Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
SA:Action plan for South Australian freshwater fishes (Hammer M., S. Wedderburn & J. Van Weenen, 2009) [State Action Plan].
TAS:Prototroctes maraena (Australian Grayling): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014vi) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Near Threatened (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
SA: Listed as Endangered (Action Plan for South Australian Freshwater Fishes 2009 list)
VIC: Listed as Vulnerable (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013 list)
Scientific name Prototroctes maraena [26179]
Family Retropinnidae:Salmoniformes:Actinopterygii:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Gunther, 1864
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.ifc.tas.gov.au/fact_sheets/grayling.html

Scientific name: Prototroctes maraena

Common name: Australian Grayling

Other common names: Cucumber Mullet, Cucumber Herring

The Australian Grayling is an accepted species (AFD 2012).

The Australian Grayling is a slender fish varying in colour from silvery with an olive-grey back and whitish belly, to olive green or brownish in the back with a darker mid-lateral streak and greyish fins. The species has large eyes, which are usually bright yellow, a rounded snout and a small head (Barnham 1998; DPI 2006).

The Australian Grayling generally grows between 17–19 cm, but can reach 30–33 cm. The lower jaw is shorter than the upper jaw. It has a fleshy, fatty fin located between the dorsal and tail fins. The mouth reaches to below the eye. There are no scales on the head, nor is there a lateral line. This species has a strong cucumber smell when caught and first taken from the water (Barnham 1998; DPI 2006).

Currently, the Australian Grayling occurs in streams and rivers on the eastern and southern flanks of the Great Dividing Range, from Sydney, southwards to the Otway Ranges of Victoria and in Tasmania. The species is found in fresh and brackish waters of coastal lagoons, from Shoalhaven River in NSW to Ewan Ponds in South Australia (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983; DPI 2006; Jenkins et al. 2009). It is absent from the inland Murray-Darling system (DPI 2006; McDowall 1980b). In Victoria in the 1980s, this species had been most frequently collected in the Tambo, Barwon, Mitchell and Tarwin River systems (Jackson & Koehn 1988). In NSW, there are many sightings from the Deua River that cover all year classes, usually in small shoals containing a number of individuals (Kaminskas 2007 pers. commm.).

Historically, the Australian Grayling occurred in coastal streams from the Grose River, west of Sydney, southwards through NSW and Victoria. It also occurred widely throughout Tasmania (including King Island in Bass Strait) including the northern, eastern and southern coastal river drainages with occasional reports from the west coast (Bell et al. 1980; Lake 1971; McDowall 1980b). It also occasionally occurred high upstream in the Snowy River (Bell et al. 1980; Lake 1971). A single juvenile specimen was collected from Lake Macquarie in 1974 (Australian Fish Collection Records undated).

Australian Grayling were common in the Yarra River catchment in Victoria however, in the 1940s, a rock weir was constructed at Dights Falls (and subsequently upgraded in the 1960s) which would have prevented upstream migration of the species except during high flow events. A rock ramp fishway was constructed at Dights Falls in 1993 and subsequently modified in 1994. Anecdotal evidence from angler captures indicated that recolonising upstream of the structure may have been occurring post fishway construction (Ryan et al. 2003). The species has more recently been confirmed in several locations in the Yarra River including below Dights Falls (Barnham 1998).

While there are no reliable population estimates for the Australian Grayling, the species is reported to be relatively uncommon and is often only caught in small numbers (less than 10). Larger populations are restricted to a few rivers (for example the Tambo River in Victoria), however very few rivers within the distribution range have been studied. The species is known to have declined in numbers and distribution within NSW (DPI 2006; Jackson & Koehn 1988; Jenkins et al. 2009).

Research into the Australian Grayling has indicated the species undergoes large, annual fluctuations in population numbers, depending on prevailing conditions. The species’ high fecundity means the Australian Grayling is capable of explosive population increases when conditions are favourable (Jenkins et al. 2009).

There has been little work on the genetic variation within and between populations of Australian Grayling (Jackson & Koehn 1988). It is possible that populations are maintained by successful spawning in only a few streams (Jackson & Koehn 1988). All rivers and streams where this species is found are therefore important to the species' survival as it is unknown which populations are the most effective in terms of reproductive success. 

The Australian Grayling is diadromous, spending part of its lifecycle in freshwater and at least part of the larval and/or juvenile stages in coastal seas (Miles et al. 2013). Adults (including pre spawning and spawning adults) inhabit cool, clear, freshwater streams with gravel substrate and areas alternating between pools and riffle zones (DEWHA 2008zzn) such as the Tambo River, which is also known to have granite outcrops (Berra 1982). The species has also been associated with clear, gravel-bottomed habitats in the Mitchell and Wonnangatta Rivers (Victoria) and in a muddy-bottomed, heavily silted habitat in the Tarwin River (Victoria) (Jackson 1980). The species has been found over 100 km upstream from the sea (Jackson & Koehn 1988).

