Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda (Star Finch (eastern)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008cu) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
QLD:Star finch (eastern subspecies) (Department of Environment and Heritage Protection (DEHP), 2012k) [Database].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Extinct* (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list)
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
NGO: Listed as Critically Endangered (PE) (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda [26027]
Family Ploceidae:Passeriformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author (Gould, 1837)
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

New South Wales: At the species level, Neochmia ruficauda is listed as Extinct under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

Scientific name: Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda.

Common names: Star Finch (eastern) or Star Finch (southern) (Garnett 1993; Garnett & Crowley 2000).

Other names: The Star Finch (eastern) may also be known as the Southern Star Finch (Holmes 1996).


The taxonomy of the Star Finch (eastern) is conventionally accepted (Schodde & Mason 1999). The number of recognized subspecies of the Star Finch was recently revised from two to three by Schodde and Mason (1999), but all previous authors have recognized the eastern or southern subspecies N. r. ruficauda and have accepted that its distribution extends from central Queensland to (formerly) New South Wales (Boles 1988; Keast 1958; Immelmann 1982; Paynter 1968).

The Star Finch (eastern) is a small and compact finch that measures approximately 11 to 12 cm in length and weighs about 10 or 11 g.

The adults have a red facial 'mask', a bright orange-red bill, bright-orange irises, dull red skin around the eyes, olive-green upperparts, a dark reddish-black tail that has pinkish-white spots or bands, an olive-grey breast, a pale cream belly and vent, and buff to yellow-brown or pinkish-brown legs and feet. They also have a series of white spots that extend from the face to the throat, breast and along the flanks. The males and females are not known to differ in appearance, although the other more common and better-known subspecies of the Star Finch, N. r. clarescens and N. r. subclarescens, are sexually dimorphic (i.e. the sexes differ in appearance) (Higgins et al. 2006; Todd 2006, pers. comm.), and it is thought highly likely that the Star Finch (eastern) is sexually dimorphic as well, but that this dimorphism is yet to be recorded (Todd 2006, pers. comm.).

No juvenile Star Finches (eastern) have been examined. However, juveniles of the more common subspecies N. r. clarescens and N. r. subclarescens differ from the adults, and it is probable that these differences also exist in the Star Finch (eastern). The most notable differences in juvenile and adult N. r. clarescens and N. r. subclarescens are the plain brown colouring and black bill of the juvenile, and the absence of the red facial mask and white spots that are present in the adult male and female (Higgins et al. 2006).

The Star Finch (eastern) occurs in pairs and in small flocks of up to 20 (or, rarely, 50) birds (Cayley 1932; Holmes 1996, 1998; Todd 2006, pers. comm.). No information is available on the breeding dispersion but, like other subspecies of the Star Finch, it probably nests in loose colonies (Higgins et al. 2006).

The distribution of the Star Finch (eastern) is very poorly known. The Star Finch (eastern) occurs only in central Queensland. Based on the small number of accepted records, the distribution of the Star Finch (eastern) is believed to extend north to Bowen, west to beyond Winton and, based on recent records, south to near Wowan. It is possible that the distribution extends farther north to Mount Surprise and the Cloncurry-Mount Isa region, but records from these locations could relate to the subspecies N. r. subclarescens (Holmes 1996, 1998).

The area of occupancy is estimated to be 20 km². This estimate is based on the number of 1 km² grid squares that the Star Finch (eastern) is thought to occur in at the time when its population is most constrained. The estimate is considered to be of low reliability (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The area of occupancy is suspected to be declining, but the lack of accepted records makes it difficult to determine trends accurately (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Declines in the area of occupancy are suspected to have begun during the 19th and 20th centuries, however historical trends have been difficult to determine (Higgins et al. 2006; Holmes 1996, 1998).

The extent of occurrence is estimated to be 300 000 km². However, this estimate, which is based on published maps, is considered to be of low reliability (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The extent of occurrence is suspected to be decreasing, with declines beginning in the 19th and 20th centuries, but the lack of accepted records makes it difficult to determine trends accurately (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Based on the small number of accepted records, the distribution of the Star Finch (eastern) formerly extended from Bowen (or, possibly, Mount Surprise and the Cloncurry-Mount Isa region) in central Queensland, south to the Namoi River in northern New South Wales, and west to the Blackall Range (Higgins et al. 2006; Holmes 1996, 1998). Recent records have been obtained only from scattered sites in central Queensland (i.e. between 21°S and 25°S, and 141°E and 150°E) (Holmes 1996, 1998) and, consequently, the Star Finch (eastern) now appears to be extinct in both south-eastern Queensland and northern New South Wales (Higgins et al. 2006; Holmes 1996). This decline in distribution represents a large reduction in the extent of occurrence.

