Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listed marine
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Cereopsis novaehollandiae [981].
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cereopsis novaehollandiae grisea (Cape Barren Goose (south-western)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ct) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of exotic rodents on biodiversity on Australian offshore islands of less than 100 000 hectares 2009 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009u) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
NGO: Listed as Vulnerable (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Cereopsis novaehollandiae grisea [25978]
Family Anatidae:Anseriformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Storr,1980
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Cereopsis novaehollandiae grisea

Common name: Cape Barren Goose (south-western)

Other names: Recherche Cape Barren Goose


The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) was described as a subspecies of the Cape Barren Goose (C. novaehollandiae) on the basis of differences in the plumages and weights between birds from Western Australia and eastern Australia (Storr 1980b). A subsequent examination of two skins from Western Australia failed to confirm the differences in plumage as reported by Storr. It has been speculated that this confusion may have resulted from the feathers changing colour with wear (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) is a large bird that, when fully grown, measures 72–85 cm in length. In captivity, males reach 6.0–7.8 kg in weight, and females 4.9–5.7 kg (Johnstone & Storr 1998). The adults are grey with a cream-white patch on the top of the head, dark grey to black spots across the back and shoulders, black ends to the primary and secondary feathers, and a black tail. They also have brown irides (or irises), pink legs, grey-black to black feet, and a black bill that has a large patch of greenish-yellow (Johnstone & Storr 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990). Adult males and adult females are alike, but adult females are slightly smaller than adult males and can be distinguished by their calls (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Immature birds appear similar to the adults, but have a whitish-grey patch on the head, grey-brown spots on the shoulders, paler lime-green colouring on the bill, and paler purplish-grey colouring on the legs (Johnstone & Storr 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) occurs singly, in pairs, and in small flocks (at least some of which are family groups) (Halse et al. 1995; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Shaughnessy & Haberley 1994; Storr 1991).

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) is concentrated on islands and rocks in the Archipelago of the Recherche, off the coast of southern Western Australia. The subspecies has also been recorded west of the Archipelago of the Recherche on West Island, Red Island and Hauloff Rock, and is a casual visitor to the south-coastal mainland from Bremer Bay to Cape Arid (Barrett et al. 2003; Halse et al. 1995; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Shaugnessy & Haberley 1994; Storr 1991). On two occasions in the early 2000s, it has also been been recorded west of Bremer Bay, at Albany (Barrett et al. 2003), and there are historical records of its sporadic (and accidental) occurrence at other mainland sites far from the Recherche including Busselton, Lake Grace and the Nullarbor Plain (Blakers et al. 1984; Halse et al. 1995; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Storr 1987, 1991).

The extent of occurrence of the subspecies was estimated, with high reliability, to be 6500 km² in the early 2000s. Two population surveys (Halse et al. 1995; Shaughnessy & Haberley 1994) and a number of incidental reports (Barrett et al. 2003) at this time indicated that the extent of occurrence was stable at the turn of the 21st century (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, the extent of occurrence is thought to have declined since the early 20th century (Garnett 1993). The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) formerly occurred (and is presumed to have once bred) on offshore islands from King George Sound east to Bald Island (Johnstone & Storr 1998; Serventy & Whittell 1976; Storr 1991). There were two (non-breeding) records in this region (near Albany) in the early 2000s (Barrett et al. 2003), but it is likely that these records are of accidental visitors or vagrants, rather than members of a relict population.

The area of occupancy of the Cape Barren Goose (south-western) was estimated, with high reliability, to be 100 km² in the year 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Like the extent of occurrence, the area of occupancy is thought to have declined since the early 20th century, but is currently considered to be stable (Garnett 1993).

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) has been recorded on more than 70 islands and rocks off the coast of southern Western Australia, and at some sites on the adjacent mainland, in the last few decades (Barrett et al. 2003; Halse et al. 1995; Shaughnessy & Haberley 1994). On the basis of this information, it is estimated that the Cape Barren Goose (south-western) can occur in at least 80 separate locations.

