Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Cyanoramphus cookii
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010) [Recovery Plan] as Cyanoramphus cookii.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Beak and Feather Disease Affecting Endangered Psittacine Species (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2005q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of exotic rodents on biodiversity on Australian offshore islands of less than 100 000 hectares 2009 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009u) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by Feral Cats (Environment Australia (EA), 1999b) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets What the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) means for Norfolk Islanders (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2004i) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii.
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Cyanoramphus cookii.
 
List of Migratory Species - Amendment to the list of migratory species under section 209 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (26/11/2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2013af) [Legislative Instrument] as Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii.
 
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Critically Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Cyanoramphus cookii [67046]
Family Psittacidae:Psittaciformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Gray, 1859)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Other names Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii [26034]
Cyanoramphus cookii cookii [86187]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Cyanoramphus cookii

Common name: Norfolk Island Green Parrot

Other common names: Green Parrot, Norfolk Island Parrot, Norfolk Island Parakeet and, prior to its separation from Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae, Red-crowned Parakeet and Red-fronted Parakeet

The Norfolk Island Green Parrot is conventionally accepted. It has been treated variously; either as a distinct species (Juniper & Parr 1998; McAllan & Bruce 1988; Sibley & Monroe 1990) or as Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii, a subspecies of the Red-crowned Parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) (Christidis & Boles 1994; Higgins 1999; Schodde & Mason 1997). A phylogenetic study reported a high degree of genetic divergence between it and other Cyanoramphus, thus warranting its treatment as a distinct species (Boon et al. 2001).

It has been suggested that the Lord Howe Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae subflavescens) be included with the Norfolk Island Green Parrot (Christidis & Boles 2008), however, further taxonomic investigation is required.

The Norfolk Island Green Parrot is bright green with a red forehead and forecrown, a red stripe across each eye, a dark blue region on the leading edge of each wing and a small patch of red on either side of the rump. The sexes are similar in appearance, but the female can be distinguished by her smaller size, smaller red forehead and forecrown patches, and a smaller, narrower bill. Juveniles are similar to the adults, but green colouring is duller and red colouring is less extensive (Forshaw 1981; Higgins 1999).

The Norfolk Island Green Parrot is confined to Norfolk Island. Its distribution is concentrated in the north-western region of the island around Mount Pitt, which lies in Norfolk Island National Park. There have been regular sightings of the Norfolk Island Green Parrot outside the park in recent years. It is believed that breeding is confined to suitable habitat in the national park (Hill 2002b; Moore 1985; Schodde et al. 1983).

The extent of occurrence of the Norfolk Island Green Parrot is estimated, with medium reliability, to be 12 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The extent of occurrence is believed to have declined since Norfolk Island was colonised by European settlers. The species was probably widespread on Norfolk Island, and present on the nearby Phillip Island, and perhaps Nepean Island, before the arrival of European settlers and subsequent clearing of endemic forest (Hill 2002b; Schodde et al. 1983). Its distribution had become concentrated around the Mount Pitt area by 1908 (Hull 1909) and has remained stable since (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Hill 2002b; Moore 1985; Schodde et al. 1983). The more regular occurrence of individuals outside Norfolk Island National Park in recent years (Hill 2002b) suggests that the extent of occurrence has partially recovered.

The area of occupancy of the Norfolk Island Green Parrot is estimated, with high reliability, to be 5 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The area of occupancy is believed to have declined following the arrival of European settlers (Hill 2002b; Hull 1909; Schodde et al. 1983). The area of occupancy has partially recovered in recent years, and is believed to be increasing (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

A captive breeding program was implemented in the 1980s (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Hermes et al. 1986), but was unsuccessful with no birds being released into the wild. Individuals from the captive breeding stock are now held at the Norfolk Island Botanic Gardens (P. Olsen 2007, pers. comm.; R. Ward 2007, pers. comm.).

The distribution of the Norfolk Island Green Parrot is not affected by severe fragmentation (R. Ward 2007, pers. comm.).

The Norfolk Island Green Parrot population was surveyed intensively from 1977–1997. Surveys included (Hermes et al. 1986; Hill 2002b; Lane et al. 1998; Schodde et al. 1983):

  • an island-wide census of the Norfolk Island avifauna in 1978
  • annual counts of the entire population from 1988–1997.

