Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
ACT:Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis): an endangered species. Action Plan No. 12 (ACT Government, 1999e) [State Action Plan].
ACT:Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis). An endangered species. Fact Sheet No. 12 (ACT Government, 2005b) [Information Sheet].
ACT:Ribbons of Life: ACT Aquatic Species and Riparian Zone Conservation Strategy (ACT Government, 2007a) [Report].
NSW:Endangered species - trout cod (NSW Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI), 2005b) [Internet].
NSW:Trout cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) recovery plan (NSW Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI), 2006) [State Recovery Plan].
NSW:Protecting trout cod - A guide for fishers (NSW Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI), n.d.) [Information Sheet].
SA:Action plan for South Australian freshwater fishes (Hammer M., S. Wedderburn & J. Van Weenen, 2009) [State Action Plan].
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 38 -Trout Cod Maccullochella macquariensis (Reed, J., 2003) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
ACT: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1980 (Australian Capital Territory): 2013 list)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
SA: Listed as Extinct (Action Plan for South Australian Freshwater Fishes 2009 list)
VIC: Listed as Critically Endangered (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013 list)
Scientific name Maccullochella macquariensis [26171]
Family Percichthyidae:Perciformes:Actinopterygii:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Cuvier, 1829)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.nativefish.asn.au/troutcod.html

Scientific name: Maccullochella macquariensis (Cuvier 1829)

Common name: Trout Cod

Other common names: Bluenose Cod, Blue Cod

The Trout Cod was formally described in 1829 by the French naturalist Cuvier (Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829) as Grystes macquariensis from a specimen taken in the Macquarie River near Bathurst (Douglas et al. 1994). The Trout Cod was later recognised by Berra and Weatherly (1972) as a distinct species from the Murray Cod (Maccullochella peelli peelii) on the basis of meristic and morphometric analysis, supported by slight differences in immunoelectrophoretic data (MacDonald 1978).

The Trout Cod is distinguished from the Murray Cod by its overhanging upper jaw, straight head slope, longer snout, grey colour, and speckled pattern. The Murray Cod has equal sized jaws, a concave head slope, a shorter snout, is green in colour and has a mottled pattern (Berra & Weatherley 1972).

The Trout Cod is a large, elongated fish, bluish grey in colour or sometimes dark to light brown. It has been known to grow to 85 cm and 16 kg but mostly grows to between 40 to 50 cm and less than 5 kg. It has small dark irregular spots or bars extending onto lower sides and the base of the dorsal and caudal fins, few or absent markings on the head and dusky grey to brownish fins with white or creamy margins (sometimes tinged with orange or yellow) (Allen 1989a; McDowall 1996).

The Trout Cod is known from a single natural population, two stable translocated populations and many stocked populations. All stocked sites require continued stocking and there is only limited evidence that some stocked populations are self sustaining (NSW DPI n.d.).

Natural Population

The natural distribution of Trout Cod has declined since European settlement. The single naturally occurring population is restricted to a small (approximately 120 km) stretch of the Murray River from below Yarrawonga Weir to Strathmerton (Douglas et al. 1994; NSW Fisheries 2001; Rimmer 1987), but is occasionally taken downstream as far as the Barmah State Forest (McKinnon 1993) and further downstream to Gunbower (Douglas et al. 2012). Unconfirmed records have also been made further downstream from near Murrabit, Swan Hill and near Tooleybuc (Douglas et al. 2012).

Translocated Populations

The Trout Cod was been introduced between 1921 and 1922 to Seven Creeks (a tributary of the Goulburn River) in Victoria (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983; Ingram & Richardson 1989; Ingram et al. 1990). The population now occurs upstream of Euroa between Gooram Falls and Polly McQuinns Weir (Reed 1995), for a distance of about 8 km (Douglas et al. 1994).

The Trout Cod was introduced prior to 1918 to Cataract Dam in coastal NSW (outside the species range). The population is thought to have hybridised with Murray Cod (M. peelii peelii) (Douglas et al. 1994; Gehrke & Harris 1996; Rimmer 1988).

Trout Cod from the Ovens River were introduced into Lake Sambell (an artificial lake at Beechworth, Victoria) in 1928 and the species was common here until an unexplained fish kill in the 1970s (Berra & Weatherley 1972; Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983).

Stocked Populations

Since the mid 1980s both the NSW Department of Primary Industries (DPI) and the Victorian DPI have been operating a breeding and conservation stocking program for the Trout Cod. This program has resulted in Trout Cod being stocked at numerous sites throughout their former distribution in the Murray-Darling River system of Victoria, New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Between 1986 and 2005, over one million Trout Cod (826 000 from Narrandera Fisheries Centre in NSW and the remainder from Snob's Creek Hatchery in Victoria), were released as fingerlings or juveniles into a range of selected sites (Harris & Rowland 1996; NSW DPI 2005).

Stocking sites include the Murray, Murrumbidgee, Macquarie and Abercrombie River catchments in NSW; the Goulburn, Ovens, Broken, Coliban and Mitta Mitta River catchments in Victoria; and the Murrumbidgee River catchment in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT Government 1999a; Brown et al. 1998; Douglas et al. 1994; Faragher et al. 1993).

