Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Malurus leucopterus leucopterus (White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ft) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013)
Non-statutory Listing Status
NGO: Listed as Vulnerable (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Malurus leucopterus leucopterus [26004]
Family Maluridae:Passeriformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Dumont, 1824
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Malurus leucopterus leucopterus.

Common name: White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island).

Other names: Dirk Hartog (Island) Black-and-White Fairy-wren, Black-and White Wren-Warbler, Pied Wren.

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) is a conventionally accepted subspecies of the White-winged Fairy-wren Malurus leucopterus (Schodde & Mason 1999).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) has a length of 11 to 12 cm and a mass of 5.2 to 8.3 g (Carter 1917; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003). The adult female is greyish-brown above, and white below, with a dull greyish-blue tail, brown irides, a light-brown to pinkish-brown or reddish-horn bill, and brown legs and feet.

The adult male is similar to the adult female in the non-breeding season, except in having a blackish bill and slightly brighter blue tail, but differs markedly in the breeding season. The adult male, in breeding plumage, is glossy black except for the large patch of white that extends from the shoulder down each wing, the otherwise grey or grey-brown wings that have some blue or white trim on some feathers, the blue to blackish-blue tail, and the greyish-brown to blackish-grey legs and feet.

Immature birds are similar to the adult female, but some immature males up to three years of age can have a mottled black, white and brown plumage with a dull blue tail and brownish bill.

Juvenile birds of either sex are also similar to the adult female, but have a shorter (still-growing) tail and a swollen gape (Higgins et al. 2001; Johnstone & Storr 2004).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) occurs in pairs or, more commonly, in small parties that can consist of more than 10 birds (Carter 1917; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003; Whitlock 1921).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) is confined to Dirk Hartog Island, off the coast of Peron Peninsula, in Western Australia (Schodde & Mason 1999). It is possible that birds may occasionally disperse to the adjacent mainland: black-plumaged birds, presumably originating from Dirk Hartog Island, have occasionally been reported on the Peron Peninsula (Driskell et al. 2002; Pizzey 1980; Schodde & Mason 1999). However, due to a lack of corroborative material, these reports cannot be confirmed (Schodde & Mason 1999).

The extent of occurrence is estimated, with high reliability, to be 420 km². There is no evidence of an historical change in the extent of occurrence. The extent of occurrence is currently stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The area of occupancy is estimated, with high reliability, to be 200 km². There is no evidence of an historical change in the area of occupancy. The area of occupancy is currently stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) occurs at a single location, Dirk Hartog Island, in Western Australia (Schodde & Mason 1999).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) is considered to be widespread on Dirk Hartog Island (Johnstone & Storr 2004; Wells & Wells 1974; Whitlock 1921), where it occurrs in most habitats (Garnett & Crowley 2000). On the basis of this information, it is presumed that its distribution is not severely fragmented.

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) has been poorly surveyed. There have not been any published systematic surveys, and the single population estimate is purely speculative. However, the White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) is common and widespread on Dirk Hartog Island (Johnstone & Storr 2004; Whitlock 1921) and, given the relatively small area over which it occurs (approximately 200 km² [Garnett & Crowley 2000]), and the relative uniformity of the vegetation on Dirk Hartog Island (Brooker 2007, pers. comm.), its distribution on the island is presumed to be reasonably well known.

The population size of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) has been estimated twice: one estimate, considered to be of low reliability, determined the population size to be 40 000 adult birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000); a second estimate, based on probable territory sizes and the area of suitable habitat available on Dirk Hartog Island, determined the population size to be 7 000 adult birds (Brooker 2007, pers. comm.). There is evidence to suggest that the former estimate greatly overestimates the actual population size.

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) is restricted to Dirk Hartog Island and has an extent of occurrence of only about 200 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Based on the larger population estimate of 40 000 adult birds (or 20 000 breeding pairs), each breeding pair would occupy, on average, a territory of about 1 ha in size. This seems rather small given that territories of the mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus are known to range from about 1.5 to 6 ha in size (Higgins et al. 2001; Rowley & Russell 1995; Tidemann 1980, 1990). Considering the estimates of territory size for the mainland subspecies, and that the density of White-winged Fairy-wrens on Dirk Hartog Island is likely to be lower than on Barrow Island (which, based on field surveys, is estimated to support about 7 500 to 9 500 birds of subspecies M. l. edouardi [Bamford & Bamford 2005b; Pruett-Jones & O'Donnell 2004]) because of grazing by sheep Ovis aries and goats Capra hircus and the presence of House Mice Mus musculus and cats Felis catus on Dirk Hartog Island (Brooker 2007, pers. comm.; Garnett & Crowley 2000), the more conservative estimate of 7 000 adult birds (or 3 500 breeding pairs) was proposed (Brooker 2007, pers. comm.).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) occurs in a single, intra-breeding population on Dirk Hartog Island (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The population size of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) is currently stable. There is no evidence for a historical decline in population size. The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) has persisted on Dirk Hartog Island despite the introduction of sheep, goats and cats; occasional extensive fires; and intensive grazing by sheep at the southern end of the island (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The generation length is estimated, with medium reliability, to be two years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