During January–November 1979 in the Tambo River, Victoria, water temperatures ranged from 5–26 °C and the pH was approximately 8 (Berra 1982). Hall and Harrington (1989) located a population of adult Australian Grayling in consecutive years in an urban area of the lower reaches of the highly turbid Barwon River, with a salinity of approximately 1.5 parts per thousand (ppt).

Longevity

Recent estimates state that most Australian Grayling die after their second year, probably soon after spawning, however a small proportion reach five years of age (Backhouse et al. 2008a). Longevity of individuals in the Shoalhaven River was about three years and heaviest adult mortality appeared to occur after spawning at two years of age (Bishop & Bell 1978b).

Male Australian Graylings mature sexually at 1–2 years of age and at a length of 15 cm and females appear to mature after 2 years (Barnham 1998). Males were found to be fertile more than two months earlier than females (Hall & Harrington 1989). Some evidence suggests that Australian Grayling may reach a stage of maturity close to spawning, but do not spawn until conditions are suitable (Jackson & Koehn 1988).

Spawning

Spawning occurs in freshwater from late summer to winter, with exact timing being dependant on location and annual conditions (Backhouse et al. 2008a; Lake 1971; McDowall 1976). Different rivers at different latitudes with varying temperature regimes or other environmental influences produce different spawning seasons (Berra 1982).

Spawning initiation appears to be caused by an increase in river flows from seasonal rains, possibly coupled with a drop in water temperatures (Backhouse et al. 2008a). Observed spawning events and inferred initiation cues include:

  • Hall and Harrington (1989) concluded that final maturation and spawning in the Barwon River (Victoria) occurred in mid-late May and coincided with a drop in water temperature (to 12°C–13.5°C), a recent high flow event and a full moon to last quarter lunar phase. Reducing day length may also exert some influence on maturation and spawning (Hall & Harrington 1989).
  • O'Connor and Mahoney (2000) studied populations in the Tambo and Barwon River's and recorded spawning in the Tambo River after an increase in river discharge. Their results indicate water levels needed to reach a particular level to trigger spawning, and that ovarian involution (degeneration) would result if this flow was not reached.
  • The Tambo River population (Victoria) had inferred spawning to occur in the freshwater mid-reaches in late April-early May (late autumn), when water temperatures were approximately 13 °C (Berra 1982). It is hypothesised, however, that spawning in some localities in eastern Victoria may occur earlier during late summer (February) (Berra 1982).
  • A study of a Shoalhaven River population concluded that spawning occurred from early February-early March (Bishop & Bell 1978b).

In the Tambo River, mature females caught from late March-early May had an average of 47 000 non-adhesive demersal eggs of 0.9 mm mean diameter. The spawning season was very short and highly synchronised. Gonadal development begins in mid-March, peaks in late April and declines by mid-May (Berra 1982). While spawning sites and behaviour remain unknown, eggs are known to sink and settle in crevices of the habitat substrate (Berra 1982; Backhouse et al. 2008a).

Laval and juvenile stages

Eggs hatch after 10–20 days, and these larvae are 6.5 mm long, slender, buoyant and actively swim to the surface of the water. They have a small yolk sac that is absorbed by the larvae (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983) within three weeks (Bacher & O'Brien 1989). Newly-hatched fish are known to react strongly to light, preferring shady areas (Barnham 1998). Newly-hatched larvae drift downstream and out to sea, where they remain for approximately six months. Juveniles then return to the freshwater environment (around November of their first year), where they remain for the remainder of their lives (Backhouse et al. 2008a; Berra 1982). A lack of genetic differentiation between different Australian Grayling populations suggests that larvae disperse extremely widely in their juvenile marine life history phase (Schmidt et al. 2011). This wide dispersal may help the species re-colonise freshwater habitat where they have previously become locally extinct due to catastrophic events such as drought or bushfire.

In the Tambo River population, the size of Australian Grayling increased from January to May, then growth ceased during winter and resumed in September. There was no difference in growth between the sexes (Berra & Cadwallader 1983). Salinities higher than 5 parts per thousand (ppt) were unfavourable for normal egg development, but once hatching occurs the larvae can tolerate salinities up to 30 ppt. Larvae probably commence feeding in estuarine waters where the food supply is more diverse and abundant than in rivers (Bacher & O'Brien 1989).

Australian Grayling are omnivorous, feeding on a variety of small aquatic organisms, including crustaceans (such as cladocerans), insects and their larvae and algae. Non-aquatic insects have also been taken from the water surface by this species (Backhouse et al. 2008a).

The stomach contents of specimens from the Mitchell River in eastern Victoria were examined with aquatic insect larvae dominating the stomach contents, but small amounts of plant material, including macrophytes and filamentous algae, were also present (Jackson 1976).

