Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Not listed under EPBC Act
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Acanthiza iredalei iredalei (Slender-billed Thornbill (western)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2013ed) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, species delisted from the EPBC Act (14/12/2013).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (150) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2013ac) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NT:Threatened Species of the Northern Territory - Slender-billed Thornbill Acanthiza iredalei iredalei (Pavey, C. & S. Ward, 2012a) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Rare (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): Rare species: June 2011 list)
Scientific name Acanthiza iredalei iredalei [25967]
Family Pardalotidae:Passeriformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Mathews, 1911
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map not available for this taxon.
Illustrations Google Images

National: Acanthiza iredalei iredalei was removed from the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 list of threatened species on 14 December 2013.

South Australia: Listed, at the species level, as Vulnerable under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972.

Northern Territory: Listed, at the species level, as Extinct under the Territory Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 2000.

Scientific name: Acanthiza iredalei iredalei.

Common name: Slender-billed Thornbill (western).

Other names: At the species level, the Slender-billed Thornbill A. iredalei is also known as the Dark, Samphire, Slender, Small-billed or Small-tailed Thornbill, and as the Slender-billed, Small-billed or Southern Thin-billed Tit (Higgins & Peter 2002).

The taxonomy of this subspecies is conventionally accepted (Matthew 1994; Schodde & Mason 1999).

The Slender-billed Thornbill (western) is a small bird measuring approximately 10 cm in length, with a wingspan of about 14-15 cm and a mass of about 5-6 g. The adults are olive-grey above, but have a black patch with white scalloping on the forehead, a cream to buff band that extends from the base of the bill to behind the eyes, cream ear-coverts with olive-grey mottling, a cream chin and throat with fine dusky flecking that is visible only at close range, a cream or pale-buff patch on the rump, and a blackish tail with a pale-grey tip. The underbody is mostly cream coloured, although some adults have dusky flecking on the upper breast, and some have a rich cream-yellow colouring on the flanks and a pale greyish tinge to the rear part of the underbody. The adults have a black or grey-black bill, off-white to cream or cream-yellow irises, and black legs and feet that sometimes have a greyish or brownish tinge. The plumage of adult males and adult females is alike (Higgins & Peter 2002).

The juveniles are very similar in appearance to the adults, but have looser and fluffier plumage, duller and less defined scalloping on the forehead, uniform off-white or cream colouring on the chin that lacks the fine dusky flecking of the adults, and the narrow, light-brown fringes to the secondary and tertial feathers of the wings. Juveniles that have recently left the nest (i.e. fledged) also have an obvious pale gape and darker, blue-grey to grey or brown irises (Higgins & Peter 2002).

The Slender-billed Thornbill (western) usually occurs in pairs, or in small flocks of up to ten birds (Baxter & Paton 1998; Klau 1988; Recher & Davis 2000; Storr 1986, 1987). It may congregate into larger flocks from time to time, given that flocks of up to 20 and, rarely, up to 60 birds have been recorded in other subspecies of the Slender-billed Thornbill (Matthew 2002; Parsons 1919; White 1919). The Slender-billed Thornbill (western) sometimes associates with other birds, such as Chestnut-rumped Thornbills Acanthiza uropygialis (Storr 1985b), Southern Whitefaces Aphelocephala leucopsis and Orange Chats Epthianura aurifrons (Storr 1987). It breeds in solitary pairs (Recher & Davis 2000).

The Slender-billed Thornbill (western) occurs in arid and semi-arid regions of southern Western Australia and south-western South Australia. Its known distribution extends from near Carnarvon in Western Australia, east though central Western Australia, and across the Nullarbor Plain to Whyalla, Port Augusta and Port Davis in South Australia (Barrett et al. 2003; Blakers et al. 1984; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Matthew 1994; J.S. Matthew 2006, pers. comm.; Schodde & Mason 1999).