The number of locations that the Star Finch (eastern) occurs in has not been estimated, and is difficult to estimate for this subspecies, given that all recent records have consisted of single reports from a small number of scattered locations.

The distribution of the Star Finch (eastern) is probably severely fragmented (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Star Finch is held in more than 20 zoos and institutions worldwide. In Australia, populations are maintained in Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary in Queensland, Melbourne Zoo in Victoria, Adelaide Zoo in South Australia and Territory Wildlife Park in the Northern Territory (ISIS 2006). The Star Finch is also a popular species in the aviculture trade, and it is estimated that about 20 000 birds are held by private owners in Australia (Garnett 1993). It is not known if any of the birds that are held in captivity are the eastern or southern subspecies N. r. ruficauda. However, it has been claimed that the Star Finch (eastern) is unlikely to have persisted in captivity because of culling or interbreeding with the more common subspecies N. r. clarescens (Holmes 1996, 1998).

There have been only two targeted field surveys for the Star Finch (eastern). These surveys, conducted in central Queensland in 1993-94 and 1996-97, failed to locate any Star Finches (eastern) (Holmes 1996, 1998).

In addition to the field surveys, information on the Star Finch (eastern) has been sought through the submission of information requests to bird-watching and avicultural societies, naturalists clubs, local media outlets, and staff of the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service (Holmes 1996).

The small number of accepted records (Holmes 1996, 1998), and the failure of targeted surveys to locate any birds (Holmes 1996, 1998), makes it difficult to provide accurate estimates of the distribution and/or population size.

The total population of the Star Finch (eastern) is estimated to consist of 50 or less breeding birds. This estimate is considered to be of low reliability (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Star Finch (eastern) is estimated to occur in four subpopulations. This estimate is considered to be of low reliablity (i.e. the lack of knowledge about this subspecies means that there is uncertainty about the number of subpopulations and about the extent of genetic separation between subpopulations) (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The largest of the subpopulations is estimated to consist of 20 breeding birds. This estimate is considered to be of low reliability (Garnett & Crowley 2000). No information is available on the numbers in any of the other three subpopulations, or on the localities or trends in numbers for any of the four subpopulations. All recent sightings of the Star Finch (eastern) are believed to have occurred on privately-owned land (M. Todd 2006, pers. comm.).

The Star Finch (eastern) may never have been a common species (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, its population appears to have rapidly declined in size during the 19th and 20th centuries, when the distribution of the subspecies became greatly reduced (Higgins et al. 2006; Holmes 1996, 1998). The Star Finch (eastern) is now less abundant or locally extinct at several sites (Higgins et al. 2006; Holmes 1996) such as Blackall, where it was plentiful until at least the early 1930s (Marshall 1932) but is now locally extinct (Higgins et al. 2006).

The decline in population size is suspected to be ongoing (Garnett & Crowley 2000), but no information is available to illustrate this trend.

No permanent populations (or, more specifically, areas of permanently occupied habitat) have been identified (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The generation length is estimated to be two years. This estimate is considered to be of low reliability due to a lack of reliable life history data (Garnett & Crowley 2000).
There are no definite records of cross-breeding between the Star Finch (eastern) and any other subspecies, or between the Star Finch (eastern) and any other species. However, it has been speculated that the characteristics of the Star Finch (eastern) may intergrade (or may formerly have intergraded) with the subspecies N. r. clarescens from about the upper reaches of the Burdekin River north to the southern Cape York Peninsula, and with the subspecies N. r. subclarescens farther inland in central and northern Queensland around the upper reaches of the Flinders and Norman Rivers (Higgins et al. 2006; Schodde & Mason 1999). This suggests that there might be some interaction between the Star Finch (eastern) and the other subspecies of the Star Finch.

The Star Finch (eastern) occurs mainly in grasslands and grassy woodlands that are located close to bodies of fresh water (Garnett 1993; Gould 1865; Holmes 1996). It also occurs in cleared or suburban areas such as along roadsides and in towns (Baldwin 1975; Cayley 1932; Holmes 1996, 1998; Marshall 1932).

The Star Finch (eastern) was observed on the Namoi River in New South Wales, on sloping river banks covered with grass and herbs, and amongst beds of rushes growing along the side of the river (Gould 1865).

