Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Anomalopus mackayi (Five-clawed Worm-skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008di) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzq) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft Referral guidelines for the nationally listed Brigalow Belt reptiles (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011e) [Admin Guideline].
 
Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened reptiles. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.6 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011m) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Five-clawed Worm-skink - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005ab) [Internet].
NSW:Five-clawed Worm-skink - Threatened Species Information (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 1999av) [Information Sheet].
QLD:Long-legged worm-skink (Department of Environment and Heritage Protection (DEHP), 2013ak) [Database].
QLD:Long-legged worm-skink Anomalopus mackayi Conservation Management Profile (Queensland Environment Protection Agency (EPA), 2007b) [State Species Management Plan].
QLD:Brigalow Belt bioregion: a biodiversity jewel (Threatened Species Network (TSN), 2008b) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list)
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Vulnerable (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Anomalopus mackayi [25934]
Family Scincidae:Squamata:Reptilia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Greer and Cogger,1985
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Anomalopus mackayi

Common name: Five-clawed Worm-skink

Other common names: Long-legged Worm-skink, Mackay's Burrowing Skink

The Five-clawed Worm-skink, Anomalopus mackayi, is a medium sized species of the Scincidae family. It is a burrowing skink which is characterised by three fingers and two toes and grows up to 27 cm long. It has smooth scales with an overall greyish-brown upper body with longitudinal rows of dark spots. The ventral surface is yellow-green with dark flecking. In the southern region of its range the Five-clawed Worm-skink is unpatterned, while in the north of its range, it has longitudinal rows of dark spots over the dorsal and lateral surfaces (Cogger 2000; Queensland EPA 2007b).

The known distribution of the Five-clawed Worm-skink is patchy in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW) and south-eastern Queensland (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; NSW DECCW 2005ab; Sadlier & Pressey 1994).

New South Wales

The species' known distribution in New South Wales is confined to the Namoi River and Gwydir River floodplains and the lower north-western slopes of the Great Dividing Range. The species ranges from the Wallangra-Masterman Range area in the east, south-west to the Narrabri-Wee Waa area, west along the northern edge of the Pilliga outwash demarcation to the south-west corner of the Namoi catchment south of Walgett, and bordered by the Barwon River in the west to the Mungindi area near the Queensland border (Spark 2010).

Indications of an eastward contraction in the distribution of the species

This extent of occurrence of the species may have contracted eastwards. The most western record was made in the Goodooga area approximately 80 km west-north-west of Lightning Ridge sometime prior to 1970 (Sadlier & Pressey 1994; Spark 2010). Another specimen was found approximately 20 km south of Walgett in 1905. Until Spark's survey of the Namoi catchment in late 2009–early 2010, no specimens had been found in the Namoi catchment since 1976 when the species was found at a site in the Narrabri-Wee Waa area (Cogger et al. 1993; NSW DECCW 2005ab; Spark 2010).

Specimens have been recorded at (Greer & Cogger 1985; NSW DECCW cited in Sass et al. 2009; Shea et al. 1987):

  • Old Burren
  • Goodooga
  • Burren Junction
  • Culgoora
  • Yetman road 6.9 km north-north west of Wallangra
  • Wee Waa
  • Millie
  • Terry Hie Hie
  • Bellata.

Queensland

In south-eastern Queensland, the species' known distribution is on the upper Condamine River Floodplain from Warwick in the south to the Jimbour region in the north and bordered by the western edge of the granite belt.

Specimens have been recorded at (Greer & Cogger 1985; Shea et al. 1987):

  • Allora
  • Bongeen
  • Cecil Plains
  • Oakey.

Fragmented distribution

The New South Wales populations of the Five-clawed Worm-skink appeared to be geographically isolated from than those populations in south-east Queensland until specimens found by Shea and collegues near Wallangra, New South Wales, in 1986 suggest that this may not be the case (Shea et al. 1987; Spark 2010).