TThe extent of occurrence is estimated to be 1 400 000 km². This estimate, which is based on published maps, is considered to be of medium reliability (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

There have not been any recent, major changes in the extent of occurrence (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Matthew 1994), but the extent of occurrence does appear to have declined in the past. The distribution of the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) formerly extended to near Mullewa in south-western Western Australia (Storr 1991), a cattle station in the south of the Northern Territory (Parker 1971), Moorilyanna Soak and Wantapella Swamp in northern South Australia, and Leigh Creek in eastern South Australia (Matthew 1994), but there have been no recent records of the subspecies from any of these locations (Matthew 1994; Parker 1971; Storr 1991). The apparent disappearance of the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) from these locations suggests that the extent of occurrence has decreased in size, although the subspecies could still persist in some areas of northern and eastern South Australia. For example, the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) was recorded on the Olary Plain, near the Nakara region, in 2006 (Matthew 2006, pers. comm.), 80 years after the previous, and only other, record in the Nakara region (Matthew 1994).

The area of occupancy is estimated to be 400 000 km². This estimate, which is based on the number of 1 km² grid squares that the subspecies is thought to occur in at the time when its population is most constrained, is considered to be of low reliability (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

There have not been any recent, major changes in the area of occupancy (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Matthew 1994), but the area of occupancy does appear to have declined in the past. There have been no recent records of the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) at the known former limits of its distribution in south-western Western Australia (Storr 1991), the south of the Northern Territory (Parker 1971; Matthew 1994), and northern and eastern South Australia (Matthew 1994). In addition, there have not been any recent records of the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) at Lake Violet in Western Australia (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Storr 1985b). The apparent disappearance of the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) from these locations indicate that the area of occupancy has decreased in size.

It is not known to what degree the distribution of the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) is fragmented. However, the thornbill appears to have disappeared from several areas that were formerly occupied (Blakers et al. 1984; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Matthew 1994; Parker 1971; Storr 1985b, 1991), and the populations that remain may be more fragmented than they were previously (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

There has only been one targeted survey for the Slender-billed Thornbill (western). This was conducted during 1991 and 1992, and involved searches at a number of sites in South Australia (Matthew 1994). Because of the lack of targeted surveys, the inconspicuous nature of the bird, and the inaccessibility of its preferred habitats, the distribution and, even more so, the population size of the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) are poorly known. For these reasons, current estimates of the distribution and population size possibly underestimate the actual distribution and population size.

The total population size of the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) is estimated at 100 000 breeding birds. However, this estimate is considered to be of low reliability (Garnett & Crowley 2000). This estimate appears to have been extrapolated from estimates of South Australian populations, which are provided below.

The South Australian population is estimated to consist of at least 30 000 birds. This includes minimum estimates of 15 000 birds in the Gawler Ranges and upper Eyre Peninsula, 10 000 birds on the Nullarbor Plain, 4 000 birds in the regions north-east of Tarcoola, and 1 000 birds around Port Pirie (Matthew 1994). The size of the Western Australian population has not been estimated. It has been claimed that the population in Western Australia is likely to be larger than the population in South Australia, on the basis that the area of occupancy is estimated to be at least four times greater in Western Australia than it is in South Australia (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, with the exception of the mid-western coastal region betweeen Carnarvon and Long Point (where it is said to be moderately common to common), the subspecies is said to be uncommon or rare in Western Australia (Johnstone & Storr 2004).

The Slender-billed Thornbill (western) is estimated to occur in seven subpopulations (Matthew 2006, pers. comm.). This estimate replaces an earlier, low-reliability estimate of two subpopulations (Garnett & Crowley 2000) that is considered to be erroneous (Matthew 2006, pers. comm.).

The seven subpopulations are located in the following areas:

  • Carnarvon-Shark Bay region of Western Australia;
  • central-southern Western Australia;
  • Nullarbor Plain;
  • Gawler Ranges, South Australia;
  • near Tarcoola in South Australia;
  • northern Spencer Gulf, from Redcliff Point to Port Davis, in South Australia; and
  • Olary Plain, near the Nakara region, east of Flinders Ranges.

It is thought that there may be additional extant populations in northern South Australia (Matthew 2006, pers. comm.), although the subspecies has not been recorded in northern South Australia since the early 1900s (Barrett et al. 2003; Matthew 1994).

Estimates of population size are only available for the subpopulations on the Nullarbor Plain (10 000 birds), the Gawler Ranges (15 000 birds), near Tarcoola (4 000 birds), and between Point Redcliff and Port Davis (more than 1 000 birds) (Matthew 1994).

The seven subpopulations are likely to occur, collectively, in conservation reserves, on private and leasehold land, and on land occupied by indigenous people.