No interbreeding has been recorded between the White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) and any other subspecies of the White-winged Fairy-wren. However, genetic analysis suggests that White-winged Fairy-wrens (Dirk Hartog Island) interbred in the past with the mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus. There is evidence to indicate that this interbreeding has ceased, although given the proximity of Dirk Hartog Island to the adjacent mainland (about 2 km), and that unconfirmed sightings of black-plumaged birds have occasionally been reported on the Peron Penisula (Driskell et al. 2002; Pizzey 1980; Schodde & Mason 1999) (the breeding plumage of males on the mainland is blue rather than black [Higgins et al. 2001; Johnstone & Storr 2004] and, therefore, black-plumaged birds are presumed to originate from Dirk Hartog Island), it is possible that some occasional interbreeding may continue to occur (Driskell et al. 2002).

The entire population of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) is confined to Dirk Hartog Island (Schodde & Mason 1999), which occurs within the Shark Bay World Heritage Area.

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) inhabits low, dense shrublands and heathlands, and open flats dominated by shrubs (such as Acacia, Atriplex, Dryandra, Hakea, Halosarcia, Melaleuca, Rhagodia, Scaevola, Sida and Thryptomene), and that, in some locations, also support some spinifex (Johnstone & Storr 2004; Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003; Wells & Wells 1974; Whitlock 1919, 1921). The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) occurs from near sea level to the summit of Herald Heights, which at approximately 180 m above sea level, is the highest point on Dirk Hartog Island (Whitlock 1921).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) is capable of breeding at one year of age (Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003). No specific information is available on the life expectancy but, based on observations of the mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus, it is likely to be four or five years (ABBBS 1972; Tidemann 1983). No specific information is available on rates of mortality, but in one study on Dirk Hartog Island, only 33.3% of adults (and only 13.5% of adult females) banded were recaptured in the following year (Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) is a cooperative breeder. The breeding pair is sometimes assisted by a single auxillary male (Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003) and, based on observations of the mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus, probably also at times by a single auxillary female, or perhaps by multiple auxillaries of either sex. Auxillaries help the breeding adults to feed and defend the young (Rowley & Russell 1995; Tidemann 1980, 1983).

The White-winged Fairy-wren lays its eggs from June to September or October (Johnstone & Storr 2004; Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003; Whitlock 1921). The female builds a dome-shaped nest from dried grass, dried sea grass Posidonia, flower heads, seed heads, spider silk, insect cocoons, wool, feathers and plant down (Johnstone & Storr 2004; White 1921). The nest is usually placed near the ground in a dense shrub such as Acacia, Atriplex, Hakea, Rhagodia, Scaevola, Sida and Thryptomene (Johnstone & Storr 2004; Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003; Wells & Wells 1974; Whitlock 1921). The birds tend to re-nest in the same immediate area, and often in close proximity to their previous nests (Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003).

Clutches consist of two to four, but most commonly three, eggs (Johnstone & Storr 2004; Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003; Whitlock 1921). The eggs are white with reddish-brown or brownish-red spots and blotches, these sometimes forming a cap or zone at the broader end (Johnstone & Storr 2004; White 1921). The eggs are incubated for about 13 days, and the young remain in the nest for about 12 days after hatching (although they are capable of leaving the nest, if disturbed, from eight days of age) (Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003). No information is available on the period of dependence but, based on observations of the mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus, the young are probably fed by the adults for three to five weeks after leaving the nest, and some young birds might remain in their natal group after becoming independent and assist their parents to raise a subsequent brood in the same season (Rowley & Russell 1995; Tidemann 1983).

In the single study of breeding success that has been conducted on Dirk Hartog Island, 69% of eggs hatched, and breeding groups reared a mean of 2.1 young to eight days of age (the age at which young are capable of leaving the nest) per breeding attempt. Of the nests observed during the study, about 40% were subject to predation and about 20% were parasitised by Horsfield's Bronze-Cuckoo Chrysococcyx basalis. Common nest predators included snakes, lizards, Pied Butcherbirds Cracticus nigrogularis, Australian Kestrels Falco cenchroides and feral cats (Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003). Breeding groups are capable of rearing two broods per season (Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003; Whitlock 1921), and possibly more, given that females will rarely lay three or four clutches in a single season (Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) feeds on insects and some seeds (Carter 1917; Johnstone & Storr 2004). Based on studies of the mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus, it might also take other invertebrates (such as spiders or slaters) and some fruit (Jackson 1919; Lea & Gray 1935; Tidemann 1983).

