Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Extinct in the wild
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pedder Galaxias (Galaxias pedderensis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005o) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (24/05/2005) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2005e) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Galaxias pedderensis (Pedder Galaxias): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014so) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2011.2)
Scientific name Galaxias pedderensis [26169]
Family Galaxiidae:Salmoniformes:Actinopterygii:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Frankenberg, 1968
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.dpiwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/BHAN-54H7R8?open
http://www.ifc.tas.gov.au/fact_sheets/Pedder_galaxias.html

Scientific name: Galaxias pedderensis

Common Name: Pedder Galaxias

The Pedder Galaxias is a striking greenish brown fish that commonly grows to about 8 cm but can grow up to 17 cm (Allen 1989a; Jackson 2004; McDowall 1996). As with all Galaxias spp. there are no scales present.

Females appear to reach a larger size than males, but there are no other apparent differences between the sexes (Frankenberg 1968). Its back and sides are covered with a highly variable pattern of profuse brownish and off-white contrasting bands and blotches, fragmenting to finer spots on the lower sides and extending onto the bases of the fins. The species has an off-white to silvery belly, and a golden iridescence (Allen 1989a; McDowall 1996).

Historic Distribution
Prior to the 1972 flooding of Lake Pedder, the Pedder Galaxias was naturally restricted to the original Lake Pedder, in south-west Tasmania, and its adjoining streams. After flooding, the distribution of the Pedder Galaxias increased throughout the new lake and into the adjacent Wedge River, Lake Gordon and McPartlans Canal (TSSC 2005o).

By the mid-1980s the number of Pedder Galaxias had significantly declined (TSSC 2005o). McDowall (1980a) observed that the species remained abundant following the flooding, and enlargement, of Lake Pedder, but after 1980 the species became scarce and was difficult to find (Fulton 1990; Hamr 1992a; Sanger 1989). Surveys undertaken during the late 1980s by the Inland Fisheries Service (IFS) found that the Pedder Galaxias' distribution was restricted to only four tributary streams within the Lake Pedder impoundment (TSSC 2005o).

Hamr (1992b) reported that the species was found in only five creeks representing a reduction in the original range and population numbers as reported by investigators prior to, and immediately after, flooding of Lake Pedder.

Further surveys undertaken by the IFS during the early 1990s found that the distribution had narrowed to only two tributary streams. Surveys between 1994–1997 resulted in the collection of only five specimens, the last of which was found during 1996. Extensive surveys of the species' natural range were conducted by the IFS between 1998– 2002, but the species was not located (TSSC 2005o).

Given that the species has a generation length of approximately three to four years and a lifespan of approximately six years, and therefore, it is considered that the species is now extinct in what remains of its natural habitat (Crook & Sanger 1997; Jackson 1999; TSSC 2005o).

Current Distribution
The Pedder Galaxias is now thought to only survive in two translocated populations, both of which were established as part of the recovery plan for the species (TSSC 2005o).

One population, established in 1992, occurs at Lake Oberon in the Western Arthur Range, approximately 12 km south-west of Lake Pedder (TSSC 2005o).

The second population occurs in habitat constructed for the species by the modification of the Strathgordon water supply dam in 1997. In March 2002, some further habitat improvements were undertaken and a further, small number of the species were translocated (TSSC 2005o). At least some individuals are surviving in the Strathgordon dam, but no successful breeding has been confirmed (Jackson 2004).

Attempts at captive breeding and artificial fertilisation in 1990–91 had limited success, with only 11 juveniles raised (Jackson 2004; TSSC 2005o). These were included in the fish placed in Lake Oberon. No attempts at captive breeding have been conducted since due to lack of stock (Jackson 2004).

Although the translocated population at Lake Oberon is geographically relatively close to Lake Pedder (12 km away), it is within an entirely separate catchment and there is no evidence to suggest the species ever occurred naturally in this catchment in the past. On this basis, the population that occurs at Lake Oberon is considered to exist well outside its past range (TSSC 2005o).

The Strathgordon Dam population is also geographically close to Lake Pedder, occurring within the same catchment, but is outside the natural distribution of the species. This population has shown no signs of being a viable, self-sustaining population (TSSC 2005o).

Extensive surveys were conducted, by the Inland Fisheries Service (IFS) during the late 1980s, the early 1990s, between 1994–1997, and between 1998–2002. It is considered that the survey effort for this species has been intensive (TSSC 2005o).

The Pedder Galaxias has not been recorded in its past range, Lake Pedder, since 1996 despite a high level of survey effort. The Pedder Galaxias has no particular life-cycle phase which may have caused it to remain undetected throughout surveys, and given that the species lives for around six years, it is considered highly unlikely that the species still exists in Lake Pedder (TSSC 2005o).