At the landscape scale, however, the species' distribution in the Namoi River (north-eastern NSW) and Upper Condamine River (south-eastern Queensland) floodplains is severely fragmented due to land-clearing. The species potentially occurs in remnant or non-remnant grasslands and woodlands within its range. Remnant woodlands tend to be small (several hectares in size).

Uncultivated, native grasslands occur in narrow strips or on 'headlands' between cropped areas on the floodplains. Habitat connectivity is mostly restricted to riparian zones, vacant private lots, town commons, cemeteries, roadside reserves, travelling stock routes and small, mixed and no-till farms (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

New South Wales

A recent study by Spark (2010) in the Namoi River catchment is the culmination of surveys of the Five-clawed Worm-skink conducted by Spark in the region since 1998. Prior to this period, limited research had been carried out on the species in NSW and the few pre-1986 museum records indicated that the species was restricted to the floodplains, but with no description of the habitats in which the specimens were found.

Spark's recent report provides detailed information about the habitat requirements and likely distribution of the species in the region. The work identifies an effective methodology for detecting the skink on the floodplains and recommends that a dedicated conservation reserve for fauna on the Namoi floodplain be established as a priority and a long-term monitoring program be implemented (Spark 2010).

Queensland

In Queensland, the species has only been surveyed in the upper Condamine River catchment in the Darling Downs of Queensland in the regions around Oakey and Warwick (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Population declines

New South Wales

Sadlier and Pressey (1994) suggest that the Five-clawed Worm-skink is in decline in NSW. Given that little natural vegetation remains within the species' known range due to clearing, the majority of records are more than 40 years old and that more recent searches in the same locations have been unsuccessful (Shea et al., cited in Sass et al. 2009).

Queensland

Similarly in Queensland, the species in decline due to the loss of grassland habitat on the Condamine Floodplain (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Important populations

Given the difficulty in detecting this species, the Commonwealth environment department considers that an occurrence of important habitat for the Five-clawed Worm Skink is a surrogate for an ‘important population’ of the species. For a description of important habitat for the Five-clawed Worm Skink, refer to the Draft referral guidelines for the nationally listed Brigalow Belt reptiles.

New South Wales

Important populations in north-eastern New South Wales occur in suitable remnant vegetation and non-remnant vegetation corridors linking remnant patches on the Namoi and Gwydir River floodplains and on the lower north-western slopes of the Great Dividing Range (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Queensland

Important populations occur where habitat remains throughout the species' known distribution on the Condamine River Floodplain: the region (including agricultural farming land) between Bowenville/Oakey, Pittsworth and Jimbour, Queensland (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; Richardson 2006).

There are no known reserve systems in which the species occurs, however, it may occur at the following sites (Cogger et al. 1993):

  • Lake Broadwater Conservation Park
  • Southwood National Park
  • Gilgai
  • Narran Lake Nature Reserve
  • Stern River.

The Five-clawed Worm-skink is known to occur in both remnant and non-remnant woodlands and grasslands. In areas modified by agriculture and other human activities, the species has been found sheltering under artificial materials lying flat on the ground, such as discarded railway sleepers, sheet metal and hay bales (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; Richardson 2006).

New South Wales

Habitat on the floodplains

On the floodplains within its range in north-eastern New South Wales, the Five-clawed Worm-skink occurs in grasslands and grassy, open woodlands on heavy black and grey, alluvial cracking clay soils from 135–200 m above sea level (NSW DECCW 2005ab; Sadlier & Pressey 1994; Spark 2010). During dry periods, the species is likely to shelter where moisture is available. For example, they may take refuge in deep cracks within alluvial clay soils. Sufficient rainfall following extended dry conditions is likely to bring the skink to the surface (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010). The species has been recorded in (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010):

  • grasslands dominated by Mitchell Grass (Astrebla spp.)
  • River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) - Coolibah (E. coolabah subsp. coolabah) - Bimble/Poplar Box (E. populnea subsp. bimbil) - Weeping Myall (Acacia pendula) grassy woodlands to open forests with grasses typically of the genera Austrodanthonia, Austrostipa, Bothriochloa, Chloris, Enteropogon and Themeda.

