Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery plan for Stream Frogs of South-east Queensland 2001–2005 (Hines, H.B. & South-east Queensland Threatened Frogs Recovery Team (SEQTFRT), 2002) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis (Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006o) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Frogs. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.3 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010h) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Fleay's Barred Frog - endangered species listing. NSW Scientific Committee - final determination (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2000c) [Internet].
NSW:Fleay's Barred Frog - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005ht) [Internet].
NSW:Threatened Species Management Information Circular No.6 - Hygiene protocol for the control of disease in frogs (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2008b) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Predation by Gambusia holbrooki - The Plague Minnow (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2003i) [State Threat Abatement Plan].
Non-government
    Documents and Websites
Biodiversity Recovery Plan for Gatton and Laidley Shires, South-East Queensland 2003-2008 (Boyes, B., 2004).
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013)
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): July 2012)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2011.2)
Scientific name Mixophyes fleayi [25960]
Family Myobatrachidae:Anura:Amphibia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Corben and Ingram,1987
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Mixophyes fleayi

Common name: Fleay's Frog

Fleay's Frog is a large fossorial frog growing to 90 mm (snout-vent length 63 to 89 mm) with a steeply sloped, blunt snout. The dorsal surface is light to dark brown with indistinct darker marbling. A dark brown Y-shaped vertebral band with irregular edges starts between the eyes and extends to the vent, sometimes breaking up into a series of blotches along the mid-line. The sides are grey-brown, fading to yellow posteriorly and overlaid by a series of black spots. There is an irregular dark band running from the nostrils through the eye to a point behind the tympanum. There is a dark purple patch beneath the eye. The upper lip is usually mottled brown. The ventral surfaces of the body and limbs are typically yellow, the throat and underside of the thighs may be speckled with brown. The vocal sac is present in males. The soles and palms are black. The thighs are grey-brown, with 7 to 8 narrow, black cross-bands (Barker et al. 1995, Cogger 1996, 2000; Corben and Ingram 1987, Meyer et al. 2001)

The fingers are unwebbed, slightly expanded at the tips. The toes are half-webbed, possessing webbing to the base of the terminal phalanges of the first, second, and fifth toes, while two phalanges of the third toe, and those of the fourth toe are free of web but fringed. Palmar tubercles are rounded, well developed; inner metatarsal tubercle as long as first toe, outer metacarpal more elongate and about half the size of the inner (Barker et al. 1995, Cogger 1996, 2000; Corben and Ingram 1987, Meyer et al. 2001).

Males develop dark brown nuptial pads on the prepollex, first and sometimes second finger. The pupil is vertical. In adults the upper part of the iris may be straw-brown through light blue to silvery-white. In sub-adults the upper third of the iris is flame orange. The tympanum is large and oval-shaped, sloping backwards. (Barker et al. 1995, Cogger 1996, 2000; Corben and Ingram 1987, Meyer et al. 2001).

Fleay's Frog is narrowly and disjunctly distributed in wet forests from the Conondale Range in south-east Queensland, south to Yabbra Scrub in north-east New South Wales. While the majority of records for the species are from altitudes above 400 m, Fleay's Frog is also known from lowland rainforest; 200 m (Goldingay et al. 1999), 90 and 150 m (Hines & Shoo unpubl. data).

In Queensland, populations are currently known from the Conondale Range, Lamington Plateau and the northern section of Main Range, Mt Barney area and Currumbin and Tallebudgera Creek below Springbrook Plateau. Despite targeted surveys, there have been no records of the species from the extensively developed Mt Tamborine area since 1976 (Hines et al. 1999). There is a museum specimen of Fleay's Frog collected from Bunya Mt in 1970 (Hines unpubl. data), however, recent surveys have failed to locate the species from this area (Hines 2001, pers. comm.). Corben (in McDonald 1991) reported that the species declined in the Conondale Range in the late 1970s. Ingram & McDonald (1993) reported that the species has not been seen in the Conondale Range since the summer of 1990 to 1991. Since Ingram & McDonald's (1993) review, targeted surveys have been undertaken (Goldingay et al. 1999; Hines et al. 1999).