The total population size of the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) is likely to be stable at present (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, the apparent disappearance of the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) from several areas that were formerly occupied (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Matthew 1994; Parker 1971; Storr 1985b, 1991) is indicative of a historical decline in population size. It was also claimed that numbers of the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) had declined around Tarcoola in South Australia (Pedler 1992), and had possibly declined on the Nullarbor Plain (Brooker et al. 1979), but these claims have been refuted by a more recent study (Matthew 1994).

The generation length for the Slender-billed Thornbill is estimated to be four years. This estimate is considered to be of low reliability due to the lack of reliable information on the life history of the subspecies (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The long-term survival of the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) is likely to depend on the preservation of the large regional populations that encompass most of the accepted distribution. These comprise local populations that occur in the Carnarvon Basin in Western Australia, on the Nullarbor Plain in Western Australia and South Australia, north-west of Lake Gairdner in South Australia, and in the Gawler Ranges and around Spencer Gulf in South Australia (Matthew 1994; Matthew 2002, pers. comm.).

It is thought that the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) populations in northern South Australia, if still extant, and east of the Flinders Ranges, and possibly those that occur north-west of Lake Gairdner, are most likely to be in decline (Matthew 2002, pers. comm.).

The plumage characters of three Slender-billed Thornbill skins collected at Port Broughton, on the north-west Yorke Peninsula in South Australia, indicate that there may have been some intergradation between populations of the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) and the Saint Vincent's Gulf subspecies A. i. rosinae in the Port Pirie - Port Broughton region (Higgins & Peter 2002; Matthew 1994; Schodde & Mason 1999). However, no Slender-billed Thornbill populations have been recorded in the Port Broughton area for more than 50 years and, consequently, it appears that the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) and A. i. rosinae are now completely separated geographically (Higgins & Peter 2002). Thus, it is likely that intergradation between these two subspecies no longer occurs.

The Atlas of Australian Birds records the Slender-billed Thornbill in 12 conservation reserves since 1998 (n=32 records). In South Australia, these reserves are Nullarbor National Park (n=9 records), Lake Gilles Conservation Park (n=3), Nullarbor Regional Reserve (n=3), Unnamed Conservation Park (n=3), Yumbarra Conservation Park (n=3), Gawler Ranges National Park (n=2), Nullarbor Conservation Reserve (n=2), Yalata Indigenous Protected Area (n=2), Whyalla Conservation Park and another, un-named conservation park (n=3). In Western Australia they are Nuytsland Nature Reserve (n=3), Francois Peron National Park (n=1) and Plumridge Lakes Nature Reserve (n=1) (Atlas of Australian Birds, unpublished data).

The Slender-billed Thornbill (western) usually occurs in chenopod shrublands that are dominated by samphires or Maireana and Atriplex associations (Baxter & Paton 1998; Hall 1974; Matthew 1994; Recher & Davis 2000). It occasionally occurs in acacia shrublands and mangroves adjacent to more preferred habitat (Hall 1974; Recher & Davis 2000).
Species of Maireana include M. pyramidata and M. sedifolia (Burbidge 1989; Hall 1974), and Atriplex species include A. versicaria (Hall 1974; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Matthew 1994; McEvey & Middleton 1968). Other shrubs include Lycium australe and Enchylaena tomentosa, and species of Rhagodia and Sclerolaena (Baxter & Paton 1998; Matthew 1994). The ground level vegetation in these shrublands can include grasses, mosses and lichens, but the proportion of vegetative cover is variable and, consequently, shrublands usually also include patches of bare earth or stones (Baxter & Paton 1998; Matthew 1994; McEvey & Middleton 1968; Recher & Davis 2002). In inland areas, the chenopod shrublands occupied by the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) are often located in close proximity to saltlakes (Hall 1974; Storr 1985a, 1986; Whitlock 1910).

The Slender-billed Thornbill (western) has also been recorded in shrublands and mangroves at coastal sites where these habitat types occur adjacent to more preferred samphire shrublands (Baxter & Paton 1998; Hall 1974; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Recher & Davis 2000). It was formerly common in dense acacia and casuarina vegetation near Port Broughton (Morgan 1918) and was once recorded, in Western Australia, in Acacia aneura sandplain country that had sparse ground cover (Higgins & Peter 2002).