In NSW, stocked populations occur in the upper Murray River above the Hume Dam, upper Murrumbidgee River between Adaminaby and Murrells Crossing, near Cooma, middle sections of the Murrumbidgee River from Burrinjuck to Yanco Weir, the Macquarie River near Dubbo and Talbingo Dam in the Kosciusko National Park. The primary stocking sites in NSW include Angle Crossing, Wantabadgery, Collingullie, Narrandera and Yanco in the Murrumbidgee River system and Namina Falls and Devils Elbow in the Macquarie River System. To date, recruitment of stocked populations has been detected in the Murrumbidgee River at Angle Crossing and Narrandera (Gilligan 2005).

Historic Distribution

Trout Cod were once widespread throughout the southern tributaries of the Murray-Darling system, including tributaries of the Murray River in Victoria, the Murrumbidgee (including upland tributaries in the ACT), and the upper half of the Macquarie River (NSW DPI 2005). In 1971, Lake (1971) noted that the species was extremely rare upstream of the Murray River at Yarrawonga, where it has been common 20 years before. Except for the first officially reported Trout Cod and one other unconfirmed report, there have been no further documented reports of Trout Cod occurring naturally in the Macquarie River system. Trout Cod have never been recorded in the Lachlan River (Douglas et al. 1994), however they must have occurred historically in this system as their distribution includes both neighbouring rivers to the north and south (NSW DPI 2005).

Reserves

McKinnon (1993) collected one Trout Cod from Barmah State Forest, Victoria. A stocked population of Trout Cod occurs in Talbingo Dam in the Kosciusko National Park, NSW (Gilligan 2005).

Recent research in the Murray and Murrumbidgee Rivers show that Trout Cod occupy stream positions characterised by a high abundance of large woody debris (or 'snags') in water that is comparatively deep and close to riverbanks. However, midstream snags are also an important habitat component (NSW Fisheries 2001).

In the Murray River below Yarrawonga Weir, Trout Cod inhabit a large (60—100 m wide), deep (>3 m) flowing river section with a sand, silt and clay substrate that contains abundant snags and woody debris. Trout Cod are often angled from within, under or adjacent to snags, branch piles, and steep clay banks, usually in areas of relatively fast current (Douglas et al. 1994). In a study by Brown and colleagues (1998), Trout Cod were only found in snag piles that were typically opposite sandy beaches or on outside bends. There is a degree of overlap with the habitat requirements of Murray Cod and therefore competition between these two species is likely (Brown et al. 1998). As a large proportion of the streams that the Trout Cod originally inhabited are now degraded, it is difficult to accurately determine the habitat requirements of the species (Reed 1995). Several authors (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983; Lake 1971; Llewellyn & MacDonald 1980) believe Trout Cod to be more common in the cooler waters of the upper reaches of streams.

Seven Creeks (Victoria) is a relatively narrow stream (5—7 m wide) with shallow (<2 m) pools interspersed by rapids and cascades (up to 4 m in height) (Douglas et al. 1994). Here, the species occurs in fast-flowing water over bedrock, boulder and sand-gravel substrates. Larger fish occur in deep holes between falls and rapids while the smaller fish shelter beneath and amongst boulders. Juveniles have been found in pools in a steep rocky section of the Seven Creeks system (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983). In Seven Creeks, partitioning of habitat use was evident with adults utilising pools and smaller juveniles utilising the riffle complexes (areas of a stream or river characterised by a rocky substrate and turbulent, fast-moving, shallow water) (NSW DPI 2006).

A Trout Cod radio tracking study has been conducted in a 40 km reach of the Murray River, downstream of Lake Mulwala (Koehn & Nicol 2014). This river in this region is a "large, lowland river situated on low-gradient riverine plains, with low energy, and is characterised by meandering bends. The species was strongly associated with structural woody habitat (>68% cover), deeper (>2.4 m), slower water (<0.2 m s-1) closer to the river bank. Murray Cod and Trout Cod were found in deeper and faster water, and deeper in the water column, than other tracked species (Golden Perch (Macquaria ambigua) and Carp (Cyprinus carpio)). The species only uses a small proportion of habitat, and is strongly influenced by the presence of structural woody debris (Koehn & Nicol 2014).

Brown and Nicol (1998) identified critical habitat requirements by studying the movement/migration of Trout Cod, and by measuring habitat parameters at sites where populations currently exist. The results indicated that Trout Cod occupied sites with large woody debris, or snags, and that snags located away from the bank may be preferred (Nicol et al. 2002). Growns and colleagues (2004) found that 95 per cent of Trout Cod caught in habitat surveys were associated with the presence of woody habitat. Suitable habitats for Trout Cod may now be limited and patchy in distribution as a result of the large scale removal of snags from many Australian streams and rivers (NSW DPI 2005).

Trout Cod reach sexual maturity at three to five years of age at a weight of 0.75—1.5 kg (Douglas et al. 1994).

