In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered as Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotes|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
National Recovery Plan for Tufted Plumed Featherflower (Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotes) (Taylor, H., V. English & A. Webb, 2008) [Recovery Plan] as Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotes.
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotes.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotes |
|Reference||George, A.S. (1991) New taxa, combinations and typifications in Verticordia (Myrtaceae: Chamelaucieae). Nuytsia 7(3): 355, fig. 39 (map) [tax. nov.]|
|Other names||Verticordia plumosa ananeotes |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
The current conservation status of the Tufted Plumed Featherflower, Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotes, under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:
National: Listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.
Western Australia: Listed as Declared Rare Flora on the Wildlife Conservation (Rare Flora) Notice 2008(2) under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.
Scientific name: Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotes
Common name: Tufted Plumed Featherflower
The Tufted Plumed Featherflower is recognised by its densely tufted habit, simple stems, long internodes and long slender leaves (Brown et al. 1998). It has a small lignotuber and several to many simple or sparsely branched stems. The leaves, which are abruptly pointed and 614 mm long and 0.7 mm wide, are sparsely arranged on main stems but crowded on short axillary branchlets. The flowers are on stalks 47 mm long and are in small groups with peduncles 47 mm long. They are deep mauve-pink fading to white. Sepals are 33.5 mm long. The three or four main lobes have very short, irregular lobes towards the apex (Taylor et al. 2005).
The Tufted Plumed Featherflower is known from four locations at two separate areas in Western Australia: Serpentine (between Mundijong and Waroona, about 40 km south of Perth) and 150 km further south near Busselton (along the Blackwood and Vasse Rivers, and at 'Molloy Plains') (Brown et al. 1998; George 1991; WA DEC 2007). It is common in Ambergate Reserve near Busselton but suitable habitat is restricted (Brown et al. 1998; Williams et al. 2001). Populations are restricted to areas of remnant vegetation surrounded by land cleared for agriculture (Brown et al. 1998). The species distribution is severely fragmented as known populations are located in isolated, non-contiguous pockets of remnant vegetation (WA DEC 2007).
The extent of occurrence is calculated to be 24 km². A dataset taken from the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation's (WA DEC) Threatened Flora Database (which contains a single GPS coordinate for each subpopulation) was used to determine the area of occurence. There is no data to indicate trends in extent of occurrence (WA DEC 2007).
The area of occupancy is approximately 0.015 km² (or approximately 1.47 ha) with on-ground estimates made for populations 1 and 4, and subpopulations 3a and 3b. If subpopulations 3a and 3b (which contain many hybrid plants) were excluded, the area of occupancy would be 0.0061 km² or 0.61 ha. There is no data to indicate trends in the area of occupancy (WA DEC 2007).
The Tufted Plumed Featherflower was first collected in Serpentine in December 1839 and then a further six collections were made between 1839 and 1900. Original populations at 'Molloy's Plains, Sussex District', near Busselton, have not been relocated (George 1991). This variety was described formally in 1991, but further collections were not made until its re-discovery in 1992 (George 1991; WA DEC 2007).
The following table presents survey data for the Tufted Plumed Featherflower (WA DEC 2007):
|Population/Subpopulation||Survey History||Number of Plants Recorded||Area|
50+ (includes 3b)
8000m² (includes 3b)
*These subpopulations contain many hybrids between Tufted Plumed Featherflower and Vasse Featherflower (Verticordia plumosa var. vassensis) (WA DEC 2007).
The total population size for Tufted Plumed Featherflower is estimated to be 576 mature plants. This estimate does not include the 50 plants which may include hybrids between Tufted Plumed Featherflower and Vasse Featherflower (WA DEC 2007).
The Tufted Plumed Featherflower is known from four locations which represents four populations. One of these populations has been split into subpopulations based upon differences in land tenure and management. One population contained no plants at the last survey and may be extinct (WA DEC 2007).
The population trend of the Tufted Plumed Featherflower appears to be in decline. While population 1 is stable, populations 2 and 4 appear to be in decline. Subpopulations 3a and 3b contain many hybrid plants, so cannot be considered a reliable population for the conservation of this variety (WA DEC 2007).
