Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010o) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Draft Recovery Plan for Fontainea oraria (Coastal Fontainea) (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2004a) [Internet].
NSW:Coastal Fontainea - Profile (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2005af) [Internet].
NSW:Review of the Threatened Species Conservation Act Schedules 2007-2009 (NSW Scientific Committee (NSW SC), 2009b) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Critically Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list)
Scientific name Fontainea oraria [24038]
Family Euphorbiaceae:Euphorbiales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Jessup & Guymer
Infraspecies author  
Reference Austrobaileya 2(2): 119, fig. 4, map 2 (1985).
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Fontainea oraria

Common name: Coastal Fontainea

Genetic studies indicate that Coastal Fontainea and Southern Fontainea (Fontainea australis) represent distinct genetic pools, but are more closely related to each other than to other Fontainea species (Rossetto & McNally 2000, cited in NSW DECC 2004a; Rossetto et al. 2000, cited in NSW DECC 2004a).

Coastal Fontainea is a shrub or small tree that grows 8–10 m high, sometimes with separate stems from the base (NSW DECC 2005af). The multi-stemmed structure is possibly a coping response to disturbance or stress (Floyd 1989; Hunter et al. 1992a). The leaves are spirally arranged up the stem, 8–12 cm long, dark green, smooth and shiny above, and paler and slightly glossy below (Floyd 1989). There are two small oval glands raised 0.5–4 mm from the leaf base. The petioles (leaf stalks) are 1–2 cm long and swollen at the junction with the leaf base (NSW DECC 2004a).

Coastal Fontainea has small (1 cm diameter) whitish flowers with four or five petals and silky to velvety hairs (4–6 mm long). The fruit is a red, fleshy globose drupe, slightly downy and 2–2.4 cm in diameter. The inner bark and leaf stalk has no smell and a watery, red exudate when damaged (Floyd 1989). The branchlets are moderately thick, green but turning fawn where leafless. They are smooth but ridged below each leaf stalk and the leaf shoots are hairy (Floyd 1989; Harden 1990).

Coastal Fontainea occurs in two areas of remnant littoral rainforest at Lennox Heads on the far north coast of NSW (Floyd 1989; Jessup & Guymer 1985; NSW DECC 2004a; NSW NPWS 1999ab). The most northern subpopulation occurs on a 1 ha reserve, bound by residential development (Bennetts 1999), and the remaining three subpopulations occur in an area of about 18.5 ha of privately owned land, in an area that has been zoned for environmental protection (NSW DECC 2004a). The three southern subpopulations occur in what is believed to be the largest remnant of littoral rainforest at Lennox Head (McKinley et al. 1999, cited in NSW DECC 2004a).

Most of Coastal Fontainea habitat was cleared and burnt in the early 1900s and expansion of habitat may require artificial assistance (NSW DECC 2004a). However, this species is absent from a number of sites with seemingly appropriate habitat (Horton 1999).

The area in which Coastal Fontainea occurs has been well surveyed for extra subpopulations. Hunter and colleagues (1992a) unsuccessfully surveyed approximately 25 ha of suitable habitat. Other unsuccessful surveys have been conducted between the Richmond River and the Queensland border (McKinley et al. 1999, cited in NSW DECC 2004a). Limited surveys in littoral rainforest have been undertaken for environmental assessments for numerous developments in the Lennox Head area though no further subpopulations have been found (NSW DECC 2004a).

The Coastal Fontainea is known from four small subpopulations on the far north coast of NSW. These subpopulations occur within a 600 m radius. The total population comprises 10 adults and 45 seedlings and juveniles (NSW DECC 2004a). In 1991, the population consisted of 10 adult plants (Hunter et al. 1992a; NSW NPWS 1999ab), which suggests population stability between 1991–2004. The species is grown in the Australian National Botanic Gardens and North Coast Regional Botanic Gardens, Coffs Harbour (Meredith & Richardson 1990).

In 2004, the population structure of the Coastal Fontainea comprised a main subpopulation of seven adults and 45 juveniles and three subpopulations each with one adult. The northern subpopulation (which has one adult) has had eight seedlings planted with genetic stock from the main subpopulation. The three southern subpopulations (which include the large subpopulation and two single specimen locations) occur in a contiguous rainforest remnant: the two single specimen subpopulations occur 80 m and 200 m from the main clump (NSW DECC 2004a). In 2004, natural gene flow from the single specimen subpopulations to the main clump was not occurring and the small subpopulations were not adding to the viability of the main clump (NSW DECC 2004a). In the main clump, there is only one female plant and all seeds and seedlings have been observed within a 5 m radius (Rossetto & McNally 2000, cited in NSW DECC 2004a).