Intensive surveys conducted under early recovery plans (Crook & Sanger 1997; Gaffney et al. 1992) recorded only 10 individuals from the Bonnet Bay streams.

The survival and recovery of the species now depends on the ongoing success of ex-situ populations occurring in Lake Oberon and Strathgordon Dam. A total of 34 fish were translocated to Lake Oberon between 1991 and 1997. The population within Lake Oberon was surveyed in January 2001 and was found to be successfully breeding (TSSC 2005o). Over 500 adults are known to live and breed in Lake Oberon and juveniles can be seen swiming during the day (TAS DPIW 2008). It is now the only breeding population (Jackson 2004). The largest recorded specimens have also been recorded in lake Oberon (Jackson 2004). The population has been monitored annually to determine numbers and age structure (Jackson 2004).

The abundance of the Pedder Galaxias in Lake Oberon enabled a total of 74 adult fish to be transferred to the Strathgordon water supply dam in 2001 and 2002. In March 2003, there was evidence that some fish survived, however there is no evidence that they have successfully reproduced there (Jackson 2004).

The remaining natural habitat of the species and the Lake Oberon population is on reserved land (Southwest National Park, part of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area) and therefore protected from land management impacts. The Strathgordon water supply dam is on Hydro Tasmania land and is managed for the benefits of Pedder Galaxies while still functioning as water supply storage. The dam is fenced and an information sign has been placed near the dam (Jackson 2004). The IFS is responsible for the conservation of this species (Pogonoski 2004).

The original Lake Pedder was shallow (approximately 3 m) with a predominantly sandy bottom and surrounded by swampy, peaty plains. Most inflow streams were low gradient and meandering, as was the outflow Serpentine River. Several swampy pools occurred near the lake. Waters in the area were dark brown, coloured by organic substances and particles (Buckney & Tyler 1973), and likely to have a low pH level (McDowall & Frankenberg 1981). Observations suggest that the lake acted as a nursery for juveniles while the adults lived mainly in the streams (Bayley et al. 1972).

Inundation of Lake Pedder, along with the surrounding swamps, streams and upper Serpentine River, resulted in a very large and relatively deep (> 20 m) impoundment. The steeper streams above inundation level were the only areas of natural habitat that remained unchanged after the flooding (Jackson 2004).

In the late 1970s, before their decline, Pedder Galaxias were reported to be abundant around the new impoundment, with schools of juveniles observed near the shores, and adults common in inflowing streams (Andrews 1976; Frankenberg 1968). The natural habitat last occupied, was the lower reaches of slow flowing meandering streams, with a generally sandy bottom, pools, overhanging banks with abundant cover, and dense overhanging vegetation (Hamr 1992b).

Lake Oberon is an extremely deep lake, estimated to 95 m, and at 850 m altitude. Most of the shoreline is rocky and steep, except for two small sandy beaches on the north-western side. A meandering inflow stream flows into one of the beaches. Only two fish have been found in this stream during annual surveys, which have not been conducted at spawning time. The lake was chosen for translocation because it was free of fish, contained an abundant invertebrate food supply, has similar water chemistry and temperature to Lake Pedder, and has an inflowing stream which is thought necessary for spawning habitat (Hamr 1995).

The Strathgordon water supply dam was modified in 1997 by IFS and Hydro Tasmania to form suitable artificial habitat for Pedder Galaxias. The dam was drained to confirm that no other fish species were present, the outflow was made secure from introduced fish invasion and screened to prevent escape of fish from the dam, an artificial inflow stream was constructed for spawning habitat and the dam shores were revegetated (Jackson 2004).

Pedder Galaxias mature sexually at approximately two years of age and most appear to breed at three to four years of age. The species reaches a maximum total length of 16 cm and live for up to six years of age (Hamr 1992a; Jackson 2004).


Adults can be sexed by external examination of genital papillae: in the male the papillae is narrow, while in the female it is broad and rounded. These external features can be distinguished throughout the year but are most pronounced during the reproductive season (Hamr 1995). Adults with immature gonads were collected during January, and females with almost fully developed eggs, 1.5 mm in diameter, were taken in late March. Mature females were taken from a small deep pool below an artificial waterfall about 1.2 m in height, and their accumulation there may indicate an upstream migration (Andrews 1976). Limited evidence indicates that a size of 5–6 cm Fork Length (FL) (the distance from tip of snout to midline of caudal fin) is reached after one year and sexual maturity is reached at around two years of age. The smallest recorded female with developing gonads was 6.1 cm FL while the smallest male was 5.3 cm FL (Hamr 1992a), however, the average size at maturity was 9.5 cm FL for females and 7.6 cm FL for males (Hamr 1995).