Few records exist of Trout Cod surviving past three years of age at any of the re-introduction sites except in the case of Ryans Creek (Victoria) where a sizeable adult population, which has since disappeared, became established in Loombah Weir (Brown et al. 1998). The failure to capture individuals older than three years of age at re-introduction sites may be due to a failure of the sampling method, migration or due to the elimination of fish by recreational fishers (Brown et al. 1998). Evidence of natural recruitment from a stocked population has been obtained from the capture of two individuals in the Murrumbidgee River that did not show the chemical mark carried by stocked fingerlings (Brown et al. 1998).


Trout Cod are believed to form pairs and spawn annually during spring (in late September to late October), when water temperatures are between 14—22 °C. Spawning appears to be triggered by increasing day length and increasing water temperatures. (Ingram & Douglas 1995; Ingram & Rimmer 1992). There are early records indicating that in the Murray River, just below Yarrawonga, the spawning of Trout Cod precedes that of Murray Cod by about three weeks (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983).

Trout Cod are thought to be smaller than Murray Cod when they first spawn (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983) and have slightly larger eggs (Llewellyn & MacDonald 1980). Trout Cod have been found in spawning condition at 25.4 cm length (Cadwallader 1977), but males and females generally mature at around 35 cm (570 g) and 43 cm total length (1200 g), respectively (Koehn & O'Connor 1990).

The fecundity of Trout Cod is not known, but 1188—11 338 eggs have been stripped from individual broodfish (Douglas et al. 1994; Ingram & Rimmer 1992). The eggs are demersal (found at or near the floor of the water body), adhesive (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983), and are apparently laid onto a hard surface (Ingram & Rimmer 1992). Egg diameter is 2.5—3.6 mm (Ingram & Douglas 1995; Ingram & Rimmer 1992).

The larvae are 6.0—8.8 mm upon hatching after five to ten days at 18—20 °C. Larvae live off the yolk sac for about ten to 13 days before beginning to feed. The growth rates of Trout Cod in the wild have not been documented, but in plankton-rich fry-rearing ponds, fry grow rapidly and may exceed a length of 4.5 cm within five weeks (Douglas et al. 1994). Observations in aquaria indicate that juveniles soon become aggressive towards each other and establish well-defined territories on the substrate (floor of the water body) (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983).

The diet of the Trout Cod includes aquatic insects and crustaceans such as yabbies, crayfish and shrimps. The species may also leap from the water to take food items just above the surface (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983). Larger Trout Cod will take Macquarie Perch (Macquaria australasica) and Goldfish (Carassius auratus). Smaller individuals will take mosquito fishes Gambusia sp., tadpoles, and a variety of crustaceans and aquatic insects; stomach contents have also included mayfly nymphs, midge and caddisfly larvae, water beetles and dragonfly larvae (Cadwallader 1979; Merrick & Schmida 1984). In Bendora Reservoir, Australian Capital Territory, this species has been recorded to feed on yabbies, mudeyes, blackfish and occasionally frogs (ACT Government 1999a). Fry raised in fertilised earthen ponds feed on a wide range of zooplankton, particularly crustaceans (cladocerans and copepods), and aquatic insects (Douglas et al. 1994).

Radio tracking surveys in the Murray River demonstrated that Trout Cod display high site fidelity, with a small home range and no evidence of any large scale or migratory movements such as a spawning migration. Individuals tracked demonstrated strong site fidelity for small and defined local ranges, typically using only a few locations in the river channel and undertaking limited movements. However in a pilot study in 1993, two of the four fish tagged moved substantially during a one-in-20-year flood. Also several fish moved from the main river channel into channels on the nearby floodplain (Brown & Nicol 1998; Brown et al. 1998; Koehn et al. 2008).

When conducting surveys for Trout Cod, employing a range of methods is considered to be the most effective means of reducing bias and increasing confidence in detection. Two to three methods are likely to be sufficient for most areas. It should be noted that the Trout Cod co-occurs with the Murray Cod and therefore, surveys should always involve species experts who are able to identify each species reliably (DSEWPaC 2011i).

Trout Cod occur in highest densities in areas with a large amount of woody debris in deep water and are most active at dawn, dusk and night. Surveys should be targeted accordingly. It should be noted that the breeding season (October to December) is not an appropriate time for survey, due to the potential impacts of survey methods on breeding success.

Suitable Methods

Angling with lures and barbless hooks has been demonstrated to be one of the most effective methods, particularly in spring and summer when fish are most active (taking into account the exclusion during October to December breeding). There is a small risk of mortality associated with this method, but if it is carried out by experienced anglers, that risk should be negligible (DSEWPaC 2011i).

Other suitable methods include:
* Daytime snorkelling
* Gill-netting - nets to be set up for 6 hours maximum and checked very regularly to avoid mortality and by-catch
* Unbaited trapping (250 x 250 x 450 mm, 3 mm mesh traps) - this method is only suitable for sampling juveniles.

Boat-based or backpack electrofishing is considered to be a relevant survey method for Trout Cod, but is not recommended due to the risk of mortality due to conditions such as 'lock jaw' which can arise in stunned cod. There have been cases of high mortality due to sampling using electrofishing and the results do not appear to justify the risk. Electrofishing is most effective during the day, however, it is not recommended for the Trout Cod, as it hides in submerged debris during the day, and may not be visible when stunned.