Since 1997, surveys have been less intensive, thus present distribution and population estimates are less accurate.

In 2006–07, the Norfolk Island Green Parrot population was estimated at more than 200 individuals, and perhaps as many as 400 individuals. There are at least six breeding pairs (R. Ward 2007, pers. comm.). This species occurs as a single, contiguous breeding population (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Norfolk Island Green Parrot population is estimated to have consisted of about 190 pairs before the arrival of European settlers (Hill 2002b). The population declined substantially between 1774, when the species was first recorded (Hoare 1974), and 1908, when the distribution had become largely confined to suitable habitat around Mount Pitt (Hull 1909). In 1937, a large number of birds were collected by an expedition from the Smithsonian Institute, and when no individuals were recorded in the two years following the expedition, the species was feared extinct (Hill 2002b). However, by the 1950s residents of the island claimed that the species was reasonably common (Hicks & Greenwood 1989). The following population estimates have been published:

  • in the 1960s and 1970s, 10–20 breeding pairs (Hill 2002b; Smithers & Disney 1969)
  • in 1977–78, three to five breeding pairs and 17–30 individuals in total (Forshaw 1981; Schodde et al. 1983)
  • in 1988, four breeding pairs and 32 individuals in total (Hill 2002b; Lane et al. 1998)
  • in 1989–1995, three to ten breeding pairs, and 25 to 44 individuals in total (Hill 2002b; Lane et al. 1998)
  • in 1997, an estimated 17 breeding pairs, and 69 individuals in total (Hill 2002b)
  • in 2001, a minimum 14 breeding pairs and 160 individuals in total (Hill 2002b)
  • in 2006–07, a minimum six breeding pairs and more than 200–400 individuals (R. Ward 2007, pers. comm.).

An increase in population size is indicated by the regular occurrence of individuals outside Norfolk Island National Park and the more frequent sighting of breeding pairs in recent years (Hill 2002b). Additionally, flocks of up to 13 birds have been observed in the wild in recent years (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The apparent decline in the number of breeding pairs in recent years has been attributed to successive years of dry (and unfavourable) conditions. Only 10 young were produced from known nests in 2005–06, but the reproductive output of known pairs doubled in the 2006–07 season following increased rainfall in the preceding year (R. Ward 2007, pers. comm.).

Norfolk Island National Park contains most of the suitable foraging habitat and is thought to contain the entire suitable breeding habitat of the Norfolk Island Green Parrot (Hill 2002b).

The Norfolk Island Green Parrot primarily occurs in remnant Norfolk Island Pine (Araucaria heterophylla) tall closed rainforest, as well as in other native vegetation, eucalypt plantations and adjacent to native forest in orchards and gardens (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999).

Norfolk Island National Park encompasses 465 ha (12% of Norfolk Island land). This national park has been classified into five habitats: weed infested native forest (161 ha, 35%); dense African Olive (Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata) forest (129 ha, 28%); native forest (97 ha, 21%); dense Red Guava (Psidium cattleianum var. cattleianum) forest (41 ha, 9%); and plantation forest (32 ha, 7%). Native vegetation consists of palm forest, hardwood forest and Norfolk Island Pine forest. The Norfolk Island Green Parrot forages in all habitats, but only nests in native tree species (Lane et al. 1998).

Nesting and roosting habitat
The Norfolk Island Green Parrot usually nests in a hollow or cavity in the limb, trunk or stump of living or dead trees, especially in larger native trees, including Ironwood (Nestegis apetala), Bloodwood (Corymbia spp./Eucalyptus spp.), Cordyline and Norfolk Island Pine. Its nests are typically within 2 m of the ground (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999; Lane et al. 1998).

The Norfolk Island Green Parrot generally roosts in concealed areas, including holes in trees, and thick vegetation such as epiphytes, tussocks, sedges and ferns. It often roosts in nesting sites (Higgins 1999). Inexperienced fledglings often roost in exposed sites (Higgins 1999).

The Norfolk Island Green Parrot perches in trees when in forest, but may perch on the ground in open habitats, or when feeding on the ground (Higgins 1999; Lane et al. 1998).