No information is available on the ages of sexual maturity or natural mortality. No specific information is available on the life expectancy, but a banding study on the subspecies A. i. rosinae found that Slender-billed Thornbills are capable of surviving for more than two years in the wild (Matthew 2002), and banding studies on other Australian thornbills suggest that the subspecies might be capable of surviving for more than eight years in the wild (ABBS 1979; ABBBS 1993).

Little is known about the breeding biology of the Slender-billed Thornbill (western). It appears to breed in solitary pairs. However, based on behaviour recorded in other thornbill species, may also be assisted by other birds in a co-operative breeding system (Recher & Davis 2000). Breeding activity has been recorded from July to October (Atlas of Australian Birds, unpublished data; Higgins & Peter 2002; Johnstone & Storr 2004;Recher & Davis 2000; Storr 1985a, 1985b) but, based on data on the other two subspecies (Higgins & Peter 2002; Matthew 2002), the breeding season may also extend into November.

The nests are dome-shaped or globular, and have a side entrance. They are constructed loosely from strips of bark and grass, which are bound together with cobwebs, and are usually lined with plant down or other soft material. They are usually placed amongst the upper branches of small samphire shrubs (Jackson 1910; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Recher & Davis 2000; Whitlock 1910), or occasionally in other shrubs such as Acacia aneura (Birds Australia Nest Record Scheme, unpublished data).

The female lays a clutch of two, three or four eggs that are white and have small red-brown spots (Jackson 1910; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Serventy & Whittell 1976; Storr 1985a, 1985b). The nestlings are brooded by the female; both parents feed the young, although most food is provided by the female (Recher & Davis 2000). No information is available on breeding success, although nests are sometimes parasitized by cuckoos (Johnstone & Storr 2004; Recher & Davis 2000).

The Slender-billed Thornbill (western) feeds on insects (including caterpillars, grasshoppers, beetles, bees and ants) and spiders and, occasionally, centipedes (Hall 1974; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Lea & Gray 1935; Recher & Davis 2000; Whitlock 1910). It also feeds on the stems and/or foliage of Maireana sedifolia, M. pyramidata, Atriplex vesicaria, Acacia tetragonophyllya and A. aneura (Matthew 1994).

The Slender-billed Thornbill (western) forages on the ground and in low shrubs (Hall 1974; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Matthew 1994; Recher & Davis 2000). It obtains most of its food by gleaning (i.e. plucking); items are occasionally plucked while the thornbill hangs from branches or hovers in flight. It also forages by jumping or flying up to snatch food items, and captures insects in flight by hawking or sallying. Food items are mainly taken from foliage, but they may also be collected from twigs and flowers, and occasionally from branches or the air. Foraging takes placed throughout the day (Recher & Davis 2000).

The Slender-billed Thornbill (western) is a resident or sedentary subspecies (Chapman 1982; Higgins & Peter 2002) that is not known to undertake any long-distance movements (Higgins & Peter 2002). Its movements are otherwise unknown.

Territories occupied by the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) during the breeding season range in size from 6 700 to 8 200 m2 (Recher & Davis 2000). No other information is available on the size or usage of home ranges or territories.

Distinctiveness
Within its known range, the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) is unlikely to be mistaken for any other species (Higgins & Peter 2002). Confusion between the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) and the other subspecies of the Slender-billed Thornbill, A. i. rosinae and A. i. hedleyi, is unlikely because populations of the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) are separated geographically from populations of the other two subspecies (Higgins & Peter 2002; Matthew 1994; Schodde & Mason 1999).

Detectability
The Slender-billed Thornbill (western) can be detected by call or, less readily, by sight (Magrath et al. 2004; J.S. Matthew 2002, pers. comm.). It has been described as being shy or wary (Magrath et al. 2004; Sutton 1924; Whitlock 1910), and quiet and inconspicuous (Magrath et al. 2004). However, it is also said not to be especially quiet, and can be detected readily by call, and during broadcast surveys it may come within close proximity of observers to investigate the source of the broadcast call (J.S. Matthew 2006, pers. comm.).

There have been two detailed studies on the Slender-billed Thornbill (western) by Matthew (1994) and Recher & Davis (2000).

No threats data available.