As Tufted Plumed Featherflower is only known from four locations, all populations should be considered important for the long-term survival of this variety.
Population 1 is in a nature reserve currently managemend by the Busselton Naturalists Club. Population 2 and subpopulations 3a and 3b are in road and railway reserves that contain remnant vegetation surrounded by land that has been cleared for agriculture (the taxonomic status of subpopulations 3a and 3b is uncertain due to concerns over hybridisation). Population 4 is located in a shire road reserve (WA DEC 2007).
The northern populations of the Tufted Plumed Featherflower grow in sandy soils in open Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) woodland, and the southern populations grow on sandy/clay plains (Brown et al. 1998; George 1991). The southern populations grow in association with Marri (Corymbia calophylla), Kingia spp., Xanthorrhoea spp., Stirlingia spp., Isopogon spp., sedges, Conostylis spp., Melaleuca spp. and Adenanthos spp. (Williams et al. 2001).
Two ecological communities, considered threatened by WA DEC, occur in habitat associated with population 1. These are the endangered 'Southern wet shrublands, Swan Coastal Plain' and the vulnerable 'Eucalyptus calophylla woodlands on heavy soils of the southern Swan Coastal Plain' (Taylor et al. 2005). Population 1 is associated with Southern Tetraria (Tetraria australiensis) which is listed as vulnerable under the EPBC Act (Taylor et al 2005).
The Tufted Plumed Featherflower flowers from November to December. Generally, Verticordia species only produce one seed per flower in the wild and seed germination occurs from within old flowers that have fallen to the ground (WA DEC 2007). The plant has the ability to re-sprout after fire from its small woody stock (lignotuber) (Brown et al. 1998). It is thought to recover after fire from both lignotuber and seed. Population health and flowering vigour deteriorate without some regular burning (Williams et al. 2001). Population 1 was burnt in 2000 and was flowering again within 12 months (WA DEC 2007).
Research by WA DEC's Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC) indicates that the Tufted Plumed Featherflower seed set is generally low (between 9% and 47%) (A. Cochrane unpub. data cited in Taylor et al. 2005). Verticordia generally has low seed set and species in this genus often have variable seed set depending on site characteristics and seasonal conditions (Cochrane & McChesney 1995). Germination is often unsatisfactory, even with favourable conditions, and germination techniques need further investigation (Turnbull & Doran 1987). Approximately 32 seeds were collected in February 1998 and 30 in January 2000 from population 1. These have been stored by the TFSC at -18 °C (WA DEC 2007).
Propagation of the Tufted Plumed Featherflower has been successful and growth, survival and seed viability has been studied. The TFSC found that seed viability was relatively low (less than 5% (D. Cooper pers. comm. cited in Taylor et al. 2005)) in the variety and the best germination results occurred with the use of smokewater (a treatment that stimulates germination in species that respond to fire) (Taylor et al. 2005).
The Tufted Plumed Featherflower is distinguished from Verticordia plumosa var. plumosa by its shorter height (it is approximately 40 cm shorter) and the absence of glaucous colouration to its leaves (Taylor et al. 2005). This variety is best surveyed when flowering in November to December (WA DEC 2007).
The following table presents threats affecting the Tufted Plumed Featherflower (WA DEC 2007):
|Population/Subpopulation Number||Current Condition||Past||Present||Potential Future|
|1||Fire, grazing, weed invasion||Dieback|
|2||Disturbed||Weeds, grazing, fire||Clearing, weeds||Road/track/firebreak maintenance, chemical drift, dieback|
|3a||Weeds||Road/track/firebreak maintenance, dieback|
|3b||Weeds||Road/track/firebreak maintenance, dieback|
|4||Healthy||Weeds||Road maintenance, dieback|
The major threats to these populations are weeds, fire, grazing and trampling by livestock, road track and firebreak maintenance, dieback disease and chemical drift (WA DEC 2007).
Weeds are invading the habitat of population 2 and subpopulations 3a and 3b. Weeds suppress early plant growth by competing for soil moisture, nutrients and light. They also exacerbate grazing pressure and increase fire hazard due to the easy ignition associated with higher fuel loads (Taylor et al. 2005).