Female Norfolk Island Green Parrots may begin laying eggs from 10–12 months of age, or even shortly after reaching independence. The age at which males become sexually mature is not known. Longevity in the wild is not known, but captive individuals may survive for several years. One wild breeding female was thought to be at least nine years old (Lane et al. 1998), whilst the oldest known captive individual was 14 (R. Ward 2007, pers. comm.). The generation length of this species is estimated, with low reliability, to be three years (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The Norfolk Island Green Parrot is not known to cross-breed with any other species.

Reproduction
The Norfolk Island Green Parrot exhibits double-clutching (i.e. it has two nests concurrently at different stages of development). As the chicks reach around two weeks of age, the female parrot may leave the nest and commence a new nest, leaving the original nest to be tended by the male (Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999; Lane et al. 1998). Thus, pairs can fledge up to four broods of young during a single year. Eggs are laid at two-day intervals, and the incubation period (21 days) commences after the second or third egg is laid (Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999; Lane et al. 1998). Young birds leave the nest six to seven weeks after hatching, and generally become independent three to five weeks after fledging (Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999; Lane et al. 1998).

In 1987–1998, a mean of 13 wild nesting attempts per year (range 1–27, n=12 years) was recorded in Norfolk Island National Park, from a total of 52 known nest hollows (Lane et al. 1998). During this period a mean clutch size of 4.9 eggs (range 1–9, n=161 clutches) was recorded and a mean of 1.77 eggs (range 0–6, n=161 clutches, or 35.5% of clutch) hatched per clutch. During this study, up to four chicks successfully fledged per nest with a total of 46 male and 44 female parrots fledged on the island. Of fledged individuals, 18 (39%) males and eight (18%) females survived their first year (Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Lane et al. 1998). The 1987–1998 figures equate to 4.6 males and 4.4 females fledging per year, and 1.8 males and 0.8 females surviving to their first year.

From 2001–07, a total of 213 young fledged from known nests (R. Ward 2007, pers. comm.).

The Norfolk Island Green Parrot is adversely affected by competition for nesting sites with introduced species, such as Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Crimson Rosella (Platycercus elegans) and Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) (Hill 2002b). While in the nest, females brooding eggs and birds tending chicks are vulnerable to predation by feral Cats (Felis catus) and Black Rats (Rattus rattus). Inexperienced females may also select nest sites that are easily accessible to predators (Lane et al. 1998).

The breeding season is possibly influenced by weather conditions and food availability (Forshaw & Cooper 1978; Higgins 1999).

Adult Norfolk Island Green Parrots primarily eat seeds, fruits, flowers and leaves of native and introduced trees and shrubs, including Norfolk Island Pine, Ironwood, Norfolk Island Palm (Rhopalostylis bauerri), Bloodwood, Cordyline and White Oak (Lagunaria patersonia) (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins 1999). They are reported to prefer the blossum and seeds of Bloodwood and Wild Maple (Elaeodendron curtipendulum), but also eat seeds, fruits and bark of introduced species including Wild Tobacco (Solanum mauritianum), Red Guava, African Olive, Peach (Prunus persica) and Lantana (Lantana camara) (Forshaw & Cooper 1978; Lane et al. 1998).

Norfolk Island Green Parrots forage in all vegetation strata, depending on the location of seasonally available food items (Higgins 1999). Adults prefer to feed in the canopy in forested areas. However, for three to five weeks after fledging, juveniles feed extensively on the ground eating fallen seeds of African Olive, Norfolk Island Pine and Red Guava (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins 1999; Lane et al. 1998). They will also feed in modified habitat, disturbed habitat and on exotic plants (fruit trees), especially where native vegetation has been removed (Forshaw & Cooper 1989; Higgins 1999).

The Norfolk Island Green Parrot is regarded as sedentary or resident, and occurs in most habitat types throughout the year. Adults display little movement before or after breeding (Higgins 1999). This species descends to lower altitudes when fruit trees in orchards and gardens are fruiting (Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999). This species is gregarious and it usually occurs in pairs, family parties or small groups (Higgins 1999).

The majority of sightings of parrots outside of the national park are recorded during December and January, which is the peak of the breeding season. It has been suggested that some sightings may be excess males that are forced out of the park (Lane et al. 1998).

Distinctiveness
There are no other species on Norfolk Island that are similar to the Norfolk Island Green Parrot.

Detectability
The Norfolk Island Green Parrot is generally quiet and inconspicuous.