An important note to assist in reducing mortality during sampling is that any individual which is retained out of the water for any period of time should be placed in an aerated tank for a short period prior to release. This assists the fish to recover from stress or shock (DSEWPaC 2011i).

Habitat Degradation

Lake (1971) noted that environmental changes associated with dam and weir construction and the clearing of native vegetation from rivers were suspected to be responsible for the decline of Trout Cod numbers as these activities alter natural water flows and lower water temperatures below impoundments.

Other activities potentially threatening Trout Cod include clearing (by landowners and forestry operations), overgrazing (by stock and the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), biocide spraying, road construction, changes to dam operations, water extraction, runoff from construction sites, fire and river management works such as de-snagging or channel modification (Reed 1995).

Stock (sheep and cattle) and rabbits that occur in areas adjoining Trout Cod waters potentially contribute to the degradation of riparian vegetation and erosion which may lead to sedimentation (Reed 1995). Using fencing to exclude stock from the riparian zone would reduce riparian habitat degradation and erosion (Reed 1995).

Potential threats arise from processes that damage the aquatic environment, such as sedimentation, removal of riparian vegetation and deterioration in water quality (e.g. reduction in dissolved oxygen concentration, increased turbidity, increased concentrations of nutrients) (Reed 1995). Sedimentation and the associated increase in turbidity are likely to affect visual feeders like Trout Cod, as both the abundance and diversity of prey items are reduced, as well as reducing feeding success because of lowered water quality (ACT Government 1999e).

Cold Water Pollution

As the current distribution of Trout Cod is within the river reaches affected by cold water pollution it is likely to be adversely impacting on the Trout Cod. Cold water pollution is the artificial lowering in temperature of a water body (NSW Fisheries 2001). The water held in large impoundments has a warm surface layer and a cold, dense bottom layer. The release of cold water from low-level outlets in large dams can significantly alter temperature regimes in downstream stretches of rivers, the effects of which can be measured up to hundreds of kilometres downstream. This lowers water temperatures (by as much as 8—12 ºC in spring/summer), reducing annual temperature ranges and delaying the timing of summer temperature peaks. Cold water pollution affects a significant proportion of river reaches, including the Murray River downstream of Hume Dam and the Murrumbidgee River downstream of Burrinjuck Dam (NSW DPI 2005).

For the majority of native fish species, successful breeding will only occur once spawning temperature thresholds have been reached. Koehn (2001) reported that the generalised optimal spawning temperature for the Trout Cod is around 18 °C. Although little work has been undertaken on the precise impact of cold water pollution on the Trout Cod, a recent study demonstrated that the egg survival of the Trout Cod, as well as a number of other native species including the Murray Cod (M. peelii peelii), Golden Perch (Macquaria ambigua), Silver Perch (Bidyanus bidyanus), and Eel-tail Catfish (Tandanus tandanus) was reduced by temperatures below 15 °C (Lyon et al. 2002).

Lower temperatures may delay spawning, reduce spawning success or result in spawning failure. The impacts of cold water pollution may also affect Trout Cod by reducing hatching success and survival, impairing metabolic functioning (including those associated with digestion and swimming speeds), reducing growth rates and increasing the species' susceptibility to diseases (NSW DPI 2005).

Lower temperatures may also have more indirect impacts by lowering the productivity of the river system thereby reducing available food sources. Lowering river temperatures also tends to favour introduced coldwater species such as Brown Trout (Salmo trutta), Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Redfin Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and Carp (Cyprinus carpio). Such species may prey on and compete for resources with native species (NSW DPI 2005).

Removal of Habitat

Loss of floodplain habitat is likely to have been a contributing factor in the decline of the species in lowland rivers such as the Murray, Macquarie and lower Murrumbidgee rivers. Here, woody debris in backwaters and flood channels may have been a favoured spawning and larval development habitat (ACT Government 1999e).

The removal of in-stream woody habitat (woody debris or `snags') is listed as a key threatening process under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 NSW. Snags have a critical role to play in the ecological functioning of rivers and consist of whole trees, limbs and root masses that are partly or wholly submerged. Research to date shows a close association between Trout Cod and snags (Brown & Nicol 1998). Wager and Jackson (1993) lists `desnagging' as one of the main factors contributing to the decline of Trout Cod. Snag structures provide complex and diverse habitat for Trout Cod and provide cover from predation, refuge from high velocity flows and feeding sites (Lawrence 1991; Morris et al. 2001).

Barriers To Trout Cod Movement

Since European settlement numerous barriers to fish movement have been constructed across watercourses, including dams, weirs, levee banks, culverts and road crossings. The unimpeded passage of fish throughout streams is crucial for spawning, migration, recolonisation of former distribution, general movement and habitat selection (Koehn & O'Connor 1990a). In-stream barriers can prevent fish reaching spawning and feeding areas as well as interrupting gene flow and causing fish populations to fragment (NSW Fisheries 1999).

Fishing

Commercial and recreational fishers regularly took this species in the past and over-fishing has probably contributed to its decline (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983). The species will readily take lures or bait, so it can be easily over-fished by recreational anglers (Cadwallader 1979).