Floodplain surveys have shown, however, that the species has no preference for particular vegetation types on alluvial cracking clays. Cracking clay soils on the Namoi and Gwydir floodplains support a wide variety of vegetation communities which can be considered suitable habitat for the Five-clawed Worm-skink (Spark 2010).

Habitat on the lower western slopes of the Great Dividing Range

On the lower north-western slopes of the Great Dividing Range in New South Wales, the species occurs in White Box (Eucalyptus albens) and sometimes ironbark-mixed, grassy woodland on self mulching, friable, basalt derived, red-black to black clay-loam soils. The species has been found occurring in burrows in open paddocks with few trees, cropped grass and moist black soil (Sadlier & Pressey 1994; Spark 2010; Swan 1990). Shea and colleagues (1987) found five specimens under logs in open paddocks surrounded by open eucalypt woodland, and one specimen under a log in a largely cleared woodland in the vicinity of granite outcrops.

Microhabitat

The species shelters at the soil surface where moisture is sufficiently retained under decaying leaf litter, coarse woody debris or artificial debris. The species also lives in cavities in rotting tree bases, logs and in tussock bases. It is known to dig permanent tunnel-like burrows in loose, friable, humic soils in woodlands on slight basalt rises (NSW DECCW 2005ab; Sadlier & Pressey 1994).

Queensland

On the Darling Downs, the species occurs in Bluegrass (Dichanthium sericeum) and/or Mitchell Grass dominated grasslands or mixed grasslands dominated by other grass species, but still categorised as Queensland Regional Ecosystem (RE) 11.3.21 (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010). In south-east Queensland, the species may occur in River Red Gum–Queensland Blue Gum–Coolibah–Bimble/Poplar Box grassy woodland/open forests (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Whilst a single specimen was found under a railway sleeper on sandy soil north of Oakey (Cogger et al. 1993), the species is not likely to be found in soils in which deep cracks do not form, such as hard-setting brown clays or sandy soils types (Spark 2010).

For more information on Queensland Regional Ecosystems, please visit the Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management website at http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife-ecosystems/biodiversity/regional_ecosystems/.

The Five-clawed Worm-skink occurs in (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010):

  • Bluegrass and/or Mitchell Grass dominated grassland (RE 11.3.21), which may correspond to the EPBC Act listed Critically Endangered Natural Grasslands on Basalt and Fine-textured Alluvial Plains of Northern New South Wales and Southern Queensland ecological community, depending on the listing criteria.
  • Coolibah - Bimble/Poplar Box and Weeping Myall grassy woodlands which may correspond to the EPBC Act listed Coolibah - Black Box Woodlands of the Darling Riverine Plains and the Brigalow Belt South Bioregions.
  • White Box Grassy Woodland which may correspond to the EPBC Act listed Critically Endangered White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland ecological community, depending on the listing criteria.
  • Myall Woodland which corresponds to the EPBC Act listed Weeping Myall Woodlands ecological community, depending on the listing criteria.
  • Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla dominant and co-dominant) EPBC Act listed ecological community.

Very little is known about the species' biology. Average clutch size or mortality rates for newborns is unknown. One specimen was observed laying three eggs in spring (NSW DECCW 2005ab).

No information is available about the species' feeding behaviour in the wild; however, it is believed to feed on arthropods, such as white ants. Captive specimens have been recorded eating mealworms (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; NSW DECCW 2005ab).

Species distinctiveness and detectability

The Five-clawed Worm-skink is an elongate species of skink with very short fore and hindlimbs. It is only likely to be confused with the Two-clawed Worm-skink, Anomalopus leuckartii; the two species come into close contact along the western edge of the North Western Slopes of NSW. The Five-clawed Worm-skink can be distinguished by having three toes on the front foot, whereas A. leuckartii has two; however, determination of these characters can be difficult (Swan et al. 2004, cited in DSEWPaC 2011m).