Recommended Methods
The Norfolk Island Green Parrot can be surveyed using area searches, transect surveys or broadcast surveys in suitable habitat. Using these methods, the species can be detected visually or by its call (Lane et al. 1998). The population is monitored by national park staff with counts, including the determination of flock composition, and monitoring of known nest sites to determine breeding success (Lane et al. 1998). Intensive nest searches and simultaneous park-wide transect counts are used (Hicks & Greenwood 1989), thus most nest sites of this species are known and managed by national park officers. Chicks have also been colour-banded in the past, and sightings of individually marked birds are used to estimate population sizes (Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Lane et al. 1998).

Current Threats

Clearance of Habitat
The clearance of suitable forest habitat, particularly hollow-bearing trees such as Ironwood, to provide timber and land for agriculture and pine plantations was a major factor in the decline of the Norfolk Island Green Parrot (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Hicks & Greenwood 1989; Higgins 1999; Hill 2002b; Lane et al. 1998; R. Ward 2007, pers. comm.). The widespread clearance of endemic forest has now ceased on Norfolk Island (Garnett & Crowley 2000), and most of the remaining habitat is protected through its inclusion in Norfolk Island National Park or through the listing of vegetation under local government legislation. However, patches of forest continue to be cleared on private land: this threat is being addressed through agreements between conservation bodies and landholders to conserve endemic forest (Hill 2002b).

Predation
Predation of eggs, nestlings and free-flying birds by introduced predators, especially Black Rats and Cats, was a primary factor in the decline of the Norfolk Island Green Parrot, and is the major current threat (Hill 2002b). Predation is a source of breeding failure, and might also be a factor in the imbalanced sex ratio observed in the population in the 1990s. Adult females are more susceptible to predation than adult males because they incubate the eggs alone (and thus spend more time on the nest) and are very reluctant to depart their nests when approached (Hicks & Preece 1991; Hill 2002b; Lane et al. 1998). The threat from predation has been alleviated to some degree by a program, begun in 1988, to modify natural nesting hollows to prevent rats from gaining entry (Hill 2002b).

Competition for Nesting Sites
The Norfolk Island Green Parrot faces competition for nesting sites (tree hollows) from the introduced Crimson Rosella, Common Starling and Honey Bee (Hill 2002b). The Crimson Rosella rarely nests at the same time as the Norfolk Island Green Parrot, but it has been observed to aggressively expel the parrots from their territories (Hicks & Preece 1991; Hill 2002b). The incidence of usurpation has decreased significantly since the introduction of regular culling of Crimson Rosella numbers in Norfolk Island National Park in 1990 (Hill 2002b).

The Common Starling nests at a different time of the year to the Norfolk Island Green Parrot, but the presence of nest material of the starling can deter parrot pairs from using a tree hollow. Many nests attributed to the Common Starling have been recorded in hollows that were previously used by the Norfolk Island Green Parrot (Hill 2002b).

The Honey Bee has been observed to usurp nesting sites of the Norfolk Island Green Parrot (Greenwood 1993; Hill 2002b) and to kill and injure parrots in the captive population (Yorkston 1995). The Honey Bee is now systematically removed from near parrot nesting sites in Norfolk Island National Park and has not been recorded in wild nesting hollows or the aviary used to house the captive population since 1995 (Hill 2002b).

Disease
Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease (also known as Psittacine Circoviral Disease) was confirmed in both the wild and captive populations of the Norfolk Island Green Parrot in 1995 (Stevenson et al. 1995). It is a potentially fatal disease that is probably carried by all members of the Norfolk Island Green Parrot population. The disease appears to be benign unless the carrier is exposed to physical stress (Hill 2002b; Yorkston 1995). An outbreak of the disease in the captive population in 1995 caused the death of two individuals (Yorkston 1995). Its effect on the wild population has not been determined, but rates of infection seem low, with only one possible case recorded at known nests in 2002–07 (R. Ward 2007, pers. comm.). The potential for the disease to spread and affect the wild population has probably been checked in recent years by the formulation of a threat abatement plan for the disease and subsequent adoption of protocols designed to combat the spread of infection (DEH 2005q).