In New South Wales the species is known from Lever's Plateau (Border Ranges), Yabbra and Tooloom Scrubs, Mt Warning, Terania Creek in Nightcap Range and Sheepstation Creek in the Border Ranges (Hines et al. 1999; Mahony et al. 1997b). Fleay's Frog has disappeared from some locations, though whether populations have declined at other locations is difficult to assess due to a lack of information on the abundance of the species at historical sites (Hines et al. 1999). The very low numbers recorded from many well surveyed sites suggests that declines in abundance may have occurred (Goldingay et al. 1999; Hines et al. 1999).

The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 7000 km² (Hines et al. 1999).

Fleay's Frog is known from the following National Parks and State Forests:

Queensland - Lamington, Main Range and Conondale Range National Parks and Goomburra State Forest (Hines et al. 1999), Springbrook and Mt Barney National Parks (Hero 2001, pers. comm.).

New South Wales - Mebbin National Park (Hero 2001, pers. comm.), Yabbra State Forest (Hines et al. 1999), Border Ranges, Mt Warning, Nightcap and Tooloom National Parks (Goldingay et al. 1999).

A captive husbandry project has been initiated at Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary (Hines & SEQTFRT 2002).

Fleay's Frog is known from the following National Parks and State Forests:

Queensland - Lamington, Main Range and Conondale Range National Parks and Goomburra State Forest (Hines et al. 1999), Springbrook and Mt Barney National Parks (Hero 2001, pers. comm.).

New South Wales - Mebbin National Park (Hero 2001, pers. comm.), Yabbra State Forest (Hines et al. 1999), Border Ranges, Mt Warning, Nightcap and Tooloom National Parks (Goldingay et al. 1999).

A captive husbandry project has been initiated at Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary (Hines & SEQTFRT 2002).

Fleay's Frog is associated with montane rainforest (Corben & Ingram 1987) and open forest communities adjoining rainforest (Hines 2001, pers. comm.). The species occurs along stream habitats from first to third order streams (i.e. small streams close to their origin through to permanent streams with grades of 1 in 50) and is not found in ponds or ephemeral pools. Adults may be found in leaf litter and along watercourses in rainforest and adjoining wet sclerophyll forests (Hines & SEQTFRT 2002). At some locations where the species has been recorded, riparian vegetation has been disturbed and replaced by weeds, however this is considered marginal habitat (Mahony et al. 1997). Tadpoles do occur with several species of native fish, however no introduced fish species have been observed in sympatry with this species (Hines unpubl. data, pers. comm. 2001; Mahony et al. 1997).

In Queensland, important habitat has been defined as: 'permanent and semi-permanent freshwater streams, between 100-1000 m in altitude, in rainforest and other forest communities of the McPherson, Main and Conondale Ranges, Mt Tamborine, and the Mistake and Bunya Mountains' (Hines & SEQTFRT 2002).

The reproductive biology of Fleay's Frog is very similar to that of Mixophyes balbus (Gillespie & Hines 1999). Both species construct a nest in the shallow running water that occurs between pools in relatively wide, flat sections of mountain streams (Knowles et al. 1998). Between 652 and 1290 eggs (Morrison 2001, pers. comm.) are deposited in a shallow excavation in the stream bed or pasted directly onto bed rock (Knowles et al. 1998). Fleay's Frog does not appear to breed during and immediately after heavy rain when water flow is high, presumably due to the lack of suitable oviposition sites and the threat of nests and tadpoles being washed down stream (O'Reilly & Hines unpubl. data, pers. comm. 2001).

Female Fleay's Frog and subadults have been found hundreds of metres from breeding sites in Lamington National Park (H. Hines unpubl. data). Preliminary radio-tracking studies on movement have found males moved up to 35 m, and females moved up to 58 m away from the stream (Doak 2002, pers. comm.).

The methods that have successfully been used in the past to survey Fleay's Frog are visual encounter surveys, call surveys and larval sampling (UC 2003).

Call surveys should be conducted during the known calling period of Fleay's Frog, between July and March (Goldingay et al. 1999; Mahony et al. 1997). Males call from under leaf litter, from exposed rocks in stream beds or from the edges of pools beside streams (Corben & Ingram 1987). Calling activity is related to temperature and stream conditions (O'Reilly 2001, pers comm.; Hines 2001, pers. comm.).

The larval period of Fleay's Frog is from July to March (Goldingay et al. 1999; Mahony et al. 1997). Breeding has been recorded in all months between July and April, with peaks in spring and autumn (Corben & Ingram 1987; Hines 2001, pers. comm.). Eggs are laid on bedrock in flat shallow sections of streams (Corben & Ingram 1987).