Inappropriate fire regimes threaten all subpopulations of the Tufted Plumed Featherflower, especially population 2 which has been subject to regular burning. This variety has a lignotuber and therefore adult plants can survive fire, however, too frequent fire can deplete the lignotuber and kill the plant. It is likely that the variety requires occasional fire for recruitment as seeds germinate following fire, but too frequent fires, and fire during flowering (November to February), may deplete the soil stored seed bank. Fire also promotes the introduction of weeds (Taylor et al. 2005).
Grazing and trampling
Grazing and trampling by livestock at population 2 is leading to soil compaction, aiding the spread of weeds and reducing capacity for seedling survival (Taylor et al. 2005).
Road/track/firebreak maintenance activities
Construction of drainage channels, grading activities and other road maintenance activities has the potential to impact on the road reserve populations of the Tufted Plumed Featherflower (population 2 and subpopulations 3a and 3b) (Taylor et al. 2005).
Herbicide and fertiliser applications from adjacent farmland has the potential to impact on population 2 (Taylor et al. 2005).
Dieback caused by the plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi is a threat to the Tufted Plumed Featherflower, as preliminary studies indicate that this variety is susceptible to the disease (Taylor et al. 2005).
Existing recovery actions
The Busselton Naturalist's Club now manages the reserve that contains population 1 and is developing a fire management strategy that includes consideration of fire frequency, intensity, seasonality and control measures. The Draft Management Plan for the reserve was also prepared by the group in November 2003 for the Shire of Busselton, and this includes consideration of weed control as an action for this reserve and highlights the conservation, recreation and educational values of the area (Massey 2003).
Notifying land managers
Managers of land on which subpopulations occur have been notified of the presence of the Tufted Plumed Featherflower (Taylor et al. 2005). An A4-sized Tufted Plumed Featherflower poster has been developed and distributed. This includes a description, identification tools, photos and information about threats and recovery actions (Taylor et al. 2005).
Ex situ populations
The Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority have 22 plants from material collected at population 1 in 1992. Eleven of these will be planted in the Botanic Garden's Verticordia garden. The success of propagation of the variety from cuttings (3087%) is dependent on the quality of source material (Taylor et al. 2005).
Declared Rare Flora markers are in place at population 2 and subpopulations 3a and 3b. The significance of Declared Rare Flora markers is being promoted to relevant local authorities, such as Shires and the Main Roads Department, by WA DEC (Taylor et al. 2005)).
Dieback hygiene procedures have been implemented at population 1 by the Busselton Naturalist Club. Measures include visitors disinfecting their shoes in a soak pad prior to entering the walking trails through the reserve, installation of limestone walk tracks which retard the disease and mapping the occurrence of the disease within the reserve (Taylor et al. 2005).
Future recovery actions
The South West Region Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team and WA DEC are coordinating recovery actions for Tufted Plumed Featherflower (Taylor et al. 2005)
Install fencing and undertake weed control
Population 2 is pressured by the grazing of livestock on the road reserve. A weed-managed fenced-off area would protect plants and alleviate grazing pressure (Taylor et al. 2005).
Manage dieback disease
Ongoing implementation of dieback hygiene procedures in the habitat of population 1, which is a reserve utilised for passive recreation, including bush-walking. The Management Plan for this reserve also recommends that the disease be mapped (Massey 2003). This would help to determine suitable management actions for the reserve, including determination of suitable routes for bush-walkers and the requirement for any other disease control actions (Taylor et al. 2005).
Conduct further surveys
Further surveys will be conducted for the variety in areas of suitable habitat on a systematic basis during its flowering period. Volunteers will be encouraged to be involved in surveys to be supervised by WA DEC staff. Appropriate habitat on private lands will be surveyed if permission is obtained. Any areas considered suitable habitat for the variety will be noted and these will be considered as possible future translocation sites. Subpopulations 3a and 3b also will be re-surveyed during the flowering period to confirm their identity. There is also an unconfirmed report of an additional subpopulation in the south-east corner of the reserve that contains population 1 (Taylor et al. 2005).
Annual monitoring of habitat degradation (including weed invasion and plant diseases), population stability (expansion or decline), pollination activity, seed production, recruitment, longevity and predation is essential. The Busselton Naturalist Club has been monitoring population 1 and intends to continue this work (Taylor et al. 2005).