From field sampling and captive breeding trials, Hamr (1992a) confirmed that the species spawns in spring (October) when water temperatures begin to rise. Between the end of September and mid October 1991, the temperatures of the two creek habitats where this species naturally occurred, ranged from 6.7–7.5°C. During this time a mating pair and a freshly spawned female were collected, indicating that spawning was in progress (Hamr 1992a). Females produce 150–1200 relatively large ovarian eggs, depending upon the size of the female. When laid, the eggs average 1.9 mm in diameter and increase to 2.3 mm when water hardens (Hamr 1992a).

Adults possibly require stream habitat for spawning and it is thought that the original Lake Pedder served as nursery habitat for larvae and juveniles floating or swimming within the water column (Hamr 1992a). In the artificial stream and pond established at Salmon Ponds trout hatchery, north-west of Hobart, captive females deposited eggs under flat rocks, aquatic vegetation and submerged driftwood. Most spawning sites were located well within the stream section although some eggs were laid in the pond (Hamr 1992a). In the laboratory at 15-16°C, artificially fertilised eggs took 22–30 days to hatch. Metamorphosis into juvenile fish occurred between 2–2.2 cm FL (Hamr 1992a).

In the Strathgordon water supply dam, a number of Pedder Galaxias were observed in the artificial stream in September 2001. Females produce a relatively small number (200–1200) of large eggs (2.2–2.5 mm diameter). Eggs that were artificially fertilised, after stripping, took 22–30 days to hatch at 15–16ºC. Larvae were approximately 10 mm long on hatching and, in captivity, fed on rotifers (minute aquatic organisms) and then small aquatic crustaceans (Hamr 1992a).

The Pedder Galaxias feeds on small invertebrates, mainly arthropods and aquatic insect larvae (Andrews 1976). Dietary analysis of stomach contents of 20 fish revealed that land-based and aquatic insects and crustaceans were the main dietary components. The land-based insects included beetles, flies, mosquitos, cicadas, grasshoppers, ants and wasps. The aquatic insects consisted primarily of mayfly nymphs, Diptera larvae, and adult beetles, while the major aquatic crustaceans were Freshwater Crayfish (Astacopsis franklinii), decapoda (shrimps, prawns, crabs and lobsters) and copepoda (minute planktonic or parasitic crustaceans) (Hamr 1992a).

It appears likely that this species requires a migration between lake and stream to complete its life cycle (Hamr 1992b).

Time of year is not important for sampling Tasmanian Galaxias species, as they are not migratory within freshwater (as far as is known) and they live for several years in the same habitat (J. Jackson 2002, pers. comm. cited in Pogonoski 2004).

The following collection methods were provided by the IFS and have been approved by the DPIWE Ethics Committee (Pogonoski 2004). Combinations of methods are used for threatened galaxiids in Tasmanian waters, including:

  • Electrofishing used for streams and lakeshores should be conducted according to the Australian Code of Practice (NSW Fisheries 1997) and operated in a way to minimise possible damage to fish.
  • Fine soft mesh fyke nets to be used in lakes and left overnight.
  • Night snorkelling to be used for visual observations, or capture with small handnets.
  • Larvae can be collected from lakes by towing a fine-mesh net behind a boat.
  • For temporary holding, fish are to be kept in a bucket part full of water.

The effort required for the collection of Tasmanian galaxiids depends on the habitat to be sampled and subjective judgement employed. At least 30 minutes of backpack electrofishing is necessary for streams and lake shores. Stream surveys for Pedder Galaxias can take hours. For fine-mesh fyke netting in lakes, one or two nights of sampling is probably adequate if using approximately 10 nets (J. Jackson 2002, pers. comm. cited in Pogonoski 2004).

The Pedder Galaxias is believed to be Australia's most endangered freshwater fish species (Hamr 1995). Major impacts and threats have come from:

Loss of habitat
A major impact on the Pedder Galaxias occurred with the loss of the shallow lake and meandering stream habitat with inundation of Lake Pedder, and the loss of most of this species' original lowland habitat (Hamr 1992b).

Brown Trout
The decline of the Pedder Galaxias coincided with the introduction of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) into Lake Pedder (Fulton 1990). Brown Trout are large, highly mobile predators that probably impact upon Pedder Galaxias directly through predation and indirectly through competition by consuming similar food resources and occupying similar habitat (Hamr 1992a).