There is little published information on the foraging behaviour of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island). It is said to sally for flying insects (Carter 1917) and, based on studies of the mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus and the Barrow Island subspecies M. l. edouardi, it probably also forages on the ground and in shrubs and trees, by hopping and plucking (or gleaning) food items (Rowley & Russell 1997; Tidemann 1983; Wooller & Calver 1981).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) is sedentary (Pizzey 1980) or, based on observations of the mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus and the Barrow Island subspecies M. l. edouardi, resident on Dirk Hartog Island (Morris et al. 1981; Rowley & Russell 1997; Saunders & Ingram 1995; Sedgwick 1978). It is possible that there might be some rare movement to the adjacent mainland: black-plumaged birds, presumably originating from Dirk Hartog Island, have been reported on the Peron Peninsula (Driskell et al. 2002; Pizzey 1980; Schodde & Mason 1999). However, due to a lack of corroborative material, these records cannot be confirmed (Schodde & Mason 1999).

Little information is available on the dispersal of the young. In one study, only seven of 66 nestlings banded were recaptured in the following year, and all of these birds (six males and one female) were recaptured in close proximity to their natal sites. Five of the six males that were banded became helpers, and four of these males assisted at the nest of their social father (Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003).

No information is available on the home range of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island). However, males in breeding plumage maintain large territories during the breeding season. The territories are occupied by the breeding pair and (where present) a brown-plumaged male helper (Rathburn & Mongomerie 2003). The size of the territories has not been recorded but, based on observations of the mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus, they probably range from about 1.5 to 6 ha in area (Higgins et al. 2001; Rowley & Russell 1995; Tidemann 1980, 1990).

Males, in breeding plumage, are not similar to any other species on Dirk Hartog Island. Brown-plumaged birds (females, juvenile and immature birds, non-breeding males) are similar in appearance to, but still separable from, their counterparts in the Variegated Fairy-wren Malurus lamberti (Higgins et al. 2001). Black-plumaged birds, presumably originating from Dirk Hartog Island, have occasionally been reported on the Peron Peninsula (Driskell et al. 2002; Pizzey 1980; Schodde & Mason 1999). However, separation of the Dirk Hartog Island subspecies and the mainland subspecies M. l. leuconotus can be difficult because the normally cobalt blue plumage of mainland birds can appear very dark, or even black, in poor light (Schodde & Mason 1999).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) is not difficult to detect. Males, in breeding plumage, are very conspicuous. They are generally elusive and difficult to approach (Carter 1917; Wells & Wells 1974), although Whitlock (1921) claimed that they were not difficult to approach, and that he had viewed them on a number of occasions from a distance of about one metre. Brown-plumaged birds readily respond to simulated calls from an observer and, provided the observer remains comparatively still, may approach to within one metre of the observer to investigate (Carter 1917; Wells & Wells 1974; Whitlock 1921).

The potential threats to the White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) are habitat loss and degradation, and predation by introduced mammals. The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) has persisted on Dirk Hartog Island despite the introduction of sheep, goats, house mice and cats; occasional extensive fires; and intensive grazing by sheep at the southern end of the island. This indicates that although these threats may have had some impact on the White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) population, their impact has not been sufficient to cause the extinction of the subspecies. However, Dirk Hartog Island is currently free of rats, which are known to have caused the extinction of other island-dwelling birds. Rats, should they be introduced to Dirk Hartog Island in the future, could potentially have a devastating effect on the White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) population (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) is also vulnerable to catastrophic events. This is because the entire population occurs over a small area (about 200 km²) on a narrow island with uniform habitat (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The likelihood and potential impact of a catastrophic event is difficult to predict. However, it is unlikely that a single extensive fire, which is perhaps the most probable catastrophic event, could affect the entire island (Garnett 1993).

No recovery actions have been implemented, but the following actions have been recommended (Garnett & Crowley 2000):

  • Survey the population every three years.
  • Limit the spread of extensive wildfires.
  • Establish measures to prevent predators (especially rats) from being introduced to, and becoming established on, Dirk Hartog Island.
  • Encourage managers of leasehold land to manage land in a manner amenable to the White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island).

In addition, the removal of sheep, goats and cats from Dirk Hartog Island could also prove beneficial to the long-term survival of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island) (Brooker 2007, pers. comm.).

There have been only two major studies on the White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island): one study examined and compared the evolutionary relationships between blue-plumaged and black-plumaged populations of the White-winged Fairy Wren (Driskell et al. 2002); and another examined and compared the breeding biology and social structure of the White-winged Fairy-wren on Dirk Hartog Island and mainland Western Australia (Rathburn & Montgomerie 2003).