Anecdotal reports indicate that illegal fishing and harvesting are taking place (NSW DPI 2005). For example, illegal fishing is suggested as one of the reasons for the elimination of Trout Cod from Loombah Weir (Ryans Creek, Victoria) (Brown et al. 1998). The extent of illegal fishing and harvesting is unknown, consequently the impact of such activities is difficult to assess (NSW DPI 2005).

Low Genetic Variation

Hybridisation with Murray Cod in impoundments is a possible threat to the genetic variability of Trout Cod populations. Research suggests that there is a low level of hybridisation between Trout Cod and Murray Cod populations in the Murray River (NSW DPI 2005).

There are several potentially problematic genetic issues associated with poorly planned breeding and stocking programs. Stocking can change the genetic makeup of fish populations and in many cases, fish from hatcheries contain lower levels of genetic variation than naturally occurring wild stocks (Kennan et al. 1995). For example, research has shown that the remnant Trout Cod population in the mid-Murray region between Yarrawonga and Tocumwal contains a higher level of genetic diversity and is significantly different to the Seven Creeks population that was stocked (Bearlin & Tikel 2002).

Introduced Species

It is likely that introduced trout species, including Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) have adversely affected this species. Since Trout Cod, Brown Trout and Rainbow Trout take the same types of foods and live in similar habitats, they may also compete directly for food items (Cadwallader & Gooley 1984). It is known that Brown Trout prey on Trout Cod (NSW Fisheries unpub. data in ACT Government 1999).

Redfin Perch (Perca fluviatilis), an introduced predatory fish that shares its range with the Trout Cod, is also implicated in its decline through competitive effects (Rimmer 1987) and possible parasite and disease transfer (Reed 1995). Carp (Cyprinus carpio) or Redfin Perch are considered to be the source of the Australian populations of the parasitic copepod, Lernaea cyprinacea (Langdon 1989a). Carp, Goldfish (Carassius auratus) or Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) are probably implicated as the source of the introduced tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi), which has recently been recorded in native fish species (Dove et al. 1997). This tapeworm causes widespread mortality in juvenile fish overseas (ACT Government 1999e).

Disease

Of concern is the recent identification in Australia of the disease Epizootic Haemotopoietic Necrosis Virus (EHNV). This virus, unique to Australia, was first isolated in 1985 on the introduced Redfin Perch (Langdon et al. 1986). Experimental work by Langdon (1989a, 1989b) has demonstrated that a number of native fish species were extremely susceptible to the disease but Trout Cod has not been examined. Parasite and disease analysis of introduced fishes occurring within the distributional range of Trout Cod is desirable to assess and evaluate the risk of the transfer of these parasites and pathogens to Trout Cod. Investigations into the interactions between Trout Cod and the introduced species is critical to understanding the degree of threat to Trout Cod populations (ACT Government 1999e).

Because Maccullochella spp., including Trout Cod, seem highly susceptible to infestation by the protozoan Chilodinella (Rowland & Ingram 1991), this parasite may be a threat to Trout Cod in the wild (Douglas et al. 1994).

Low Recruitment Levels

Surveys conducted in the Murray River during 1995 and 1996 indicated that the level of recruitment is inadequate to sustain the population that occurs there. Similarly, research has revealed that the population in Seven Creeks is insecure and will face extinction without management intervention (Brown et al. 1998).

Lack of Community Awareness

Currently, there appears to be a lack of public understanding of issues affecting the recovery and long-term conservation of Trout Cod. This, combined with the inability of some anglers to distinguish between Murray Cod and Trout Cod, is having a detrimental impact on the species survival (NSW DPI 2005).

Recovery Planning

Trout Cod have been the subject of National Recovery Plans since 1994, as well as an Action Plan in both the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria. The Trout Cod, Maccullochella macquariensis(Cuvier) (Pisces: Percichthyidae), Resource Handbook and Research and Recovery Plan (Douglas et al. 1994) was developed by the National Recovery Team of 1994 and established recovery actions for the period between 1994 and 1999. A revised Recovery Plan for Trout Cod was developed in 1998 for the period between 1998 and 2005. The overall objective of this Recovery Plan was to down-list Trout Cod from Critically Endangered to Vulnerable within 25 years. The plan set out three specific recovery objectives and criteria and seven actions needed to achieve recovery. Funding to implement the National Recovery Plan was obtained from the Endangered Species Program of the (then) Australian Nature Conservation Agency, from the Murray Darling Basin Commission and from respective State agencies in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Victoria. Implementation of the National Recovery Plan has seen major advances in the understanding of the ecology of Trout Cod (NSW DPI 2005)

Fishing Regulations

Regulations are in place in New South Wales to prevent the harm or capture of Trout Cod. Under the provisions of the Fisheries Management Act 1994 (NSW), the catching and keeping of Trout Cod is an offence and heavy penalties apply (up to $220 000 and 2 years imprisonment). There is a prohibition on the use of setlines in the special management zone of the Murray River between Yarrawonga Weir to the Tocumwal Road Bridge (NSW DPI n.d., 2005). All fishing is prohibited in this area between September and November (NSW DPI n.d.). This restriction could possibly be extended given the confirmed downstream take of the species at Gunbower (Douglas et al. 2012).