Habitat Degradation
The habitat of the Norfolk Island Green Parrot is being degraded by natural processes, invasive weeds and introduced animals (Hill 2002b). The main habitat of the species, Norfolk Island National Park, is heavily infested with introduced plants and weeds (Gilmour & Helman 1989b; Schodde et al. 1983). Some of these plants provide an abundant source of food for the Norfolk Island Green Parrot (Davidson 1997; Hicks & Preece 1991; Motte & Hall 1988) but none are considered to form hollows suitable for breeding (Lane et al. 1998). This threat is being addressed by a program to remove weeds from Norfolk Island National Park and replant native species used by the parrot for nesting (Hill 2002b). However, exposure to the elements and a low volume of rainfall in recent years, the latter of which is exacerbated by shallow-rooted woody weeds which absorb available moisture before it penetrates down into the soil, are continuing to degrade the native forest on Norfolk Island (P. Olsen 2007, pers. comm.).

Collisions with Windows
A small number of individuals are killed each year when they accidentally collide with windows. It is possible that the incidence of collision has increased in recent years as individuals have begun to venture more regularly beyond the boundaries of the national park. Most of the individuals killed are juveniles. Although the number of birds killed in collisions is small, the small size of the population makes this mortality significant, and measures should be taken to reduce the incidence of collision (Hill 2002b).

Low Genetic Diversity
The current Norfolk Island Green Parrot population descended from a small number of breeding pairs (Hill 2002b; Lane et al. 1998). The population may therefore express low genetic variability and as a consequence be vulnerable to inbreeding depression, a condition in which breeding between closely related individuals can reduce the health and resilience of offspring.

Residual Impacts of Past Clearing
Although the clearance of endemic forest has ceased on Norfolk Island (Garnett & Crowley 2000), the small area of suitable forest habitat that remains limits the potential for the population to recover (Lane et al. 1998). This issue is being addressed by a program to restore suitable habitat in Norfolk Island National Park (Hill 2002b).

Past Threats

Persecution
The Norfolk Island Green Parrot was formerly shot and trapped by Norfolk Island residents because of its tendency to feed upon and damage crops and garden plants (Hicks & Greenwood 1989). Shooting and trapping may have been a factor in the historical decline of the species (Hill 2002b), but are now prohibited under federal law.

Reduced Productivity due to Imbalanced Sex Ratio
In the 1990s, censuses showed that the Norfolk Island Green Parrot population was mainly comprised of male birds, with the sex ratio ranging from 2.9 males to one female, to 5.4 males to one female, in the five years for which data were collected. The imbalanced sex ratio, which is believed to have resulted from a higher mortality rate amongst females than males, restricted the productivity of the population by limiting the potential number of breeding pairs and increasing competition between males, the latter resulting in the failure of some nesting attempts because of the harassment of the breeding pair by unpaired males (Lane et al. 1998). However, the sex ratio has since become more balanced by an increase in the number of breeding females.

The following recovery actions have been implemented:

  • Annual counts of the population were conducted from 1988–1997 (Hill 2002b; Lane et al. 1998).
  • The location, progress and success of the nest is recorded (Hill 2002b) and measures are taken to protect the nest from predators and adverse weather (P. Olsen 2007, pers. comm.).
  • Searches are conducted for potential nest sites and the locations of potential nest sites are mapped (Hill 2002b).
  • Records of individuals from outside Norfolk Island National Park are mapped (Hill 2002b).
  • Observations are made on diet (Hill 2002b).
  • Fledglings are banded and their survival and development monitored (Hill 2002b).
  • Radio-tracking is employed to determine the post-fledging movements of juvenile parrots (Hill 2002b).
  • Incidental observations on mortality and causes of death are collected (Hill 2002b).
  • Control programs for Rats and Cats are conducted in Norfolk Island National Park (Hill 2002b).
  • Invasive weeds are being managed in Norfolk Island National Park (P. Olsen 2007, pers. comm.).
  • Crimson Rosellas, Common Starlings and Honey Bees are removed from nesting areas (Hill 2002b).
  • A captive breeding program was established (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Hermes et al. 1986) but has since been abandoned (P. Olsen 2007, pers. comm.; R. Ward 2007, pers. comm.).
  • A feasibility study is underway to determine the potential for translocation to establish populations on Lord Howe Island and Phillip Island (P. Olsen 2007, pers. comm.).
  • A recovery plan has been published (Hill 2002b).
  • A threat abatement plan has been prepared to reduce the potential spread and impact of Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease on populations of Australian parrots (DEH 2005q).