Sampling and recording of observed specimens

Observation records of specimens should be supported by good-quality, colour photographs. It is important that a macro lens or function be used to photograph the toes. Photo vouchers should be forwarded to the appropriate state museum for positive identification and data collation of the record (DSEWPaC 2011m). Tissue sampling should only be undertaken with appropriate training in tissue preservation, ethics approval and State permits to collect samples. Where possible photo vouchers should include close-up colour shots of the limb areas, and the head, body and tail dorsally, ventrally and laterally. Dead specimens (e.g. roadkills) should be frozen and advice on preservation and lodgement sought from the Australian Museum or the Queensland Museum (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; DSEWPaC 2011m).

Survey methods

Habitat assessment

A habitat assessment is recommended to be undertaken as a preliminary step to designing and undertaking a targeted survey, including:

  • Determine the proximity of nearest records to the study area.
  • Search relevant databases such as Zoology Data Search (Queensland Museum) and Wildlife Online (Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management).
  • Obtain State vegetation mapping for the study area to determine the extent of suitable habitat including the presence of associated vegetation communities.
  • Determine the presence of suitable microhabitat features in the study area.

Targeted survey

Surveys on the floodplains (New South Wales and Queensland)

During dry periods on the floodplains, the Five-clawed Worm-skink is likely to inhabit deep cracks in alluvial clay soils, which makes them difficult to find through active searching of microhabitat features. The deployment and regular monitoring of artificial shelter sites (e.g., hay bales, canite, particle boards and old carpet) is likely to be the most effective method of detecting the species as it is likely to shelter at or near the soil surface in such locations (Spark 2010).

It is recommended that the establishment and monitoring of artificial shelter sites be used as the primary survey technique. Active searching of microhabitats by hand should be conducted as a supplementary technique when and where there is a possibility of finding a specimen under natural or artificial debris, during periods when topsoils underneath are likely to be moist (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; Spark 2010).

Surveys on the slopes

On the lower north-western slopes of the Great Dividing Range in New South Wales, the species is more likely to be found sheltering at or near the soil surface under leaf litter, course woody debris or at the bases of trees or tussocks in grassy woodlands on friable, basalt-derived soils. In this environment, active searching by hand is an effective survey technique, however, to increase the chance of detecting the species, it is recommended that the surveyor also makes use of artificial shelter sites. Optimal times for searching by hand are from early morning to dusk (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Pitfall trapping may be used to survey, where practicable, on the friable basalt derived soils of the lower slopes. However, this method is not considered an effective method for capturing burrowing species, such as the Five-clawed Worm-skink, as they are likely to burrow into soils beside pitfall buckets (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Optimal conditions for active searching

The species is more likely to be detected when conditions are warm, not too dry and maximum temperatures are greater than 25°C. Optimal survey times for active searching are early morning (two hours either side of dawn) and during the evening on warm nights (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; DSEWPaC 2011m).

Minimum survey effort

Sufficient time is required to thoroughly search the area by day and to spotlight by night. The minimum survey effort required includes (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010):

  • a minimum of three survey days and nights
  • at least one replicate survey employing all of the recommended techniques, if the species has not already been detected.

The Five-clawed Worm-skink has undergone decline in the past few decades. A number of factors that may contribute to this decline have been identified as (Cogger et al. 1993; NSW DECCW 2005ab; TSN 2008b):

Land clearing

Land clearing for agriculture has been particularly severe within the species' range (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Overgrazing

Overgrazing is known to compact soil, making it difficult for the species to find suitable shelter (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Removal of ground debris

The removal of ground litter, fallen timber and logs reduces soil humidity. This means the soils are drier, making it harder for the species to access suitable habitat. Removing logs and timber also reduces the amount of shelter available for the species (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Use of agricultural chemicals

Agricultural chemicals may poison and pollute the soil which may adversely affect the species (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).