Australian Bird and Bat Banding Scheme (ABBBS) (1993). Recovery round-up. Corella. 17:31-32.

Australian Bird Banding Scheme (ABBS) (1979). Recovery round-up. Corella. 3:34-36.

Barrett, G., A. Silcocks, S. Barry, R. Cunningham & R. Poulter (2003). The New Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia.

Baxter, C. & P.A. Paton (1998). Further notes on the birds of the Gawler Ranges. South Australian Ornithologist. 33:1-15.

Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

Brooker, M.G., M.G. Ridpath, A.J. Estbergs, J. Bywater, D.S. Hart & M.S. Jones (1979). Bird observations on the north-western Nullarbor Plain and neighbouring regions, 1967-1978. Emu. 79:176-190.

Burbidge, A. (1989). Biological survey of the Nullarbor district. RAOU Report. 66:46-48.

Chapman, G.S. (1982). To Eyre and back via the Nullarbor. Western Australian Bird Notes. 24:7-8.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Hall, B.P. (Ed.) (1974). Birds of the Harold Hall Australian Expeditions, 1962-70. London: British Museum (Natural History).

Higgins, P.J. & J.M. Peter, eds. (2002). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds Volume 6: Pardalotes to Shrike-thrushes. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Jackson, S.W. (1910). Description of two new nests and eggs. Emu. 9:136-137.

Johnstone, R.E. & G.M. Storr (2004). Passerines (Blue-winged Pitta to Goldfinch): Annotated Checklist of Christmas Island Birds. In: Handbook of Western Australian Birds. 2:439-476. Western Australian Museum, Perth.

Klau, W.L. (1988). Birds observed at Cook on the Nullarbor Plain. South Australian Ornithologist. 30:126-128.

Lea, A.H. & J.T. Gray (1935). The food of Australian birds. Emu. 35:145-178.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

Matthew, J. (1994). The status, distribution and habitat of the Slender-billed Thornbill Acanthiza iredalei in South Australia. South Australian Ornithologist. 32:1-19.

Matthew, J.S. (2002). Personal communication.

Matthew, J.S. (2002b). Notes on the ecology of the Slender-billed Thornbill Acanthiza iredalei rosinae. South Australian Ornithologist. 34:15-22.

Matthew, J.S. (2006). Personal communication, June 2006.

McEvey, A.R. & W.G. Middleton (1968). Birds and vegetation between Perth and Adelaide. Emu. 68:161-212.

Parker, S.A. (1971). Critical notes on the status of some central Australian birds. Emu. 71:99-102.

Parsons, F.E. (1919). Geobasileus hedleyi rosinae. South Australian Ornithologist. 4:51-52.

Pedler, L.P. (1992). Review of the status and distribution of the Chestnut-breasted Whiteface Aphelocephala pectoralis. South Australian Ornithologist. 31:79-93.

Recher, H.F. & W.E. Davis (2000). A contribution to the natural history of the Slender-billed Thornbill Acanthiza iredalei in Western Australia. Australian Bird Watcher. 18:297-305.

Schodde, R. & I.J. Mason (1999). The Directory of Australian Birds: Passerines. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.

Serventy, D.L. & H.M. Whittell (1976). Birds of Western Australia. Perth: University of Western Australia Press.

Storr, G.M. (1985a). Birds of the Gascoyne Region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum. Suppl. 21:1-66.

Storr, G.M. (1985b). Birds of the mid-eastern interior of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum. Suppl. 22:1-45.

Storr, G.M. (1986). Birds of the south-eastern interior of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum. Suppl. 26.

Storr, G.M. (1987). Birds of the Eucla Division of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum. Suppl. 27.

Storr, G.M. (1991). Birds of the South-west Division of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum. Suppl. 35.

Sutton (1924). An ornithological trip around Eyre Peninsula. South Australian Ornithologist. 7:118-159.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008cr). NON-CURRENT Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acanthiza iredalei iredalei (Slender-billed Thornbill (western)). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/25967-conservation-advice.pdf.

White, S.A. (1919). The Allied Buff-rumped Tit-Warbler (Geobasileus hedleyi rosinae). Emu. 19:81-82.

Whitlock, F.L. (1910). On the East Murchison. Emu. 9:181-219.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Acanthiza iredalei iredalei in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 21 Aug 2014 03:15:05 +1000.