Climbing Galaxias
A potential competitor and predator, the aggressive Climbing Galaxias, has become very abundant in the new Lake Pedder and its adjoining streams. Although present in the upper Serpentine River prior to damming (Andrews 1976), this species was not formerly reported from the area immediately adjacent to the original lake. It is now abundant throughout the Pedder and Gordon drainages and appears to have replaced the Pedder Galaxias in most of the streams running into the lake. The Climbing Galaxias feeds on similar prey to the Pedder Galaxias and produces a higher number of offspring, which allows it to increase its numbers much faster than the Pedder Galaxias (Hamr 1992a).

Redfin Perch
In 1996, the Hydro Electricity Commission (HEC) implemented modified operating procedures for the Gordon Power Scheme in an attempt to prevent the colonisation of Lake Pedder by Redfin Perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Gordon. Redfin Perch represent a significant threat to the galaxiid populations of Lake Pedder, including any remaining Pedder Galaxias and the still common Swamp Galaxias (G. parvus). The modified procedures require the level of Lake Pedder to be kept at least one metre above that of Lake Gordon before the radial gates on the canal linking the lakes are opened. By maintaining this difference in levels, the flow rates through the radial gates is estimated to be too swift to allow Redfin Perch to pass (Crook & Sanger 1997).

In 1992, the Pedder Galaxias was limited to two streams where Brown Trout and Climbing Galaxias were present (Hamr 1992a). The introduced species that shared these remaining streams with the Pedder Galaxias were removed if captured, but the invasion and proliferation of exotic species remains a major problem in these habitats (Hamr 1995). No Pedder Galaxias have been found in these streams since 1996 (TSSC 2005o).

Limited Gene Flow
The extant population in Lake Oberon is considered relatively secure but it may be threatened by genetic effects caused by the low number of fish from which the population is derived (34 individuals) (Jackson 2004). The genetic structure of the species at present or before its decline has not been determined.

Other Threats
Any long term changes to food availability in Lake Oberon caused by the introduction of Pedder Galaxias may also threaten the species. The current abundance in Lake Oberon may be a boom period, after which numbers may decline to sustainable levels as the food supply is depleted. Any introduction of other fish species would threaten the population but this is extremely unlikely to occur given the remote location of the lake (Jackson 2004).

The restricted distribution of the Pedder Galaxias in Tasmania, and its limited dispersal capabilities, have been highlighted as a possible threat to the species survival through human-influenced or natural events that may affect populations or increase isolation of populations (Hardie et al. 2006).

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice for Glaxias pedderensis (Pedder Galaxias) (TSSC 2005ai) recommends the following priority recovery and threat abatement actions for this species:

  • Continue to monitor presence of the Pedder Galaxias in Lake Oberon and Strathgordon Dam.
  • Other actions as outlined in the Recovery Plan for this species.

The Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (TSS 2006i) includes the following recovery actions:

  • Increasing public awareness.
  • Monitoring of translocated populations.
  • Survey for possible translocation sites.
  • Habitat and threat management.
  • Determine habitat requirements.
  • Determine genetic structure.

Additionally, the Recovery Plan includes general management prescriptions, as follows:

  • Maintain all Pedder Galaxias populations free of other fish species, with the exception of possible future translocation of Swamp Galaxias to the Strathgordon water supply dam.
  • Remove any other fish species found.
  • Clean the Strathgordon dam outflow screens at least twice a year, outside the September-December period when eggs may be present, to avoid fluctuations in water levels during the breeding season.
  • Ensure availability of clean spawning substrate in the Strathgordon dam and inflow stream.
  • Activities in the catchment of Stratgordon dam should not impact on water quality of the inflow streams or dam, or water supply to the dam.

The following documents may inform on protection and management of the Pedder Galaxias:

  • Recovery Plan for the Pedder, Swan, Clarence, Swamp and Saddled Galaxias, 1999-2004 (Crook & Sanger 1997)
  • The Pedder Galaxias Recovery Plan: Management Phase (Gaffney et al. 1992)
  • Recovery Plan: Threatened Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (TSS 2006i)

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pedder Galaxias (Galaxias pedderensis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005o) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Perca fluviatilis (Redfin, Redfin Perch) Recovery Plan for the Pedder, Swan, Clarence, Swamp and Saddled Galaxias - 1999-2004 (Crook, D. & A. Sanger, 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pedder Galaxias (Galaxias pedderensis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005o) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Salmo trutta (Brown Trout) Recovery Plan for the Pedder, Swan, Clarence, Swamp and Saddled Galaxias - 1999-2004 (Crook, D. & A. Sanger, 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pedder Galaxias (Galaxias pedderensis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005o) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by fish Recovery Plan for the Pedder, Swan, Clarence, Swamp and Saddled Galaxias - 1999-2004 (Crook, D. & A. Sanger, 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by fish Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pedder Galaxias (Galaxias pedderensis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005o) [Listing Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Recovery Plan for the Pedder, Swan, Clarence, Swamp and Saddled Galaxias - 1999-2004 (Crook, D. & A. Sanger, 1997) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pedder Galaxias (Galaxias pedderensis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005o) [Listing Advice].