Feral species

Predation by feral species, such as cats and foxes, is a threat facing much of Australia's native wildlife including the Five-clawed Worm-skink (NSW NPWS 1999av).

A recovery plan for the Queensland Brigalow Belt Reptiles, including the Five-clawed Worm-skink, was drafted by WWF-Australia in 2006 (Richardson 2006). The recovery actions outlined in this plan, and in the species profile on the Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (Queensland DERM 2010b), are as follows:

  • Encourage involvement, provide incentives and adopt a collaborative approach with government agencies, NRM regional bodies, the Indigenous community, key industry stakeholders and local governments to deliver region-specific information and implement sustained, effective recovery actions.
  • Identify research priorities: develop and support the implementation of research projects undertaken by tertiary and research institutions.
  • Inspect and identify suitable habitat for conservation of the Five-clawed Worm-skink.
  • Identify key threats and develop management guidelines to protect key habitat.
  • Maximise the establishment of appropriate reserves to protect the Five-clawed Worm-skink habitat and landscape connectivity over the long term, e.g. on stock route networks, road reserves and private lands.
  • Ensure the Five-clawed Worm-skink conservation is incorporated into appropriate land management decisions made by all levels of government and industry.
  • Develop and provide land management guidelines and incentives for landowners to reduce the impact of current land use practices on the species outside reserves.
  • Negotiate management agreements and voluntary conservation agreements with landholders, on whose land the Five-clawed Worm-skink occurs, in line with the recommended management guidelines.
  • Facilitate on-grounds projects to manage and protect habitats on a range of land tenures in line with recommended management guidelines, for example, in integrated weed and feral predator management programs.
  • Develop community awareness within the species' known range through media campaigns and education material and provide incentives for wider community involvement, e.g. local governments and schools participating in reptile educational programs and adopting a local reptile species as their shire and/or school icon.
  • Implement recommended fire management guidelines in property and reserve designs.
  • Work with landholders and key stakeholders to undertake monitoring programs on selected sites.
  • Monitor and evaluate recovery actions applying an adaptive management approach.

The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles

This action plan states that knowledge of the Five-clawed Worm-skink is inadequate. More research into the species is needed in order to define objectives and actions to assist in recovery (Cogger et al. 1993). The report identifies three crucial research areas:

  • ground surveys to determine the full geographic range and habitat requirements of the species
  • research into basic biology and ecology of the species
  • research into the species' decline and major factors behind the decline.

Six management actions were identified in the plan. These include:

  • deferring of licenses to clear remnant woodland within the species' known range
  • surveying known habitat in reserves
  • surveying known habitat outside of reserves
  • developing and promoting guidelines for landowners to help reduce the impact of current land use
  • establishing appropriate reserves if the existing reserves are deemed inadequate
  • developing community awareness of the species (Cogger et al. 1993).

These actions are combined with three objectives also detailed in the plan. The objectives include:

  • conducting the research required
  • ensuring existing populations are managed in reserve systems
  • implementing land management practices which promote the maintenance of secure, viable populations outside of reserve systems (Cogger et al. 1993).

The Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management

The Queensland government has released a Conservation Management Profile for the Five-Clawed Worm-skink (note that the profile refers to the species as the Long-legged Worm-skink). The profile contains methods to manage threats associated with the species (Queensland EPA 2007b) which include:

  • using buffers to ensure no clearing of native vegetation in areas in which the species occurs
  • fire management to ensure fire regimes maintain the species' habitat
  • sustainable grazing to reduce the impacts of grazing on soils and native vegetation
  • weed management to contain or eradicate weeds within site where the species occurs
  • managing resource use to ensure habitat and shelter exists to protect the species from prey
  • consideration of the impact of drainage in terms of chemical pollution from agriculture.

Approved Conservation Advice (TSSC 2008di)

Approved conservation advice given by the Department (TSSC 2008di) outlines a number of actions essential to the conservation of the Five-Clawed Worm-skink. The actions and objectives of the advice are sourced from various State agencies, hence they are consistent with those mentioned above.