The take of Trout Cod is now also totally prohibited in Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory and a seasonal fishing closure exists in the Murray River from Yarrawonga Weir to the Tocumwal Road Bridge between 1 September and 30 November (Douglas et al. 1994; Hunter 1998). Fishing is also prohibited in Seven Creeks (between Polly McQuinns Weir downstream to the crossing of the Galls Gap Road Bridge below Watchbox Creek) (Douglas et al. 1994; Reed 1995). A fishing closure in a stocked section of the Murrumbidgee River (ACT) is also being investigated to protect Trout Cod populations (ACT Government 1999e).

Habitat protection and restoration

Improving of in-stream habitat is an on-going activity. There is a range of government programs and initiatives aimed at protecting and/or restoring river habitats, which in turn assists in reducing the various threats to Trout Cod. Examples include the Water Reform Program, State Fishway Program, the Murray Darling Basin Native Fish Strategy, Landcare and Rivercare programs, the Carp Assessment and Reduction Program and the NSW Salinity Strategy (NSW DPI 2005).

Most Trout Cod occupy a limited home range; this suggests that restoration of habitat needs to occur close to source populations for rapid colonisation. Distance between habitat patches should be kept to a minimum, less than 1 km, to provided good connectivity for the Trout Cod (Koehn et al. 2008).

The reintoductionof structural woody habitat patches for rehabilitation of habitat, particularly in low gradient riverine plains, for the Trout Cod should have >70% cover, be >1.5 m high, located <15% of the river channel (width) closest to the bank, with surface velocities of 0.3-0.6 m s-1 (Koehn & Nicol 2014).

Captive Breeding and Stocking Programs

The NSW Department of Primary Industries and Victorian Fisheries operate captive breeding programs for Trout Cod. In NSW, Trout Cod are bred at NSW DPI Inland Fisheries Research Centre at Narrandera. Since 1986, a total of over one million fingerlings have been stocked in the Murray, Murrumbidgee and Macquarie catchments. Since 1993 all hatchery produced Trout Cod within NSW have been chemically tagged using either strontium chloride, oxytetracycline or alizarin complexone. This ensures that all hatchery raised fish can be differentiated from wild-bred fish by ear bone examination.

During the 18 years of the stocking program, a number of stocking sites and strategies have been used. However, in 1995, NSW Fisheries (now part of the NSW DPI) adopted a strategy whereby only a small number of sites are stocked with large numbers of Trout Cod on an annual basis. The primary stocking sites include Angle Crossing, Wantabadgery, Collingullie, Narrandera and Yanco in the Murrumbidgee River system and Namina Falls and Devils Elbow in the Macquarie River system. Further monitoring is required to determine the outcomes of this particular stocking strategy (NSW DPI 2005).

Monitoring and Surveying

Monitoring of re-stocked Trout Cod populations has been undertaken since 1990 by NSW DPI, Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment and Environment ACT (Douglas et al. 1994; Faragher et al. 1993). Surveys of the single remnant population in the Murray River were undertaken in 1995/96 as part of the National Trout Cod Recovery Plan. The aims of the surveys included assessment of the survival and abundance of restocked populations, investigation of the dispersal of Trout Cod from stocked sites, identification of micro-habitat requirements at different life history stages, and investigation of the size-structure of populations. While not directly targeting Trout Cod, surveys and research programs undertaken by NSW Department of Primary Industries provide incidental and valuable data on Trout Cod (NSW DPI 2005).


Commonwealth-funded Grants:

Nagambie Landcare Group Inc received $28 800 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2002-03, part of which was for the surveying and mapping of threatened species to determine priorities for on-ground works, including habitat protection and enhancement