The Cape Barren Goose is held in captivity at more than 50 zoos and institutions worldwide (ISIS 2006c). However, it is not known what proportion of these birds, if any, are of the south-western subspecies.

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) was bred in captivity during the 1970s in the hope of establishing a commercial venture, but the productivity of the captive population was not sufficient for the project to be economically viable (Morrison & Purling 1982).

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) population has been well surveyed. There have been numerous surveys or observations on islands in the Archipelago of the Recherche (Abbott & Black 1978; Flinders 1814; Halse et al. 1995; Hull 1922; Johnstone & Smith 1987, 1988; Johnstone et al. 1990a, 1990b, 1990c; Lane 1982, 1984; Lane & Daw 1985; Serventy 1947, 1952; Shannon 1984; Shaughnessy & Haberley 1994; Smith & Johnstone 1988b, 1988c; Tingay & Tingay 1982a, 1982b), but most of these have examined only individual islands, or a small proportion of the islands, in the archipelago. The most thorough surveys have been conducted by Shaughnessy and Haberley (1994); who conducted five separate surveys from 1987 to 1992 and recorded a total of 572 birds on 50 islands and one site on the mainland (the maximum number of birds observed during a single survey period was 251).

Halse and colleagues (1995) conducted a single extensive survey in April 1993 and recorded a total of 631 birds; including 612 birds on 79 islands and rocks in the Archipelago of the Recherche, four birds on Red Island (to the west of the archipelago) and a total of 15 birds at two sites on the mainland (near Pink Lake, north-west of Esperance, and at Cape Arid). The number and coverage of surveys suggests that the distribution, and to a lesser extent the population size, of the Cape Barren Goose (south-western) is fairly well known.

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) occurs in a single, intra-breeding population distributed across naturally fragmented subpopulations (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The most important subpopulations, based on the maximum number of birds recorded during recent surveys, occur on Cull, Red, Daw, Round and Wickham Islands in the Archipelago of the Recherche (Halse et al. 1995; Shaughnessy & Haberley 1994). Breeding has been recorded on all of these islands except for Round Island (Johnstone & Storr 1998; Shaughnessy & Haberley 1994).

The population size of the Cape Barren Goose (south-western) may be smaller now than it was in the early 1800s (Storr 1987), but there is insufficient information to confirm such a decline (Halse et al. 1995). The population size seems to have remained stable since about the middle of the 20th century (Halse et al. 1995).

Populations of Cape Barren Geese (south-western) may undergo periodic fluctuations in size in response to extreme seasonal conditions (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Halse et al. 1995). For example, a considerable decline in numbers was observed in 1991 during a period of exceptionally hot and dry weather (Garnett 1993; Halse et al. 1995). There are also records of temporal variation in the numbers of birds that occur on individual islands (Halse et al. 1995).

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) population has been estimated (in 2000), with medium reliability, to consist of 650 breeding birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, this figure may overestimate the size of the population. A survey conducted in April 1993 by Halse and colleagues (Halse et al. 1994) recorded a total of 631 birds throughout south-western Australia. Given the extensive coverage of this survey, the population was estimated to consist of no more than 650 birds in total, with Halse and colleagues making no mention of how many of these individuals were of breeding age.

The population size has previously been estimated at approximately 1000 birds (Dorward 1977; Storr 1987), although Frith (1982) claimed that most authors assumed that the population numbered less than 500. Given that the numbers of birds observed by Halse and colleagues were similar to those recorded during the early 20th century, and that the larger historical estimates were not based on empirical studies of population size, the estimate of 650 birds is likely to represent an improvement in the accuracy of the population estimate, rather than a reduction in population size (Halse et al. 1995).

There are no records of cross-breeding between the Cape Barren Goose (south-western) and the eastern subspecies of the Cape Barren Goose (C. n. novaehollandiae) or between the Cape Barren Goose (south-western) and any other species. Records of the Cape Barren Goose (south-western) on the Nullarbor Plain, approximately equal distance between concentrations of the two subspecies, suggest that there might be some genetic exchange between these populations (Halse et al. 1995) and, therefore, some potential for cross-breeding between the two subspecies.