Studies at nine former sites of the Star Finch (eastern) found that the habitat consisted mainly of woodland. These habitats are dominated by trees that are typically associated with permanent water or areas that are regularly inundated; the most common species are Eucalyptus coolabah, E. tereticornis, E. tessellaris, Melaleuca leucadendra, E. camaldulensis and Casuarina cunninghamii (Holmes 1996).

Sites from which recent records have been obtained have been dominated by grasses or have been in areas where the native vegetation has been partially cleared. For example, at Wowan, the Star Finch (eastern) was recorded near a road running through grassland (formally eucalypt woodland interspersed with vine forest) with some scattered shrub regrowth, and at Aramac, it was recorded in the grounds of a hotel (Holmes 1996, 1998). These latter records support earlier reports from Blackall in Queensland, where the Star Finch (eastern) was said to have foraged in the streets and yards of the township (Cayley 1932; Marshall 1932), and at Inverell in New South Wales, where 20 were observed feeding in fig trees near a house (Baldwin 1975).

No information is available on the ages of sexual maturity, life expectancy or natural mortality in the Star Finch (eastern). However, these are likely to be similar to those described for the Star Finch at the species level.

At the species level, the Star Finch may survive in the wild for more than two years (Higgins et al. 2006) and, like other Australian finches, probably for up to 4-6 years (Shephard 1989) or possibly even longer, given that one captive Star Finch lived for more than 14 years (Immelmann 1982). In captivity, the young moult into full adult plumage at 5-8 months of age (Mobbs 1990; Shephard 1989) and can breed in their first year after hatching (Morris 1958).

The Star Finch (eastern) has been recorded nesting in November (Holmes 1996; Storr 1984). The single clutch recorded contained four eggs (Storr 1984). Its breeding biology is otherwise unknown, although a likely but uncertain record from the Cardwell district in Queensland described the nests as 'bottle-shaped' and said that the nests were often placed in trees at heights of ten to thirty feet (approximately three to nine metres) above the ground (Barnard 1926). Other aspects of the breeding biology of the Star Finch (eastern) are likely to be similar to those described for the Star Finch at the species level.

At the species level, the Star Finch is a monogamous species (Higgins et al. 2006; Immelmann 1982). It breeds in loose colonies that often include nests of the Chestnut-breasted Mannikin Lonchura castaneothorax. It has been recorded breeding in all months of the year, although eggs have only been recorded from February to May and in September (Higgins et al. 2006). The Star Finch builds a globular (or possibly bottle-shaped) nest that is made from grass and placed in a shrub or tree or amongst grass, sedges or reeds (Campbell 1900; Coate et al. 2001; Higgins et al. 2006; Holmes 1998; Immelmann 1982; North 1907-09). The female lays three to six or seven white eggs that are incubated by both sexes for a period of approximately 13 days (Campbell 1900; Higgins et al. 2006; Immelmann 1982; North 1907-09; Robinson 1939). The nestlings are fed and brooded by both sexes (Immelmann 1982), and remain in the nest for approximately 17 days (Higgins et al. 2006). The young remain dependent on their parents after leaving the nest; no details have been recorded in the wild, but in captivity the fledgelings are fed by their parents for two or three weeks (Immelmann 1982; Morris 1958) and become independent 21 days after leaving the nest (Shephard 1989). Pairs are thought to produce a second clutch if the first fails, and probably produce a second clutch even when the first is successful (Higgins et al. 2006).

The Star Finch (eastern) feeds on the seeds of grasses and other annual plants (Gould 1865), and on insects (Baldwin 1975). No other food items have been recorded, but the diet is probably similar to that recorded for the Star Finch at the species level.

At the species level, the Star Finch feeds predominantly on ripe or half-ripe seeds. These are mainly taken from a range of grasses (including species of Arundinella, Brachyachne, Chloris, Chrysopogon, Digitaria, Echinochloa, Heterachne, Iseilema, Oryza, Panicum, Setaria, Sorghum, Themeda and Urochloa), but also from other plants such as species of Casuarina, Fimbristylis and Tridax (Higgins et al. 2006; Holmes 1998; Immelmann 1962). The Star Finch also feeds on insects (including flies, ants, termites and moths) and on spiders (Immelmann 1962, 1982).

Seeds are the main food of the Star Finch throughout the year (i.e. in both the wet and dry seasons). There is no increase in the invertebrate component of the diet during the wet season, when the Star Finch normally breeds (Higgins et al. 2006; Todd et al. 2003). This is in contrast to an earlier suggestion that the invertebrate component of the diet increased during the breeding season (Immelmann 1982).