Management documents relevant to the Trout Cod can be found at the start of the profile. Other relevant documents include Douglas and colleagues (1994), Brown and colleagues (1998) and NSW DPI (2006).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Fertiliser application Action Statement No. 38 Trout Cod Maccullochella macquariensis (Reed, J., 1995) [State Action Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Action Statement No. 38 Trout Cod Maccullochella macquariensis (Reed, J., 1995) [State Action Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Recovery Plan for the Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) - 1998-2006 (Brown, A., Nicol, S., Koehn, J., 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements The Impact of Global Warming on the Distribution of Threatened Vertebrates (ANZECC 1991) (Dexter, E.M., A.D. Chapman & J.R. Busby, 1995) [Report].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Habitat modification and negative impacts on species numbers due to recreational fishing National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal take Recovery Plan for the Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) - 1998-2006 (Brown, A., Nicol, S., Koehn, J., 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest A Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Victoria Page(s) 249. (Cadwallader, P.L. & G.N. Backhouse, 1983) [Book].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Action Statement No. 38 Trout Cod Maccullochella macquariensis (Reed, J., 1995) [State Action Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification with associated erosion Recovery Plan for the Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) - 1998-2006 (Brown, A., Nicol, S., Koehn, J., 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Temperature Extremes:Elevated water temperatures National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Reduced dissolved oxygen levels in waterways National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Recovery Plan for the Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) - 1998-2006 (Brown, A., Nicol, S., Koehn, J., 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Recovery Plan for the Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) - 1998-2006 (Brown, A., Nicol, S., Koehn, J., 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Introduced Genetic Material: National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Action Statement No. 38 Trout Cod Maccullochella macquariensis (Reed, J., 1995) [State Action Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Weather Loach, Oriental Weatherloach) National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Recovery Plan for the Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) - 1998-2006 (Brown, A., Nicol, S., Koehn, J., 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by marine invertebrates Action Statement No. 38 Trout Cod Maccullochella macquariensis (Reed, J., 1995) [State Action Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Carassius auratus (Goldfish) The Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, in Australian freshwater fishes. Marine and Freshwater Research. 48:181-183. (Dove, A.D.M., T.H. Cribb, S.P. Mockler & M. Lintermans , 1997) [Journal].
National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Gambusia holbrooki (Eastern Gambusia, Mosquitofish) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
The Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, in Australian freshwater fishes. Marine and Freshwater Research. 48:181-183. (Dove, A.D.M., T.H. Cribb, S.P. Mockler & M. Lintermans , 1997) [Journal].
National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) Past and present distributions and translocations of Murray cod Maccullochella peeli and trout cod Maccullochella macquariensis (Pisces: Percichthyidae) in Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 96(1):33-43. (Cadwallader, P.L. & G.J. Gooley, 1984) [Journal].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Perca fluviatilis (Redfin, Redfin Perch) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Trout cod bred for first time at Narrandera. Australian Fisheries. 46(11):33-34. (Rimmer, M.A., 1987) [Journal].
National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Salmo trutta (Brown Trout) Past and present distributions and translocations of Murray cod Maccullochella peeli and trout cod Maccullochella macquariensis (Pisces: Percichthyidae) in Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 96(1):33-43. (Cadwallader, P.L. & G.J. Gooley, 1984) [Journal].
National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation Cyprinus carpio (European Carp, Common Carp) Prevention and control of fish diseases in the Murray-Darling Basin. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Native Fish Management, Canberra. Page(s) 163-173. (Langdon, J.S., 1989a) [Proceedings].
National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by fish Recovery Plan for the Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) - 1998-2006 (Brown, A., Nicol, S., Koehn, J., 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Diseases of Australian native freshwater fishes with particular emphasis on the ectoparasitic and fungal diseases of Murray cod (Maccullochella peeli), golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) and silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus). NSW Fisheries, Fisheries Bulletin. 4: 1-33. (Rowland, S.J. & B.A. Ingram, 1991) [Report].
National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, grazing, predation and/or habitat degradation by rats Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis): an endangered species. Action Plan No. 12 (ACT Government, 1999e) [State Action Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by fish Recovery Plan for the Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) - 1998-2006 (Brown, A., Nicol, S., Koehn, J., 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Recovery Plan for the Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) - 1998-2006 (Brown, A., Nicol, S., Koehn, J., 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers Recovery Plan for the Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) - 1998-2006 (Brown, A., Nicol, S., Koehn, J., 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Riparian vegetation degradation National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Removal of wood snags from waterways Recovery Plan for the Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) - 1998-2006 (Brown, A., Nicol, S., Koehn, J., 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Environmental impacts due to application of fertilisers, herbicides and pesticides National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Changes to water and sediment flows leading to erosion, siltation and pollution National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Recovery Plan for the Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) - 1998-2006 (Brown, A., Nicol, S., Koehn, J., 1998) [State Recovery Plan].
The Action Plan For Australian Freshwater Fishes (Wager, R. & P. Jackson, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Species Stresses (suggest Reproductive Resilience?):Indirect Species Effects:Reduction of genetic intergrity of a species due to hybridisation National Recovery Plan for Trout Cod (Trout Cod Recovery Team, 2008) [Recovery Plan].

ACT Government (1999e). Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis): an endangered species. Action Plan No. 12. [Online]. Environment ACT, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.act.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/234476/actionplans12.pdf.

ACT Government (2005b). Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis). An endangered species. Fact Sheet No. 12. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.act.gov.au/cpr/conservation_and_ecological_communities/information_on_action_plans.

ACT Government (2007a). Ribbons of Life: ACT Aquatic Species and Riparian Zone Conservation Strategy. [Online]. Action Plan No. 29. Canberra: Department of Territory and Municipal Services. Available from: http://www.environment.act.gov.au/cpr/conservation_and_ecological_communities/aquatic_species_and_riparian_zone_conservation_strategy.

Allen, G.R. (1989a). Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Brookvale, NSW: T.F.H. Publications.

Bearlin, A.A. & D.Tikel (2002). Conservation genetics of Murray-Darling Basin fish; silver perch, Murray cod and trout cod. Phillips, B, ed. Managing Fish Translocation and Stocking in the Murray-Darling Basin Workshop held in Canberra, 25-26 September 2002: Statement, recommendations and supporting papers.

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Brown, A. & S. Nicol (1998). Trout cod recovery plan: draft final report. Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Melbourne, Victoria.