In 2000, no clonality was detected in the Coastal Fontainea (Rossetto & McNally 2000, cited in NSW DECC 2004a) and this species has reasonable levels of genetic diversity despite a limited gene pool (Rossetto et al. 2000, cited in NSW DECC 2004a). In 2000, all known juveniles were offspring of known mature plants (Rossetto & McNally 2000, cited in NSW DECC 2004a; Rossetto et al. 2000, cited in NSW DECC 2004a). Prior to habitat clearing, subpopulations were contiguous and gene flow between remnants was not restricted (Rossetto & McNally 2000, cited in NSW DECC 2004a). Genetically, plants at the northern subpopulation and the southern subpopulations are a genetically homogenous group (Rossetto et al. 2000, cited in NSW DECC 2004a).

The northern subpopulation of Coastal Fontainea occurs in a Ballina Shire Council Reserve (Amber Drive Public Reserve), which is zoned as "Residential" under the Ballina Local Environment Plan 1987 but is managed as a reserve (NSW DECC 2004a). The southern subpopulations occur on privately owned land, which is zoned as "Environmental Protection" under the Ballina Local Environment Plan 1987 (NSW DECC 2004a).

Sites where Coastal Fontainea occurs have similar physical and vegetative characteristics, however, one site has a denser understorey (Hunter et al. 1992a). This species is known from the inner edge of regrowth littoral rainforest, within 1 km of the ocean and up to 50 m above sea level (Floyd 1989). The majority of rainforest habitat at Lennox Head is largely regrowth that had been cleared pre-1950 (McKinley et al. 1999, cited in NSW DECC 2004a).

Sites are on crests, or upper slopes of east-faceing undulating country, that are exposed to strong coastal winds (Hunter et al. 1992a). Soils are a skeletal basaltic red-brown clay loam within abundant surficial rock fragments (Floyd 1989; Jessup & Guymer 1985; NSW NPWS 1999ab). Soils are acidic (pH 3.3–5.4), however, a neutral (pH 5–6) surface layer is maintained by organic matter or soil fungi (Horton 1999). The climate of the area where this species occurs consists of hot, humid summers, and warm frost-free winters. Individual plants grow in low light conditions beneath continuous canopy (Hunter et al. 1992a).

Vegetation where this species occurs is a coastal form of notophyll vine forest (Jessup & Guymer 1985) dominated by White Bean (Ailanthus triphysa), Beach Alectryon (Alectryon coriaceus), Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) and Guioa (Guioa semiglauca) (Floyd 1989; Jessup & Guymer 1985).

Coastal Fontainea occurs in association with other species listed under the EPBC Act including Rough-shelled Bush Nut (Macadamia tetraphylla, Vulnerable) and Arrow-head Vine (Tinospora tinosporoides, Vulnerable) (Horton 1999).

The growth rate of Coastal Fontainea is slow. In a two-year study in the 1990s, 18 new seedlings were recorded in a period when the stem diameter of adult plants remained stable. Following this, seedling growth was very slow (from 15 cm to 80 cm over a seven-year period) except during a period of above average rainfall that stimulated canopy and seedling growth (NSW DECC 2004a). All known adult plants are approximately 40–50 years old (Hunter et al. 1992a; NSW DECC 2004a). Two-year-old cultivated plants at Mount Warning Arboretum grew 1–3 m high (NSW DECC 2004a).

The Coastal Fontainea is presumed to be an obligate seeder and relies on germination from seed for recruitment events. This species does not seem to resprout or sucker, however, coppicing has been observed in some adults (NSW DECC 2004a). The cotyledon anatomy is typical of a climax species (i.e. a species that is stable in a stable environment) and is atypical of a pioneer species (Hunter et al.1992a).

Flowering
Coastal Fontainea flowers in November–January (Floyd 1989). Female flowers are borne in groups of two or three, while the male flowers are borne in small clusters. This species is thought to be primarily dioecious, however, an unknown percentage of plants may be monoecious (NSW DECC 2004a).