Allen, G.R. (1989a). Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Brookvale, NSW: T.F.H. Publications.

Andrews, A.P. (1976). A Revision of the Family Galaxiidae (Pisces) in Tasmania. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 27:297-349.

Bayley, I.A.E., P.S. Lake, R. Swain & P.A. Tyler (1972). Lake Pedder: its importance to biological science. Pedder Papers: Anatomy of a decision pp.41-49. Melbourne: Australian Conservation Foundation.

Buckney, R.T. & P.A. Tyler (1973). Chemistry of some sedgeland waters: Lake Pedder, south-west Tasmania. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 24:267-273.

Crook, D. & A. Sanger (1997). Recovery Plan for the Pedder, Swan, Clarence, Swamp and Saddled Galaxias - 1999-2004. [Online]. TAS Inland Fisheries Commission. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/tas-galaxids/index.html.

Department of Primary Industries & Water (TAS DPIW) (2008). Pedder Galaxias. [Online]. Department of Primary Industries & Water, Tasmania. Available from: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/BHAN-54H7R8?open.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011i). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 . [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-fish.html.

Frankenberg, R.S. (1968). Two new species of Galaxiid fishes from the Lake Pedder region of southern Tasmania. Australian Zoologist. 14(3):268-274.

Fulton, W. (1990). Tasmanian Freshwater Fishes. Page(s) 80. Uni. Tasmania, Hobart.

Gaffney, R.F., P. Hamr & P.E. Davies (1992). The Pedder Galaxias Recovery Plan: Management Phase. Page(s) 24. Dept Parks, Wildlife & Heritage, Hobart, Tas.

Hamr, P. (1992a). Conservation of Galaxias pedderensis. Inland Fisheries Commission Occasional Report. 92-01:66.

Hamr, P. (1992b). The Pedder Galaxias. Australian Natural History. 23(12):904.

Hamr, P. (1995). Threatened Fishes of the world: Galaxias pedderensis Frankenberg, 1968 (Galaxiidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes. 43:406.

Hardie, S.A., J.E. Jackson, L.A. Barmutta & R.W.G. White (2006). Status of galaxiid fishes in Tasmania, Australia: conservation listings, threats and management issues. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 16:235-250.

Jackson, J. (1999). Threatened Fish Profile: Pedder Galaxias Galaxias pedderensis. Australian Threatened Fishes 1999 Supplement. Australian Society for Fish Biology Newsletter. 29(2):31-32.

Jackson, J.E. (2004). Tasmanian Galaxiidae Recovery Plan 2004-2008. Inland Fisheries Service, Hobart.

McDowall, R.M. (1980a). Family Galaxiidae Galaxiids. In: McDowall, R.M., ed. Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Page(s) 55-69. Sydney, NSW: Reed Books.

McDowall, R.M. & R.S. Frankenberg (1981). The Galaxiid Fishes of Australia. Records of the Australian Museum. 33(10):443-605.

McDowall, R.M. ed (1996). Freshwater Fishes of South-Eastern Australia rev. edn. Chatswood, NSW: Reed Books.

New South Wales Fisheries (NSWF) (1997). The Australian Code of Electrofishing Practice. NSW Fisheries Management Publication No. 1. [Online]. Fishery Management sub-committee of the Standing Committee for Fisheries and Aquaculture (SCFFA). Available from: http://electrofishing.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/08/ecode97i.pdf.

Sanger, A.C. (1989). Endangered Fish Study. Newsletter of the Inland Fisheries Commission of Tasmania. 18(2):4.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2005o). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pedder Galaxias (Galaxias pedderensis). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pedder-galaxias.html.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2005ai). NON-APPROVED Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pedder Galaxias (Galaxias pedderensis). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pedder-galaxias.html#conservation.

Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2006k). Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010. [Online]. DPIW. Department of Primary Industries, Water: Hobart, Tasmania. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tasmanian-galaxiidae.html.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Galaxias pedderensis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 18 Apr 2014 07:27:30 +1000.