A brief recovery outline for the subspecies is featured in The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Malurus leucopterus leucopterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006oh) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Malurus leucopterus leucopterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006oh) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Malurus leucopterus leucopterus (White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ft) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Malurus leucopterus leucopterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006oh) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Malurus leucopterus leucopterus (White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ft) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) Malurus leucopterus leucopterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006oh) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) Malurus leucopterus leucopterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006oh) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) Malurus leucopterus leucopterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006oh) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Introduction of pathogens and resultant disease Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Malurus leucopterus leucopterus (White-winged Fairy-wren (Dirk Hartog Island)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ft) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Malurus leucopterus leucopterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006oh) [Internet].

Australian Bird and Bat Banding Scheme (ABBBS) (1972). Recovery round-up. Australian Bird Bander. 10:63-65.

Bamford, M.J. & J.A Wilcox (2005). Gorgon Development on Barrow Island Technical Report: White-winged Fairy-wren (Malurus leucopterus edouardi). Attachment to Avifauna technical report. Report to ChevronTexaco Australia, Perth.

Brooker, L. (2007). Personal communication. January 2007.

Carter, T. (1917). The birds of Dirk Hartog Island and Peron Peninsula, Shark Bay, Western Australia, 1916-17. Ibis. 5:564--611.

Driskell, A.C., S. Pruett-Jones, K.A. Tarvin & S. Hagevik (2002). Evolutionary relationships among blue- and black-plumaged populations of the White-winged Fairy-wren (Malurus leucopterus). Australian Journal of Zoology. 50:581-595.

Garnett, S., ed. (1993). Threatened and Extinct Birds of Australia. RAOU Report 82. Melbourne: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, and Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Higgins, P.J., J.M. Peter & W.K. Steele, eds. (2001). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 5: Tyrant-flycatchers to Chats. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Jackson, S.W. (1919). Haunts of the Letter-winged Kite (Elanus scriptus, Gould). Emu. 18:160-172.

Johnstone, R.E. & G.M. Storr (2004). Passerines (Blue-winged Pitta to Goldfinch): Annotated Checklist of Christmas Island Birds. In: Handbook of Western Australian Birds. 2:439-476. Western Australian Museum, Perth.

Lea, A.H. & J.T. Gray (1935). The food of Australian birds. Emu. 35:145-178.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

Morris, A.K., A.R. McGill & G. Holmes (1981). Handlist of Birds in New South Wales. Sydney: NSW Field Ornithologists Club.

Pizzey, G. (1980). A Field Guide to the Birds of Australia. Collins, Sydney.

Pruett-Jones, S. & E. O'Donnell (2004). Land birds on Barrow Island: status, population estimates, and responses to an oil-field development. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia. 87:101-108.

Rathburn, M.K. & R. Montgomerie (2003). Breeding biology and social structure of White-winged Fairy-wrens (Malurus leucopterus): comparison between island and mainland subspecies having different plumage phenotypes. Emu. 103:295-306.

Rowley, I. & E. Russell (1995). The breeding biology of the White-winged Fairy-wren Malurus leucopterus leuconotus in a Western Australian coastal heathland. Emu. 95:175--184.

Rowley, I. & E. Russell (1997). Fairy-Wrens and Grasswrens. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Saunders, D.A. & J.A. Ingram (1995). Birds of Southwestern Australia: An Atlas of Changes in the Distribution and Abundance of the Wheatbelt Avifauna. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.

Schodde, R. & I.J. Mason (1999). The Directory of Australian Birds: Passerines. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.

Sedgwick, E.H. (1978). A population study of Barrow Island avifauna. West Australian Naturalist. 14:85-108.

Tidemann, S.C. (1980). Notes on breeding and social behaviour of the White-winged Fairy-wren. Emu. 80:157-161.

Tidemann, S.C. (1983). The Behavioural Ecology of Three Coexisting Fairy-wrens (Maluridae: Malurus). Ph. D Thesis, Australian National University. Ph.D. Thesis. D Thesis, Australian National University.

Tidemann, S.C. (1990). Factors affecting territory establishment, size and use by three co-existing species of fairy-wrens (Malurus). Emu. 90:7-14.

Wells, B.A. & A.G. Wells (1974). Report on a visit to Dirk Hartog Island, August-September 1973, with some observations on the flora and fauna. Western Australian Naturalist. 13(1):19--23.

White, H.L. (1921). Description of new Australian eggs collected by F. Lawson Whitlock, RAOU, at Dirk Hartog Island, Western Australia. Emu. 20:186--189.

Whitlock, F.L. (1919). Notes on birds breeding in Dampier Archipelago, NW coast of Australia. Emu. 18:240-253.

Whitlock, F.L. (1921). Notes on Dirk Hartog Island and Peron Peninsula, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Emu. 20:168--186.

Wooller, R.D. & M.C. Calver (1981). Diet of three insectivorous birds on Barrow Island, WA. Emu. 81:48--50.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Malurus leucopterus leucopterus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 17 Apr 2014 16:15:57 +1000.