The recovery plan (Hill 2002b) recommends the following recovery actions:

  • Conduct annual counts of the entire population.
  • Locate all nests and protect them from predators, and consolidate nesting information into a database.
  • Establish and maintain predator-proof nest sites in areas currently unoccupied by breeding birds.
  • Establish a wild population on Phillip Island.
  • Investigate the potential for introduction to Lord Howe Island.
  • Investigate the need to establish a captive breeding colony on mainland Australia.
  • Restore nesting habitat within Norfolk Island National Park by removing weeds, planting suitable native species and, where necessary, providing supplementary sites.
  • Predator-proof all potential nest sites.
  • Maintain control programs for introduced predators and competitors.
  • Promote community awareness of, and involvement in, the recovery effort.

Although unsuccessful translocation programs have been trialled for the Norfolk Island Green Parrot (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Hermes et al. 1986), similar programs have been successful for the Red-crowned Parakeet in New Zealand. These programs have been successful with as few as 15 birds, but programs with less than 150 birds cause genetic bottlenecks. Low hatchling success in the New Zealand program may be the result of inbreeding depression or poor nest box design (Oritz-Catedral & Brunton 2008). Such a program may investigate the reintroduction of the Norfolk Island Green Parrot to Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island, where similar subspecies are now extinct.

There have not been any published major studies on the Norfolk Island Green Parrot. However, some unpublished research has been carried out as part of the recovery effort, including a radio-tracking study on the movements of juvenile parrots by Davidson (1997) and ongoing monitoring of breeding success (P. Olsen 2007, pers. comm.; R. Ward 2007, pers. comm.).

The key management document for the Norfolk Island Green Parrot is the national Recovery Plan for the Norfolk Island Green Parrot Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii (Hill 2002b). In addition, a brief recovery outline for the species is featured in The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000), and relevant threat abatement actions may occur in the Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by Feral Cats (EA 1999b), the Draft threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of exotic rodents on biodiversity on Australian offshore islands of less than 100 000 hectares (DEWR 2008) and the Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden Management Plan 2008–2018 (Director of National Parks 2008).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Recovery Plan for the Norfolk Island Green Parrot Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii - May 2002 (Hill, R., 2002) [Recovery Plan].
1998 Recovery Plan for Norfolk Island Parrot (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii) (Lane, B.A., M.R. Bezuijen, D. Greenwood, G.W. Carr & R. Ward, 1998) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Rescuing Norfolk Island's parrots. Birds International. 1:35-47. (Hicks, J. & D. Greenwood, 1989) [Journal].
Recovery Plan for the Norfolk Island Green Parrot Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii - May 2002 (Hill, R., 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting 1998 Recovery Plan for Norfolk Island Parrot (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii) (Lane, B.A., M.R. Bezuijen, D. Greenwood, G.W. Carr & R. Ward, 1998) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Apis mellifera (Honey Bee, Apiary Bee) Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume Four - Parrots to Dollarbird (Higgins, P.J. (ed.), 1999) [Book].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Recovery Plan for the Norfolk Island Green Parrot Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii - May 2002 (Hill, R., 2002) [Recovery Plan].
1998 Recovery Plan for Norfolk Island Parrot (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii) (Lane, B.A., M.R. Bezuijen, D. Greenwood, G.W. Carr & R. Ward, 1998) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for the Norfolk Island Green Parrot Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii - May 2002 (Hill, R., 2002) [Recovery Plan].
1998 Recovery Plan for Norfolk Island Parrot (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii) (Lane, B.A., M.R. Bezuijen, D. Greenwood, G.W. Carr & R. Ward, 1998) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume Four - Parrots to Dollarbird (Higgins, P.J. (ed.), 1999) [Book].
Recovery Plan for the Norfolk Island Green Parrot Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii - May 2002 (Hill, R., 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Sturnus vulgaris (Common Starling) Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Introduction of pathogens and resultant disease Recovery Plan for the Norfolk Island Green Parrot Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii - May 2002 (Hill, R., 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Platycercus elegans (Crimson Rosella) Norfolk Island Region Threatened Species Recovery Plan (Director of National Parks (DNP), 2010a) [State Recovery Plan].
Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume Four - Parrots to Dollarbird (Higgins, P.J. (ed.), 1999) [Book].
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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Cyanoramphus cookii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 25 Jul 2014 21:57:38 +1000.