Fruiting
Fruits ripen in autumn (Floyd 1989; Hunter et al. 1992a) and have also been observed in spring and summer (NSW DECC 2004a). The single known female plant appears to produce a relatively small amount of fruit (from observations of fruit on the ground). The reasons for this may be (NSW DECC 2004a):

  • lack of flower production, flower damage or non-synchronous flowering
  • lack of pollinators/activity at flowering time
  • fruit damage (e.g. insect grazing)
  • non-peak fruiting observations.

During the 1990s, very few seedlings naturally germinated. This may be related to low seed viability or timing of fruiting. Cultivation trials of wild seeds have had high germination rates (NSW DECC 2004).

Pollination
The pollination of the Coastal Fontainea is poorly understood. It is likely that the species is insect pollinated, as it has small, unspectacular clusters of flowers, however, limited wind pollination may occur (Horton 1999; Rossetto & McNally 2000, cited in NSW DECC 2004a).

Seed dispersal, germination and seedling establishment
Coastal Fontainea seed is likely to be wind dispersed over short distances (Hunter et al. 1992a). Birds or rats may also aid dispersal. In the field, germination has been observed shortly after seed fall and viability may remain for a short period time. Seedlings and seed observed on the ground are all within 5 m of the female parent tree. Hunter and colleagues (1992a) suggest that seedlings germinate in, and are suited to, shady areas. The small patch size may limit dispersal (Horton 1999). Seedling establishment is poorly understood, and poor recruitment may be due to weather conditions, site conditions, trampling, disease or insect defoliation (NSW DECC 2004a).

Propagated subpopulations
The Coastal Fontainea is easily propagated from fresh seed, especially in 75% shade with warm conditions. The use of vegetative material for cuttings has also been successful (NSW DECC 2004a).

Threats to the Coastal Fontainea include habitat clearing, fragmentation, habitat degradation, inappropriate fire regimes, exposure to salt-laden winds, weed invasion, vandalism and cattle disturbance (Hunter et al. 1992a; NSW NPWS 1999ab). The small subpopulation sizes are at risk from stochastic events, inbreeding depression and reproductive cycle deficiencies (e.g. limited pollination and seed dispersal) (Hunter et al. 1992a).

Habitat destruction
Prior to historic land clearing, the Coastal Fontainea is likely to have been more widespread in the littoral rainforest at Lennox Head (Rossetto & McNally 2000, cited in NSW DECC 2004a). Future land clearing risks include infrastructure maintenance and urban expansion (NSW DECC 2004a).

Habitat fragmentation and isolation
Habitat fragmentation has separated the northern and southern Coastal Fontainea subpopulations. Associated inbreeding risk and pollinator interruption may reduce fruit production, seed dispersal and colonisation of adjacent remnants (NSW DECC 2004a). Remnants are within 1 km of the ocean and are exposed to edge effects including impacts of weed invasion and salt-laden wind (NSW DECC 2004a). An increase in habitat via forest regeneration is desirable, but the potential for Amber Drive Public Reserve (containing the northern subpopulation) to expand is limited (Bennetts 1999).

Habitat degradation
Residential development adjacent to subpopulations cause a range of threats including inappropriate recreational use, dumping and stormwater run-off (NSW DECC 2004a). Tree felling, non-approved construction (a tree house) and garden waste dumping has been observed near Coastal Fontainea subpopulations (Bennetts 1999; Gross 1994, cited in NSW DECC 2004a). There is a stormwater outlet on the western side of the northern subpopulation, upslope of the Coastal Fontainea plants, and weeds are present at the outlet pipe. A drain runs into the littoral rainforest in the southern Coastal Fontainea remnant from an adjacent residential subdivision (S. Fay n.d., pers. comm., cited in NSW DECC 2004a).

Weeds
Habitat of the Coastal Fontainea is prone to weed invasion due to highly fertile soils, disturbance pressure and edge effects. Some of the potential impacts include plant smothering, altered soil structure and space, nutrient and light competition. Weeds can be beneficial by maintaining forest function, but they usually form thickets under the canopy that compete with rainforest species, and reduce the recruitment of indigenous species (Horton 1999).

Over 40 weeds have been recorded in associated habitat of this species. The most common, and habitat altering, weed species are Camphor Laurel (Cinnamomum camphora), Ground Asparagus (Asparagus aethiopicus), Madeira Vine (Anredera cordifolia) and Lantana (Lantana camara) (Bennetts 1999; NSW DECC 2004a). Other weed species include Ageratina riparium, Privet (Ligustrum spp.), Ochna (Ochna serrulata), White Passionfruit (Passiflora subpeltana), Corky Passion Flower (P. suberosa), Protasparagus africanus, Syagarus romanzoffianum and Trandescantia fluminensis (Horton 1999).