The reason(s) for the decline or disappearance of Fleay's Frog populations are not known. Large areas of the species' habitat have been and continue to be degraded by feral animals (e.g. pigs in the Conondale Range), domestic stock (Main Range) and invasion of weeds (i.e. Mistflower Ageratina riparia and crofton weed A. adenophora) (Hines et al. 1999). Upstream clearing, timber harvesting and urban development (e.g. Mt Tamborine) are all likely to have affected flow regimes and water quality (Hines et al. 1999). A chytrid fungal infection has been identified as the cause of illness and death of Fleay's Frog on Main Range and Lamington Plateau (Berger et al. 1998; Speare & Berger 2000), and investigation of the role of chytrid fungus in the decline of the species is a focus of its recovery program (Hines & SEQTFRT 2002).

Chytridiomycosis, caused by the chytrid fungus, is an infectious disease affecting amphibians worldwide. The disease has been recorded in four regions of Australia, namely the east coast, south-west Western Australia, Adelaide, and more recently Tasmania. This highly virulent fungal pathogen of amphibians is capable at the minimum of causing sporadic deaths in some populations, and 100 per cent mortality in other populations (DEH 2006).

Damage from feral pigs has increased greatly in recent years (Hines & SEQTFRT 2002). While there is potential for direct predation by pigs, the greatest impact is likely to be from increased silt on embryos and tadpoles (Hines & SEQTFRT 2002). Trampling by domestic stock is likely to have deleterious impacts on oviposition sites of the species (Knowles et al. 1998).

The Department of the Environment and Heritage has developed a threat abatement plan which aims to :

  • Prevent amphibian populations or regions that are currently chytridiomycosis-free from becoming infected by preventing further spread of the amphibian chytrid within Australia,
  • Decrease the impact of infection with the amphibian chytrid fungus on populations that are currently infected.

The Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis can be found at http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/chytrid/index.html

Populations of Fleay's Frog tend to be characterised by low density and are often isolated from other populations (Goldingay et al. 1999; Hines et al. 1999). The stability of small populations and the effect of isolation on genetic variation within each population is unknown.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 44-63. (Hines, H., M. Mahony & K. McDonald, 1999) [Book].
Recovery plan for Stream Frogs of South-east Queensland 2001–2005 (Hines, H.B. & South-east Queensland Threatened Frogs Recovery Team (SEQTFRT), 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Oviposition of the barred-frogs (Mixophyes species) in southeastern Australia with implications for management (Knowles, R., H.B. Hines, K. Thum, M. Mahony & M. Cunningham, 1998) [Proceedings].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 44-63. (Hines, H., M. Mahony & K. McDonald, 1999) [Book].
Recovery plan for Stream Frogs of South-east Queensland 2001–2005 (Hines, H.B. & South-east Queensland Threatened Frogs Recovery Team (SEQTFRT), 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ageratina riparia (Mistflower, Mist Flower, Creeping Croftonweed, River Eupatorium, Spreading Mistflower) Mixophyes fleayi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006oy) [Internet].
An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 44-63. (Hines, H., M. Mahony & K. McDonald, 1999) [Book].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ageratina adenophora (Crofton Weed, Catweed, Hemp Agrimony, Mexican Devil, Sticky Agrimony, Sticky Eupatorium) Mixophyes fleayi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006oy) [Internet].
An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 44-63. (Hines, H., M. Mahony & K. McDonald, 1999) [Book].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 44-63. (Hines, H., M. Mahony & K. McDonald, 1999) [Book].
Recovery plan for Stream Frogs of South-east Queensland 2001–2005 (Hines, H.B. & South-east Queensland Threatened Frogs Recovery Team (SEQTFRT), 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rainforest of Australia and Central America. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA. 95:9031-9036. (Berger, L., R. Speare, P. Daszak, D.E. Green, A.A. Cunningham, C.L. Goggin, R. Slocombe, M.A. Ragan, A.D. Hyatt, K.R. McDonald, H.B. Hines, K.R. Lips, G. Marrantelli & H. Parkes, 1998) [Proceedings].
Recovery plan for Stream Frogs of South-east Queensland 2001–2005 (Hines, H.B. & South-east Queensland Threatened Frogs Recovery Team (SEQTFRT), 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Chytridiomycosis in amphibians in Australia (Speare, R & L. Berger, 2000) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, grazing, predation and/or habitat degradation by rats Recovery plan for Stream Frogs of South-east Queensland 2001–2005 (Hines, H.B. & South-east Queensland Threatened Frogs Recovery Team (SEQTFRT), 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 44-63. (Hines, H., M. Mahony & K. McDonald, 1999) [Book].
Recovery plan for Stream Frogs of South-east Queensland 2001–2005 (Hines, H.B. & South-east Queensland Threatened Frogs Recovery Team (SEQTFRT), 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals The status of Rainforest Stream Frogs in north-eastern New South Wales: decline or recovery?. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 64-71. (Goldingay, R., D. Newell & M. Graham, 1999) [Book].
An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 44-63. (Hines, H., M. Mahony & K. McDonald, 1999) [Book].
Uncategorised:Uncategorised:threats not specified Recovery plan for Stream Frogs of South-east Queensland 2001–2005 (Hines, H.B. & South-east Queensland Threatened Frogs Recovery Team (SEQTFRT), 2002) [Recovery Plan].