The foraging ecology of the Star Finch (eastern) is virtually unknown. It has been observed capturing insects in fig trees (Baldwin 1975). It is said to forage in the shade of Eucalyptus trees, which provide shelter from the sun (Cayley 1932), and to have fed in streets and yards around Blackall, Queensland (Cayley 1932; Marshall 1932). The foraging ecology is otherwise unknown, although it is likely to be similar to that described for the Star Finch at the species level.

At the species level, the Star Finch forages on the ground, where it picks up fallen seed, and in vegetation (including grasses and shrubs), where it takes seeds from seed-heads and Casuarina cones and insects from grasses and other foliage (Hall 1974; Higgins et al. 2006; Immelmann 1962, 1982). It also captures insects in flight (Immelmann 1962, 1982).

The Star Finch (eastern) is considered to be sedentary (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Holmes 1998). No other information is available on the movements of the Star Finch (eastern), but the patterns of movement are likely to be similar to those described for the Star Finch at the species level.

At the species level, the movements of the Star Finch are poorly known. The Star Finch is described as a sedentary or resident species that may undertake some local dispersal at the completion of the breeding season (Boekel 1980; Garnett 1993; Garnett & Bredl 1985; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins et al. 2006; Tidemann 1987). Evidence for local dispersal is provided by the sporadic or irregular occurrence of the species at some sites, and the short-term absence of the species from other sites where it is normally recorded (Higgins et al. 2006). For example, the Star Finch is described as a visitor to the lower reaches of the McArthur River in the Northern Territory (CSIRO 1976). There are some records of the Star Finch from far beyond its current known distribution; a proportion of these may be genuine records of long-distance dispersal, but others possibly involve relict populations, aviary escapees or mis-identified birds (or a combination of all three) rather than long-distance movements (Baldwin 1975; Higgins et al. 2006; Holmes 1996, 1998; Todd 2006, pers. comm.).

No information is available on the size or usage of home ranges or territories in the Star Finch (eastern). However, at the species level, captive Star Finches vigorously defend their nests and the area surrounding their nests (Immelmann 1982). It is likely that the Star Finch (eastern) exhibits similar territorial behaviour.

Based on accepted records, the Star Finch (eastern) appears to be readily approachable, at least around townships, where observers have been able to approach to within ten feet (approximately 3 m) or less (Baldwin 1975; Cayley 1932; Marshall 1932). However, these records are at odds with the behaviour described at the species level.

At the species level, the Star Finch can be difficult to observe in the wild (Higgins et al. 2006). It is described as 'somewhat timid' (Immelmann 1982), and is said to be difficult to approach when it is on the ground or amongst grass, although it can be more approachable when resting in trees or shrubs (Higgins et al. 2006). The Star Finch is said to call frequently, and often loudly, particularly when in flight (Higgins et al. 2006).

The Star Finch (eastern) disappeared from most of its range before the decline in range and population size could be linked to any threatening process or processes (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, the main cause of the decline is likely to have been the degradation of the finch's habitat (Garnett 1993; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Holmes 1998). The major source of habitat degradation has almost certainly been the over-grazing and trampling of habitat by livestock (Garnett 1993; Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The invasion of habitat by weeds, and the contamination of habitat by mining operations, are other potential sources of habitat degradation (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Holmes 1998).

The only other threat that has been identified is collection for the bird trade (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Thousands of Star Finches (eastern) were trapped and collected during the early part of the 20th century, although this process probably had only temporary effects on local populations (Holmes 1998). Trapping ceased in the 1960s (Holmes 1998), but the apparent absence of the Star Finch (eastern) from captivity (Holmes 1996, 1998) may make it a target for collectors (Garnett 1993; Garnett & Crowley 2000).
Prolonged drought is likely to have been a major factor in the decline of the Star Finch (eastern). This is because the Star Finch (eastern) usually occurs in long grass close to bodies of water and, during drought conditions, the ongoing presence of stock around these waterbodies is likely to have severely degraded the grassland habitat (Holmes 1998; M. Todd 2006, pers. comm.).

The only management actions that have been completed are two field surveys (Holmes 1996, 1998) and a review of the available information on the subspecies (including the review of published records, and the examination of museum specimens) (Holmes 1996).

It is necessary to locate a permanent population of the Star Finch (eastern), and its associated habitat, before any further management actions can be implemented. The chances of locating a population are likely to be increased if incidental sightings are investigated as quickly as possible. If a population is located, efforts should be made, in consultation with the land owner, to conserve the associated habitat (Garnett & Crowley 2000). These efforts should include the erection of fencing around the habitat to exclude livestock, and the regulation of burning regimes to permit the growth of vegetation for food and nesting purposes (G. Holmes 2002, pers. comm.).