Weed control activities
Inappropriate bush regeneration can lead to subpopulation damage and potential impacts include:

  • trampling of seedlings
  • herbicide spray drift
  • over-removal of shade trees such as Camphor Laurel (NSW DECC 2004a).

Cattle grazing
The northern subpopulation is fenced off from adjacent agricultural activities, but low numbers of cattle have been grazing sporadically in the habitat of the southern subpopulations. However, there is no evidence to suggest the grazing of Coastal Fontainea (NSW DECC 2004a). The possible impacts of cattle grazing in the vicinity of subpopulations include:

  • trampling of habitat leading to compaction of soil, limiting regeneration and damaging individuals
  • introduction of weeds and altered nutrient composition (NSW DECC 2004a).

Ocean wind sheer
Ocean wind sheer reduces the health of plants on the edge of rainforest remnants and is a potential threat to both remnants. If the habitat edge continues to erode, the Coastal Fontainea could be hit directly by ocean winds, with no buffer from other vegetation (NSW DECC 2004a).

Pests and disease
Environmental stress has resulted in the incursion of pests and disease (Bennetts 1999). In 1997–98 loss of vigour was observed in two Coastal Fontainea trees in the north subpopulation that were infested with larvae of a longhorn beetle. The larger tree survived but the smaller tree died (Horton 1999). The death of the plant was attributed to a combination of weed competition (Lantana), insect attack and windburn (Hunter 1997, pers. comm., cited in Horton 1999).

Leaf rust
Hunter and colleagues (1992a) noted leaf rust on Coastal Fontainea seedlings. The impact of the rust on the species is unknown. Leaf rust is a fungus that reduces photosynthetic ability and reduces seed set, size of seed and seed viability (B. Summerall n.d., pers. comm., cited in NSW DECC 2004a). Rust is unlikely to cause plant mortality, but may weaken plants and increase susceptibility to other stresses.

Fire
Fire is inappropriate for the management and conservation of rainforests. It is possible that Coastal Fontainea can recover from infrequent and low intensity fires, but moderate to high intensity fires are likely to destroy plants, lead to localised extinction and destroy littoral rainforest. Moderate intensity fires are possible due to fuel loads, the presence of flammable weeds, a decreased and/or punctured rainforest 'skin' decreasing forest humidity, and topographical features encouraging fire spread (Hunter et al. 1992a). Potential ignition may be from arson and lightning, the latter particularly during prolonged dry periods (NSW DECC 2004a).

Collection for the nursery industry
Coastal Fontainea fruit has allegedly been collected from the main subpopulation for the nursery industry (L. Bennetts n.d., pers. comm., cited in NSW DECC 2004a). Fruit collection may damage or destroy plants and could be catastrophic if the only known female plant was adversely affected. The landowner of the main subpopulation has erected signs warning against trespassing (NSW DECC 2004a).

On-ground management
Since 1994, the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service has implemented a habitat restoration program at remnants where Coastal Fontainea occurs. This program includes weed control and planting local rainforest species. The success of the program is evidenced by recruitment of native species and a reduction of weed regeneration. A preliminary draft plan of management for bush regeneration has been prepared for the northern remnant which is owned by Ballina Shire Council (Bennetts 1999).

In 1997, actions were undertaken at both the northern and the main southern subpopulations to manage the insect related dieback. All dead branches were removed to prevent the loss of further branches (Bennetts 1999). In 1998, Ballina Shire Council undertook works at the northern Coastal Fontainea subpopulation: a fence was constructed to protect the plants from interference and a 'no rubbish dumping' sign was erected (NSW DECC 2004a).

Biological research
Research on this species has been limited to opportunistic observations and genetic research. Preliminary genetic research was undertaken by Peakall (1994, cited in NSW DECC 2004a). This work identified the need for further genetic studies. Subsequently, detailed genetic research has been carried out on the Coastal Fontainea, sampling 74 plants (Rossetto & McNally 2000, cited in NSW DECC 2004a; Rossetto et al. 2000, cited in NSW DECC 2004a). This comprised all known plants in the wild, including the planted specimens, and some cultivated plants (NSW DECC 2004a).

