DEH 2002a).
Orchids generally do not occur on cleared land or persist on disturbed roadside verges, therefore most populations occur in small fragments of remnant vegetation (Bates & Weber 1990). The occurrence of Goldsack's Leek Orchid on shallow limestone areas that are not suitable for agriculture has probably inadvertently contributed to its conservation (Graham et al. 2001). Controls on native vegetation clearance under the Native Vegetation Act 1991 (South Australia) may reduce the threat of further habitat loss, although the deterioration in habitat quality in smaller blocks of remnant vegetation may be an ongoing threat. Habitat quality may continue to decline through over-grazing, weed invasion and pest animals such as rabbits, snails and insects (Bates & Weber 1990). There is one herbarium record that notes plant damage by aphids (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).
Dryland salinity has affected soils on drainage lines in the Koppio Hills north of Port Lincoln (SA DEH 2003a) near where Goldsack's Leek-orchid has been collected (Adelaide Herbarium 2005). The species' tolerance to salinity is not known, though orchid species generally do not occur on saline soils (Bates & Weber 1990). This may be a future threat to populations in the Koppio Hills area and other sites on the western Eyre Peninsula that are affected by dryland salinity (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).
Low Genetic Diversity
The flowers of Goldsack's Leek-orchid rarely open, but do so after they have been self-pollinated (Weber & Bates 1978). The species is apomictic, i.e. it is able to produce viable seeds without fertilisation (Bates & Weber 1990). This gives rise to offspring that are identical (clones) to the parent plant. If apomixis is very common, as has been suggested (Adelaide Herbarium 2005; Bates & Weber 1990; Weber & Bates 1978), then populations may have very low genetic diversity. Although apomixis may be advantageous when no suitable pollinators are available, it may be a disadvantage when environmental conditions change and populations have insufficient variants that are able to survive those changes (Bates & Weber 1990). Low genetic diversity in populations may increase the threat of weather variability by reducing the species' ability to adapt to changes (Adelaide Herbarium 2005).
Catastrophic events that are likely to severely affect Goldsack's Leek-orchid include severe drought or other changes to the annual rainfall pattern. The species occurs in areas that receive 400600 mm of rainfall, with an annual rainfall variability of 5075% (BOM 2007). In severe drought years where there is a reduction in annual rainfall, or an increase in rainfall variability, the species may decline in those areas of its range where the rainfall is lowest. This could potentially include most of the range of the species, with the exception of the extreme southern parts of the Yorke and Eyre Peninsula's.
The Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008yo) recommend the following priority recovery and threat abatement actions for Goldsack's Leek-orchid:
- Design and implement a monitoring program.
- More precisely assess population size, distribution, genetic diversity, ecological requirements and the relative impacts of threatening processes.
- Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional populations/occurrences/remnants.
- Monitor known populations to identify key threats.
- Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
- Identify known sites of high conservation priority.
- Manage any changes to hydrology that may result in changes to the water table levels and dryland salinity levels.
- Investigate further formal conservation arrangements such as the use of covenants, conservation agreements or inclusion in reserve tenure.
- Develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for Goldsack's Leek-orchid.
- Identify and remove weeds in the local area that could become a threat to the species.
- Identify areas where soil salinity is impacting on habitat.
- Ensure any changes to agricultural activities do not impact on known sites.
- Fence known sites to protect the species from domestic livestock.
There are no recovery plans available for Goldsack's Leek-orchid. However, the Threatened Species Scientific Committee Listing Advice and Conservation Advice (TSSC 2006ei, 2008yo) provide background information and management recommendations for the species. The Management Plans for Lincoln National Park (SA DEH 2004) and Memory Cove National Park (SA DEH 2005b) provide management prescriptions for habitat in which populations occur.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Prasophyllum goldsackii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008yo) [Conservation Advice].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Prasophyllum goldsackii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008yo) [Conservation Advice].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Prasophyllum goldsackii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008yo) [Conservation Advice].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Changes in hydrology leading to rising water tables and dryland salinity|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding|
Adelaide Herbarium (2005). ADHERB database. South Australia: Department of Environment and Heritage.
Barker, W.R., R.M. Barker, J.P. Jessop & H.P. Vonow, eds. (2005). Census of South Australian Vascular Plants, 5th edition. In: Journal of the Adelaide Botanical Gardens Supplement 1. [Online]. Adelaide: Botanic Gardens of Adelaide & State Herbarium. Available from: http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/pdfs/Census_5.0_web.pdf.
Bates, R.J. & J.Z. Weber (1990). Orchids of South Australia. Adelaide: Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbooks Committee.
Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) (2007). Climate maps. [Online]. Available from: http://www.bom.gov.au.
Graham, A., A. Oppermann & R.W. Inns (2001). Biodiversity Plan for the Northern Agricultural Districts. Adelaide, South Australia: Department for Environment and Heritage.
Jones, D.L. (2006). A complete guide to Native Orchids of Australia, including the island Territories. Sydney, NSW: New Holland Publishers (Australia) Pty Ltd.
South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2005a). SA DEH databases comprising of the Opportune Database, Plant Population Database, Reserves Database, Roadside Vegetation Database and Survey Database. Adelaide, South Australia: Department of Environment and Heritage.
South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2002a). Biodiversity Plan for Eyre Peninsula. [Online]. Adelaide, South Australia: Department for Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/biodiversity/bioplans.html.
South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2002b). Remnant vegetation data within IBRA region boundaries for South Australia, as calculated December 2002. Adelaide: Department of Environment and Heritage.
South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2003a). Eyre Peninsula—estimated area affected by dryland salinity 2000. [Online]. Adelaide: Department of Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/reporting/land/salinity/affected.html.
South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2004). Lincoln National Park Management Plan. [Online]. Adelaide, South Australia: Department for Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/parks/pdfs/PARKS_PDFS_LINCOLN_NP_MP.PDF.
South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2005b). Memory Cove Wilderness Protection Area Management Plan—Draft. [Online]. Adelaide, South Australia: Department for Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/parks/pdfs/PARKS_PDFS_MEMORYCOVE_WPA_MP.PDF.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2006ei). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum goldsackii. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/prasophyllum-goldsackii.html.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008yo). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Prasophyllum goldsackii. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/2380-conservation-advice.pdf.
Weber, J.Z. & R. Bates (1978). A new species of Prasophyllum (Orchidaceae) from South Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Garden. 1:167-169.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Prasophyllum goldsackii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 11 Jul 2014 13:45:08 +1000.