Berger, L., R. Speare, P. Daszak, D.E. Green, A.A. Cunningham, C.L. Goggin, R. Slocombe, M.A. Ragan, A.D. Hyatt, K.R. McDonald, H.B. Hines, K.R. Lips, G. Marrantelli & H. Parkes (1998). Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rainforest of Australia and Central America. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA. 95:9031-9036.

Cogger, H.G. (2000). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia - 6th edition. Sydney, NSW: Reed New Holland.

Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2006o). Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/chytrid.html.

Corben, C.J. & G.J. Ingram (1987). A new barred river frog (Myobatrachidae: Mixophyes). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 25:233-237.

Doak, N. (2002). Personal Communication.

Gillespie, G.R. & H.B. Hines (1999). Status of temperate riverine frogs in south-eastern Australia. In: A. Campbell, ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 109-130. Canberra: Environment Australia.

Goldingay, R., D. Newell & M. Graham (1999). The status of Rainforest Stream Frogs in north-eastern New South Wales: decline or recovery?. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 64-71. Canberra: Environment Australia.

Hero, J-M. (2001). Personal Communication.

Hines, H. (2001). Personal Communication.

Hines, H., M. Mahony & K. McDonald (1999). An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A., ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 44-63. [Online]. Canberra: Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/frogs.html.

Hines, H.B. & South-east Queensland Threatened Frogs Recovery Team (SEQTFRT) (2002). Recovery plan for Stream Frogs of South-east Queensland 2001–2005. [Online]. Report to Environment Australia, Canberra. Brisbane, Queensland: Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/stream-frogs/index.html.

Ingram, G.J. & K.R. McDonald (1993). An update on the decline of Queenslands frogs. In: Lunney, D. & D. Ayers, eds. Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline. Page(s) 297-303. Sydney, NSW: Royal Zoological Society of NSW.

Knowles, R., H.B. Hines, K. Thum, M. Mahony & M. Cunningham (1998). Oviposition of the barred-frogs (Mixophyes species) in southeastern Australia with implications for management.

Mahony, M., R. Knowles & L. Pattinson (1997b). Silverblue-eyed Barred Frog, Mixophyes fleayi. In: H. Ehmann, ed. Threatened Frogs of New South Wales: Habitats, Status and Conservation. Page(s) 72-77. Frog & Tadpole Study Group of NSW, Sydney.

McDonald, K.R. (1991). Report of a workshop on declining frog populations in Queensland. Queensland National Parks and Wildlife Service: unpub. report.

Meyer, E., H. Hines & J-M. Hero (2001a). Fleay's Barred-Frog, Mixophyes fleayi. In: Wet Forest Frogs of South-east Queensland. Page(s) 28-29. Griffith Uni., Gold Coast.

Morrison, C. (2001). Personal Communication.

O'Reilly, W. (2001). Personal Communication.

Speare, R & L. Berger (2000). Chytridiomycosis in amphibians in Australia. [Online]. Townsville, Queensland: Rainforest CRC & School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University. Available from: http://www.jcu.edu.au/school/phtm/PHTM/frogs/chyspec.htm.

University of Canberra (UC) - Applied Ecology Research Group (2003). Survey Standards for Australian Frogs. Canberra, Australia.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Mixophyes fleayi in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 24 Apr 2014 08:05:39 +1000.