Develop a translocation proposal
Translocations will be essential for the long-term conservation of this variety. Threats to the habitat of population 1 have probably declined in recent years; however, population 2 and subpopulations 3a and 3b are subject to severe threats (Taylor et al. 2005).
Develop and implement a fire management strategy
The Busselton Naturalist Club produced a Draft Management Plan for the habitat of population 1 in November 2003 and this includes a fire management strategy. A fire management strategy will be developed for the variety as a whole in consultation with relevant parties. This plan will include consideration of the maintenance of strategic firebreaks in the habitat, the establishment and maintenance of firebreaks on adjoining land, and recommended fire frequency, intensity, seasonality and preferred method of control (Taylor et al. 2005).
Rehabilitate habitat and buffers
The habitat of Tufted Plumed Featherflower at population 2 and subpopulations 3a and 3b will be rehabilitated by re-introduction of local native plant species. This would involve fencing off the area of road reserve, weeding the area and then reintroducing native plants to the site (Taylor et al. 2005).
Obtain biological and ecological information
Improved knowledge of the biology and ecology of Tufted Plumed Featherflower will provide a better scientific basis for management of populations. Preliminary studies examining seed viability, effects of smoke and lignotuber formation have been undertaken. An understanding of the following characteristics is particularly necessary for effective management (Taylor et al. 2005):
- soil seed bank, germination and recruitment dynamics in relation to fire, grazing, weeds, competition and rainfall
- longevity of plants and time taken to reach maturity
- longevity of the lignotuber, its viability and time taken to develop
- reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth of the variety
- population genetic structure, levels of genetic diversity and minimum viable population size.
Collect seed and cutting material
It is important that the genetic diversity of the taxon is conserved. Some seed has been collected for this taxon however further collections are required. Collecting more seed or cutting material from a higher proportion of all populations (all seed collections to date have been from eight plants in population 1) will ensure adequate representation of genetic diversity (Taylor et al. 2005).
Seek increased security for population 1
Currently the reserve that contains population 1 is a 'C' Class reserve. Due to the restricted habitat of this variety, and the excellent condition of the reserve, the Busselton Naturalist Club and WA DEC will develop a proposal for the Shire of Busselton to change the vesting to an 'A' Class Reserve (Taylor et al. 2005).
Management documents include the Tufted Plumed Featherflower (Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotes) Interim Recovery Plan No. 212 (Taylor et al. 2005) and recovery actions are described in Declared rare and poorly known flora in the Central Forest Region (Williams et al. 2001).
There is a draft National recovery plan in preparation for this species.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||National Recovery Plan for Tufted Plumed Featherflower (Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotes) (Taylor, H., V. English & A. Webb, 2008) [Recovery Plan].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock||National Recovery Plan for Tufted Plumed Featherflower (Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotes) (Taylor, H., V. English & A. Webb, 2008) [Recovery Plan].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development||Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||National Recovery Plan for Tufted Plumed Featherflower (Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotes) (Taylor, H., V. English & A. Webb, 2008) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback||Phytophthora cinnamomi||
Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Tufted Plumed Featherflower (Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotes) (Taylor, H., V. English & A. Webb, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes|
|Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Fertiliser drift|
|Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
|Uncategorised:Uncategorised:threats not specified||Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotesin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006zw) [Internet].|
Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Cochrane, A. & C. McChesney (1995). Verticordia seed. Australian Plants. 18(145):206-207.
George, A.S. (1991). New taxa, combinations and typifications in Verticordia (Myrtaceae: Chamelaucieae). Nuytsia. 7(3):231-394.
Massey, L. (2003). Ambergate Reserve: Draft Management Plan. Western Australia: Busselton Naturalist Club.
Taylor, H., V. English & A. Webb (2005). Tufted Plumed Featherflower (Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotes) Interim Recovery Plan No. 212. Perth: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Turnbull, J. & J. Doran (1987). Seed Development and Germination in the Myrtaceae. In: Langkamp, P.L., ed. Germination of Australian Native Plant Seed. Page(s) 46-57. Melbourne: Inkata Press.
Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2007). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation.
Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2. [Online]. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2015). Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotes in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 28 Feb 2015 17:22:32 +1100.