Brown, A., Nicol, S., Koehn, J. (1998). Recovery Plan for the Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) - 1998-2006. VIC DNRE.

Cadwallader, P.L. (1977). J.O. Langtry's 1949-50 Murray River Investigations. Fish. Wild. Paper, Victoria. 13.

Cadwallader, P.L. (1979). Distribution of native and introduced fish in the Seven Creeks River system, Victoria. Australian Journal of Ecology. 4(4):361-385.

Cadwallader, P.L. & G.J. Gooley (1984). Past and present distributions and translocations of Murray cod Maccullochella peeli and trout cod Maccullochella macquariensis (Pisces: Percichthyidae) in Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 96(1):33-43.

Cadwallader, P.L. & G.N. Backhouse (1983). A Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Victoria. Page(s) 249. Melbourne: Victorian Government Printing Office.

Cuvier, G. & M. Valenciennes (1829). Histoire Naturelle des Poissons.:58.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011i). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 . [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-fish.html.

Douglas, J., T. Hunt & W. Trueman (2012). Confirmed records of the endangered Trout Cod Maccullochella macquariensis from the Murray River at Gunbower Island, Victoria. The Victorian Naturalist. 129(1):152-55.

Douglas, J.W., G.J. Gooley & B.A. Ingram (1994). Trout cod, Maccullochella macquariensis (Cuvier) (Pisces: Percichthyidae), Resource Handbook and Research and Recovery Plan. Page(s) 98. Fisheries Res. Inst., Snobs Creek. Dept Cons. & Nat. Res., Vic.

Dove, A.D.M., T.H. Cribb, S.P. Mockler & M. Lintermans (1997). The Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, in Australian freshwater fishes. Marine and Freshwater Research. 48:181-183.

Faragher, R.A., P. Brown & J.H. Harris (1993). Population surveys of the endangered fish species trout cod (Maccullochella macquariensis) and eastern cod (M. ikei). Page(s) 22. NSW Fisheries Research Institute, Cronulla.

Gehrke, P.C. & J.H. Harris (1996). Fish and fisheries of the Hawkesbury-Nepean river system. NSW Fisheries Office of Conservation, Sydney.

Gilligan, D.M. (2005). Fish communities of the Murrumbidgee catchment: Status and trends. Final Report Series (No 75). NSW Department of Primary Industries.

Growns, I., I. Wooden & C. Schiller (2004). Use of instream wood habitat by trout cod (Maccullochella macquariensis (Cuvier)) in the Murrumbidgee River. Pacific Conservation Biology. 10:4:261-265.

Harris, J.H. & S.J. Rowland (1996). Family Percichthyidae - Australian freshwater cods and basses. In: McDowall, R.M., ed. Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Rev. ed:150-163. Chatswood, Sydney: Reed Books.

Hunter, S. (1998). Protecting trout cod. Fisheries NSW Magazine. 1(2):13.

Ingram, B.A. & J.W. Douglas (1995). Threatened fishes of the world: Maccullochella macquariensis (Cuvier, 1829) (Percichthyidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes. 43:38.

Ingram, B.A. & M.A. Rimmer (1992). Induced breeding and larval rearing of the endangered Australian freshwater fish trout cod, Maccullochella macquariensis (Cuvier) (Percichthyidae). Aquaculture and Fisheries Management. 24: 7-17.

Ingram, B.A., C.G. Barlow, J.J. Burchmore, G.J. Gooley, S.J. Rowland & A.C. Sanger (1990). Threatened native freshwater fishes in Australia - some case histories. Journal of Fish Biology. 37:175-182.

Ingram, B.C. & B.A. Richardson (1989). Trout Cod (first edition). In: AGFACTS, F3.2.6. NSW Agriculture & Fisheries, Sydney.

Keenan, C.P., R.J. Watts & L.G. Serafini (1995). Population genetics of Golden Perch (Macquaria ambigua), Silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus) and eel-tailed catfish (Tandanus tandanus) within the Murray-Darling basin. Final report of Natural Resources Management Strategy, project No N262.

Koehn, J. (2001). Ecological Impacts of Cold Water Releases on Fish and Ecosystem Processes. In Thermal Pollution of the Murray-Darling Basin Waterways Workshop held at Lake Hume 18-19 June 2001. In: Phillips, B., ed. Statement and recommendations plus supporting papers.

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Koehn, J.D., S.J. Nicol, J.A. McKenzie, J.A. Lieschke, J.P. Lyon & K. Pomorin (2008). Spatial ecology of an endangered native Australian Percichthyid fish, the trout cod Maccullochella macquariensis. Endangered Species Research. 4:219-225. [Online]. Available from: http://www.int-res.com/articles/esr2008/4/n004p219.pdf.

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Rowland, S.J. & B.A. Ingram (1991). Diseases of Australian native freshwater fishes with particular emphasis on the ectoparasitic and fungal diseases of Murray cod (Maccullochella peeli), golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) and silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus). NSW Fisheries, Fisheries Bulletin. 4: 1-33. NSW Fisheries.

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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Maccullochella macquariensis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 29 Jul 2014 02:39:26 +1000.