Mitigation measures or approaches that have been developed for the Five-clawed Worm-skink are (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010):

  • alternative project locations
  • avoid clearing/ retain habitat
  • design proposed action to avoid habitat disturbance
  • establish adequate buffer zones to protect habitat
  • implement measures to exclude cattle from habitats
  • maintain habitat connectivity across the landscape, e.g., along roadside reserves, uncultivated lands between cropped and pasture-improved areas
  • retain shelter habitat features in place
  • devise and implement a habitat management plan specific to the Five-clawed Worm-skink
  • implement measures to reduce the risk of invasive and predatory species accessing reptile habitat species┐ habitat, e.g. Buffel Grass.
  • devise and implement an appropriate fire management plan
  • devise and implement water management, sediment erosion and pollution control plans.

Major studies include the Survey of the Habitat Requirements and Review of the Conservation Status of the Five-clawed Worm-skink (Anomalopus mackayi) within the Namoi River Catchment (Spark 2010).

Management documentation for the Five clawed Worm-skink include:

  • Threat Abatement Plan for predation by the European Red Fox (DEWHA 2008zzq)
  • Threat Abatement Plan for predation by Feral Cats (DEWHA 2008zzz)
  • Commonwealth Conservation Advice for Anomalopus mackayi (TSSC 2008di)
  • Draft National Recovery Plan for the Queensland Brigalow Belt Reptiles (Richardson 2006).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles (Cogger, H.G., E.E. Cameron, R.A. Sadlier & P. Eggler, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Reptile diversity at risk in the Brigalow Belt, Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 42(2):475-486. (Covacevich, J.A., P.J. Couper & K.R. McDonald, 1998) [Journal].
Anomalopus mackayi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006bw) [Internet].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Land clearance (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001w) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Anomalopus mackayi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006bw) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Anomalopus mackayi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006bw) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Anomalopus mackayi (Five-clawed Worm-skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008di) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Anomalopus mackayi (Five-clawed Worm-skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008di) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Anomalopus mackayi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006bw) [Internet].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Anomalopus mackayi (Five-clawed Worm-skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008di) [Conservation Advice].
Pollution:Pollution:Soil contamination Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Anomalopus mackayi (Five-clawed Worm-skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008di) [Conservation Advice].

Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop (2010). Proceedings from the workshop for the nine listed reptiles of the Brigalow Belt bioregions. 18-19 August. Brisbane: Queensland Herbarium.

Cogger, H.G. (2000). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia - 6th edition. Sydney, NSW: Reed New Holland.

Cogger, H.G., E.E. Cameron, R.A. Sadlier & P. Eggler (1993). The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Australian Nature Conservation Agency. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/action/reptiles/index.html.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011m). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened reptiles. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.6 . [Online]. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPaC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-reptiles.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzq). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/foxes08.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzz). Background document for the threat abatement plan for predation by feral cats. Background document for the threat abatement plan for predation by feral cats, DEWHA, Canberra.

Eddie, C. (2010). Personal Communication. Ecologist, Boobook.

Greer, A.E. & H.G. Cogger (1985). Systematics of the reduced-limbed and limbless skinks currently assigned to the genus Anomalopus (Lacertilia: Scincidae). Records of the Australian Museum. 37 (1):11-54.

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. [Online]. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org.

NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2005ab). Five-clawed Worm-skink - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10055.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1999av). Five-clawed Worm-skink - Threatened Species Information. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/tsprofileFiveclawedWormskink.pdf.

Queensland Department of the Environment and Resource Management (Queensland DERM) (2010). Wildlife and Ecosystems- Striped-tailed Delma. [Online]. Available from: http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife-ecosystems/wildlife/az_of_animals/stripedtailed_delma.html.

Queensland Environment Protection Agency (EPA) (2007b). Long-legged worm-skink Anomalopus mackayi Conservation Management Profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/register/p02321aa.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Anomalopus mackayi in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 2 Sep 2014 23:58:56 +1000.