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) population is concentrated in the Recherche Archipelago Nature Reserve (WA) (Halse et al. 1995). The species has also been recorded in Woody Island Nature Reserve (WA), Doubtful Islands Nature Reserve (WA), and Cape Arid National Park (WA) (Barrett et al. 2003).

There is little published information available on the habitat of the Cape Barren Goose (south-western). It occurs on offshore islands and rocks, and at adjacent sites on the mainland. It inhabits grasslands and low fields of succulent herbs (comprised of Carpobrotus sp.), and occasionally occurs in open areas in taller and denser vegetation (although islands that are covered by woodlands or thickets support few birds) (Halse et al. 1995; Johnstone & Storr 1998). The bird has also been recorded on beaches (Halse et al. 1995), and near lakes and freshwater 'soaks', on the mainland (Halse et al. 1995; Jaensch et al. 1988; Shaughnessy & Haberley 1994).

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) does not occur in any of the threatened ecological communities listed under the EPBC Act 1999. It is not known to associate with any other threatened species listed under the EPBC Act 1999.

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) reaches sexual maturity at three years of age (Serventy & Whittell 1976), although it is possible that some individuals may begin to breed at two years, as has been recorded in other Cape Barren Goose populations (Marchant & Higgins 1990). No specific information is available on the life expectancy, but it is presumed to be long-lived, with a generation length of approximately 15 years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) lays its eggs between April to November (Johnstone & Storr 1998; Storr 1987). It builds a saucer-shaped nest of twigs or grass and feather-down. Nests are placed on the ground or, occasionally, close to the ground in a tussock of grass or a dense shrub (Serventy & Whittell 1976; Shaughnessy & Haberley 1994). Its clutches consist of four or five (or perhaps up to seven) white eggs that are incubated by the female for a period of 35–40 days (Johnstone & Storr 1998; Serventy & Whittell 1976; Storr 1987).

There is no published information on the role of the adults in the care of the young, the duration of the fledging period, or the duration of the period of post-fledging dependence in the Cape Barren Goose (south-western). However, at the species level (C. novaehollandiae), the young Cape Barren Goose is brooded by both parents, is capable of feeding itself within one day of hatching, makes its first flight 70–76 days after hatching, and accompanies its parents for 16 weeks or more (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

No published information is available on breeding success in the Cape Barren Goose (south-western). However, the loss of eggs or young in populations of the eastern subspecies (C. n. novaehollandiae) has been attributed to predation by other birds (such as ravens, gulls and raptors) and Feral Cats (Felis catus), and to interference by humans (Marchant & Higgins 1990). It is possible that some these processes also operate to some extent in populations of the Cape Barren Goose (south-western). However, the entire Archipelago of the Recherche is listed as a conservation reserve, and access to the islands is limited (Halse et al. 1995). 

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) forages on the ground and takes food items from herbage (Marchant & Higgins 1990). The diet of the subspecies consists of leaves (including those of Rhagodia baccata) and seeds (including those of Myoporum insulare) (Boden 1980; Johnstone & Storr 1998) and, based on studies of the eastern subspecies (C. n. novaehollandiae), probably also includes green material from grasses and other plants (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The movements of the Cape Barren Goose (south-western) are essentially unknown. It seems to be largely sedentary (Garnett 1993), although there does appear to be some movement of birds between islands and, based on moderately frequent records, some dispersal to the mainland (Dorward 1977; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Shaughnessy & Haberley 1994; Storr 1987).

No specific information is available on the use or extent of home ranges or territories in the Cape Barren Goose (south-western). However, pairs of the eastern subspecies (C. n. novaehollandiae) establish territories of about 0.3–0.5 ha during the breeding season (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Distinctiveness

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) is a distinctive bird that is unlikely to be mistaken for any other species (Marchant & Higgins 1990). It is highly visible and vocal whilst in flight, and is easy to observe in the open habitats in which it occurs (DEWHA 2010l).