Translocation
In 1995, eight plants were translocated in an effort to increase population numbers. Seed used for the propagated material was collected from the main subpopulation (NSW DECC 2004a). The outcomes of this program are unknown.

Further threat abatement actions
Some key measures for threat abatement and recovery are (NSW DECC 2005af):

  • Collect and propagate material and establish further ex situ subpopulations in appropriate botanical institutions. Identify locations where Coastal Fontainea grows and, where appropriate, incorporate their genetic material into the ex situ collection. Ensure that subpopulations growing in botanic gardens are maintained.
  • Where appropriate, encourage the community to be involved in targeted surveys, site specific management and translocation programs. Liaise with landholders to seek long term protection of Coastal Fontainea and its habitat, and provide information packages on the species.
  • Prepare and implement site management plans for both the northern and southern subpopulations of the Coastal Fontainea and its habitat, in conjunction with the Ballina Shire Council and the landowner.
  • Relevant fire management strategies should include operational guidelines to protect this species from fire.
  • Distribute the species' profile, survey guidelines and Environmental Impact Assessment guidelines for the species' recovery plan to Ballina Shire Council, consultants and any other relevant land managers.
  • Make available specific location information to Ballina Shire Council, environmental planners, land managers, the NSW Department of Natural Resources, the Rural Fire Service and landowners. Information will be provided on a needs basis to ensure security of Coastal Fontainea subpopulations.
  • Implement Bitou Bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera) controls.
  • Co-ordinate in situ monitoring of the Coastal Fontainea subpopulations to detect changes in size, distribution and age structure, and to understand the reproductive biology.
  • Research the species' ecology, biology, recruitment, translocation and insect pests.
  • Survey, map and assess potential habitat. Ensure site assessment forms (from recovery plan) are completed for each known subpopulation. Identify priority areas of potential habitat for targeted surveys of the species to be undertaken. Record census and population data for any new subpopulations located.
  • Ensure the information in the translocation proposal, in the draft recovery plan, is finalised and approved prior to the commencement of the translocation plantings. The trial translocation should be evaluated once implemented (NSW DECC 2005af).

The Draft Recovery Plan for Fontainea oraria (NSW DECC 2004a) provides a comprehensive biological overview and management recommendations for this species.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock Fontainea oraria in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006js) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Sea level rise:Inundation associated with climate change Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Wind damage Fontainea oraria in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006js) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Fontainea oraria in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006js) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) Fontainea oraria in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006js) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Cinnamomum camphora (Camphor Laurel, Camphor Tree, Gum Camphor, True Camphor, Japanese Camphor, Formosa Camphor, Shiu Leaf) Fontainea oraria in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006js) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Fontainea oraria in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006js) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Fontainea oraria in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006js) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Fontainea oraria in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006js) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Vegetation and habitat mortality caused by dieback Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Fontainea oraria in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006js) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Fontainea oraria in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006js) [Internet].

Bennetts, L. (1999). Preliminary Draft Plan of Management for Fontainea oraria (Jessup and Guymer) Amber Drive Public Reserve, Lennox Head, NSW. Unpublished report. NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service and Environment Australia.

Floyd, A.G. (1989). Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia. Melbourne: Inkata Press.

Harden, G.J. (ed) (1990). Flora of New South Wales. Volume One. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

Horton, S (1999). Coastal Fontainea (Fontainea oraria) Draft Recovery Plan. Hurstville: Threatened Species Unit, NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.

Hunter, J., A. Jay, N. Nicholson & S. Horton (1992a). Fontainea oraria (Jessup and Guymer) Species Recovery Plan. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Jessup, L.W. & G.P. Guymer (1985). A Revision of Fontainea Heckel (Euphorbiaceae-Cluytieae). Austrobaileya. 2(2):112-125.

Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2004a). Draft Recovery Plan for Fontainea oraria (Coastal Fontainea). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/recoveryplanDraftFontaineaOraria.pdf. [Accessed: 14-Jul-2008].

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005af). Coastal Fontainea - Profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10334. [Accessed: 14-Jul-2008].

NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2010o). Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland. [Online]. Sydney South, New South Wales: Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/border-ranges-rainforest-biodiversity-management-plan.

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1999ab). Threatened Species Information: Fontainea oraria. [Online]. Hurstville: NSW NPWS. Available from: http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/PDFs/tsprofile_fontainea_oraria.pdf.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Fontainea oraria in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 2 Sep 2014 19:52:36 +1000.