There have not been any major studies on the Star Finch (eastern), although the distribution and status of the subspecies was reviewed by Holmes (1996).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006pm) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Illegal hunting/harvesting and collection Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006pm) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006pm) [Internet].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006pm) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Cryptostegia grandiflora (Rubber Vine, Rubbervine, India Rubber Vine, India Rubbervine, Palay Rubbervine, Purple Allamanda) Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006pm) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006pm) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda (Star Finch (eastern)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008cu) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda (Star Finch (eastern)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008cu) [Conservation Advice].

Baldwin, M. (1975). Birds of the Inverell District, N.S.W. Emu. 75:113-120.

Boekel, C. (1980b). Birds of Victoria River Downs Sattion and of Yarralin, Northern Territory Part 2. Australian Bird Watcher. 8:205-211.

Boles, W.E. (1988a). Comments on the subspecies of Australian native and introduced finches. Emu. 88:20-24.

Campbell, A.J. (1900). Nests and Eggs of Australian Birds. Sheffield, Private.

Cayley, N.W. (1932). Australian Finches in Bush and Aviary. Sydney: Angus & Robertson.

Coate, K.H., R.E. Johnstone & G.A. Lodge (2001). Birds of Kingston Rest north-east Kimberley, Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist. 23:9-38.

CSIRO (1976). A Survey of the Fauna of the Lower McAruther River Region, Northern Territory. CSIRO Division of Wildlife Research report for MIMETS Development Pty Ltd.

Garnett, S. & R. Bredl (1985). Birds in the vicinity of Edward River Settlement. Part II. Discussion, references, list of Passerine birds. Sunbird. 15:23,25-40.

Garnett, S.T., ed. (1993). Threatened and Extinct Birds of Australia. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Report 82 2nd (corrected) Edition. Melbourne: Royal Australian Ornithology Union and Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Gould, J. (1865). Handbook to the Birds of Australia. London: Author.

Hall, B.P. (Ed.) (1974). Birds of the Harold Hall Australian Expeditions, 1962-70. London: British Museum (Natural History).

Higgins, P.J., J.M. Peter & S.J. Cowling (2006). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. In: Part A. Boatbill to Larks. Volume 7. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Holmes, G. (1996). Distribution and status of the Southern Star Finch. Sunbird. 26:49-59.

Holmes, G. (1998b). A review of the distribution, status and ecology of the Star Finch Neochmia ruficauda in Queensland. Australian Bird Watcher. 17:278-289.

Holmes, G. (2002). Personal communication.

Immelmann, K. (1962). Beiträge zu einer vergleichender biologie australischer Prachtfinken (Spermestidae). Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung für Systematik, Geographe und Biologie der Tiere. 90:1-196.

Immelmann, K. (1982). Australian Finches in Bush and Aviary. Sydney: Angus & Robertson.

International Species Information System (ISIS) (2006g). Locations of captive populations of Star Finch. [Online]. www.isis.org.

Keast, A. (1958). Intraspecific variation in Australian finches. Emu. 58:219--246.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

Marshall, A.J. (1932). In search of a "lost" bird. Emu. 32:99-103.

Mobbs, A.J. (1990). The Complete Book of Australian Finches. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey.

Morris, D. (1958). The comparative ethology of grassfinches (Erythrurae) and mannikins (Amadinae). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 131:389-439.

North, A.J. (1901-1914). Nests and Eggs of Birds Found Breeding in Australia and Tasmania. Sydney, NSW: Australian Museum.

Paynter, R.A., ed. (1968). Check-list of Birds of the World Volume 14. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Robinson, A. (1939). Birds of the Barlee Range. Emu. 38:461-466.

Schodde, R. & I.J. Mason (1999). The Directory of Australian Birds: Passerines. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.

Shephard, M. (1989). Aviculture in Australia: Keeping and Breeding Aviary Birds. Melbourne: Black Cockatoo Press.

Storr, G.M. (1984c). Revised list of Queensland birds. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement. 19:1-189.

Tidemann, S.C. (1987). Gouldian Finches in the wild. Bird Keeping in Australia. 30:145-153.

Todd, M. (2006). Personal communication.

Todd, M.K., A. Felton & S.T. Garnett (2003). Morphological and dietary differences between common and uncommon subspecies of Crimson Finch Neochima phaeton, and Star Finch Neochima ruficauda, in northern Australia. Emu. 103:141-148.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 3 Sep 2014 16:55:05 +1000.