The south-western subspecies can be distinguished from the eastern subspecies (C. n. novaehollandiae) by the broader white cap which extends to the top of eye, the blackish leading edge of the leg that extends from the tarsus to the knee and the browner back and wings. It is also said to be heavier, but no weights have been published to confirm this (Storr 1980). A later examination of two skins from Western Australia showed the plumages of the two subspecies to be similar, although confusion could have arisen from the feathers changing colour with wear (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Recommended methods

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) can be surveyed from land, sea or air. The recommended method for land-based surveys is to conduct area searches for birds or nests. The recommended method for sea-based surveys is to circumnavigate inhabited or potentially-inhabited islands in a boat. This latter method is effective because the geese usually occur in open habitats with low vegetation and tend to walk or fly away when approached. The recommended method for aerial surveys is to employ a helicopter or light plane to search the coastline and then inland areas of inhabited or potentially-inhabited islands. It is recommended that surveys of islands be conducted during late autumn, when few birds occur on the mainland, the weather is usually fine, and the breeding season has not yet begun (reducing the risk of disturbance to breeding pairs) (DEWHA 2010l; Halse et al. 1995; Shaughnessy & Haberley 1994).

The main threat to the Cape Barren Goose (south-western) appears to be extreme weather (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Halse et al. 1995). The population size declined considerably in 1991 when a large number of birds died (of starvation or heat stress) during a period of extremely hot and dry weather that caused the widespread death of vegetation in the Archipelago of the Recherche (Garnett 1993; Halse et al. 1995). The survival of the Cape Barren Goose (south-western) in the Archipelago of the Recherche may be compromised if the climate in south-western Australia becomes hotter and drier in the future (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) could potentially be affected by changes to its habitat, or by increased mortality rates associated with hunting by humans (Halse et al. 1995). Hunting was major threat to the Cape Barren Goose (south-western) in the past, when large numbers were killed for food. However, hunting has been prohibited since 1938 (Garnett 1993; Serventy & Whittell 1976). In addition, because the entire Archipelago of the Recherche is designated as a conservation reserve and access to the islands is limited, it is therefore unlikely that any substantial hunting or habitat change will occur (Halse et al. 1995).

The Cape Barren Goose (south-western) population appears to be stable at the present time, and has previously shown an ability to recover from natural declines. However, because of its small size and localised distribution, the population is considered to be vulnerable to some threatening processes (Halse et al. 1995). The only specific recovery action that has been undertaken is an extensive survey of the population that occurred in 1993 (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Halse et al. 1995). It has been recommended that the population be surveyed every ten years to monitor population trends, and that the frequency of monitoring (and, presumably, the extent of management) should be increased if a population decline becomes evident (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The only major published studies on the Cape Barren Goose (south-western) are a series of population surveys conducted by Shaughnessy and Haberley (1994), and a single extensive population survey conducted by Halse and colleagues (1995).

Management documents for the Cape Barren Goose (south-western) can be found at the start of the profile.

No recovery, conservation or threat abatement plans have been prepared for the Cape Barren Goose (south-western). However, a brief assessment of the subspecies, its threats and management is included in The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Illegal hunting/harvesting and collection Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cereopsis novaehollandiae grisea (Cape Barren Goose (south-western)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ct) [Conservation Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Cereopsis novaehollandiae grisea in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006es) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Cereopsis novaehollandiae grisea in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006es) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Sea level rise:Inundation associated with climate change Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Temperature Extremes:temperature change Cereopsis novaehollandiae grisea in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006es) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cereopsis novaehollandiae grisea (Cape Barren Goose (south-western)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ct) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Introduction of pathogens and resultant disease Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cereopsis novaehollandiae grisea (Cape Barren Goose (south-western)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ct) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cereopsis novaehollandiae grisea (Cape Barren Goose (south-western)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ct) [Conservation Advice].

Abbott, I. & R. Black (1978). An ecological reconnaissance of four islands in the Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia. 60:115-128.

Barrett, G., A. Silcocks, S. Barry, R. Cunningham & R. Poulter (2003). The New Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia.

Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

Boden, R.W. (1980). A note on the diet of the Cape Barren Goose. Western Australian Naturalist. 14:238.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2010l). Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-birds.html.

Dorward, D. (1977). A case of a comeback: the Cape Barren Goose. Australian Natural History. 19:130--135.

Flinders, M. (1814). A voyage to Terra Australis. London: Nicol.

Frith, H.J. (1982). Waterfowl in Australia.

Garnett, S., ed. (1993). Threatened and Extinct Birds of Australia. RAOU Report 82. Melbourne: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, and Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Halse, S.A., A.A. Burbidge, J.A.K. Lane, B. Haberley, G.B. Pearson & A. Clarke (1995). Size of the Cape Barren Goose population in Western Australia. Emu. 95:77--83.

Heather, B.D. & H.A. Robertson (2000a). The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Hull, A.F.B. (1922). A visit to the Archipelago of the Recherche south-western Australia. Emu. 21:277-289.

International Species Information System (ISIS) (2006c). Locations of captive populations of Cape Barren Goose Cereopsis novaehollandiae. [Online]. Available from: http://www.isis.org. [Accessed: 02-Nov-2006].

Jaensch, R.P., R.M. Vervest & M.J. Hewish (1988). Waterbirds in nature reserves of south-western Australia 1981-1985: reserve accounts. RAOU Report Series. 30.

Johnstone, R.E. & G.M. Storr (1998). Handbook of Western Australian Birds. Vol. 1: Non-passerines (Emu to Dollarbird). Perth, Western Australia: West Australian Museum.

Johnstone, R.E. & L.A. Smith (1987). Six Mile Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 11:93-94.

Johnstone, R.E. & L.A. Smith (1988). Ben Island Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 12:89-90.

Johnstone, R.E., L.A. Smith & N.I. Klomp (1990a). Wickham Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 14:131-132.

Johnstone, R.E., L.A. Smith & N.I. Klomp (1990b). Gulch Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 14:133--134.

Johnstone, R.E., L.A. Smith & N.I. Klomp (1990c). Stink Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 14:135--136.

Lane, S.G. (1982). Avifauna of islands off Esperance, Western Australia. Corella. 6:37--39.

Lane, S.G. (1984). Further notes on visits to islands of the south coast of Western Australia. Corella. 8:64-66.

Lane, S.G. & A.K. Daw (1985). Charley Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 8:119-120.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

Marchant, S. & P.J. Higgins, eds. (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume One - Ratites to Ducks. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Morrison, A.B. & T.J. Purling (1982). A Report to the Western Australian Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Covering Observation on Cape Barren Geese Held at the Poultry Research Station, Woodlands, Western Australia From Mid 1978 until April 1982. Unpublished report to Western Australian Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Perth.

Serventy, D.L. (1947). Notes from the Recherche Archipelago, Western Australia. Emu. 47:44-49.

Serventy, D.L. (1952). Notes from the Archipelago of the Recherche. Part 2. Birds. Australian Geographical Society Reports. 1:1-24.

Serventy, D.L. & H.M. Whittell (1976). Birds of Western Australia. Perth: University of Western Australia Press.

Shannon, T.G.D., ed. (1984). Western Australian Bird Report 1982. RAOU Report 6. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Melbourne.

Shaughnessy, P.D. & B. Haberley (1994). Surveys of Cape Barren Geese Cereopsis novaehollandiae in Western Australia, 1987--1992. Corella. 18:8--13.

Smith, L.A. & R.E. Johnstone (1988b). Forrest Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 12:91-92.

Smith, L.A. & R.E. Johnstone (1988c). Inshore Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 12:87-88.

Storr, G.M. (1980b). The western subspecies of the Cape Barren Goose. Western Australian Naturalist. 14:202-203.

Storr, G.M. (1987). Birds of the Eucla Division of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum. Suppl. 27.

Storr, G.M. (1991). Birds of the South-west Division of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum. Suppl. 35.

Tingay, A. & S.R. Tingay (1982a). Middle Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 6:49-50.

Tingay, A. & S.R. Tingay (1982b). Hood Island, Archipelago of the Recherche, Western Australia. Corella. 6:59-60.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Cereopsis novaehollandiae grisea in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 18 Sep 2014 18:55:25 +1000.