The diet of the Tambo River (Victoria) population consists of immature aquatic insects, gastropods and, most commonly, plant material (diatom/organic matrix) (Berra et al. 1987). There was little dietary overlap between summer and the other seasons in all size classes examined, but there was significant dietary overlap between the size groups for all seasons except summer (Berra et al. 1987). Green algae (Stigeoclonium sp.) occurred only in the stomachs of the largest size group in summer where it made up 25% of the volume (Berra et al. 1987). The teeth of Australian Grayling are well adapted for combing filamentous algae with specimens observed to nibble on filamentous algae growing on the downstream side of rocks (Berra 1982).

Australian Grayling migrate between freshwater streams and the ocean (Lake 1971; Bishop & Bell 1978a). It is not known if the species ascend their own natal streams, or whether there is mingling in coastal areas and ascension (swimming upstream) of any convenient river (Berra 1982). The upstream migration of this species has been effectively terminated in some rivers by dams (e.g. Tallowa Dam) (Bishop & Bell 1978a).

Small specimens are easily mistaken for large Smelt (Retropinna spp.) (McDowall 1976). Appropriate techniques are available in the Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish (DSEWPaC 2011i).

Habitat disruption and degradation

The decline in the Australian Grayling's abundance appears to have been very rapid after the European settlement of Australia. Reasons for its decline are unknown, but are most likely related to habitat disruption caused by deforestation, the advent of barriers to fish movement, inappropriate river management, poor water quality and siltation, the introduction of exotic fish species and overfishing. The National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (DEWHA 2008zzn) contains a full summary of known and potential threats to the Australian Grayling.

Data on the habitat preferences and physical tolerances (e.g. salinity, oxygen, temperature or turbidity) of Australian Grayling are lacking and as such information may be vital to management, further work in this area should be encouraged (Jackson & Koehn 1988). All rivers known to contain Australian Grayling are at risk of habitat degradation in the future (Jackson & Koehn 1988).

Introduced species

Trout (Rainbow Trout, Onchorhynchus mykiss and Brown Trout, Salmo trutta) are known to prey on juvenile Australian Grayling and compete for habitat with adults (T. Raadik DSE-ARI pers. comm.). Juveniles are thought to be particularly vulnerable to predation during their migration from the marine environment to upstream freshwater habitat. Barriers and areas of low flow may also exacerbate this issue, if they cause aggregations of young fish at blockages. Although there is not extensive first-hand evidence of the impacts of Trout, Trout were implicated in the extinction of the New Zealand Grayling (McDowall 1976) and they are likely to have a similar effect on the Australian species.

Oriental Weatherloach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) are also thought to have an impact on the Australian Grayling, as they are likely to prey on grayling eggs.

Complex lifecycle and high fecundity

Apparent declines and abundances in Grayling populations may also reflect its complex life cycle and high fecundity (Berra 1982). Successive low river flow years (typical of Australia) could result in high mortality for Australian Grayling populations, but populations repond quickly to good conditions (Berra 1982). The species is particularly impacted by impoundments and the associated changes in flow regime, temperature and chemical compositions of the water, as they spawn in freshwater and rely on flows to help transport larvae to marine environments (Harris 1984 cited in Miles et al. 2013).

Disease

In 1869/70 an epidemic in the Tasmanian population killed thousands of Australian Graylings. The fish were described as being almost entirely covered with a cottony fungoid growth. The epidemic was so virulent that the Australian Grayling was almost removed completely from many of the southern rivers. It is believed that the epidemic was caused by the fungus Saprolegnia which was until then unknown in Tasmania. The fungus appeared in the Tasmanian river systems with the introduction of species from the Salmonidae Family (Salmon, Trout) (Saville-Kent 1888 cited in Cadwallader 1996; Cadwallader 1996).

The Background and Implementation Information for the Australian Grayling Prototroctes maraena National Recovery Plan (Backhouse et al. 2008a) includes a list of existing conservation measures. The National Recovery Plan for the Australian Grayling Prototroctes maraena (DEWHA 2008zzn) includes a list of five recovery objectives and 18 recovery actions for the Australian Grayling.

General mitigation

Australian Graylings prefer deep pool habitats or shallow areas with cover (Hall 1998). Most native species prefer areas with slow flowing water, debris and plants. The general design principle used to maintain hydrology values for native fish species, especially in diverted areas, include a diversity of water velocities and depths with relatively deep, slow water areas. Aquatic vegetation, usually occurring along river margins, provides important habitat for native fish species, as does woody debris and other structures that provide complexity of in-stream habitat structure. Substrate maintenance is also important. Riparian vegetation is an important component of in-stream ecology and provides shading, harbours terrestrial insects and provides a source of organic debris (Hall 1998).

Morwell River diversion mitigation approach (EPBC Referral 2002/903)

During the Hazelwood Mine West Field Project (which affected Morwell River, Eel Hole Creek and Wilderness Creek), a number of mitigation measures were recommended. These measures may be suitable for other Australian Grayling sites, or sites with other species of small fish which occur in similar "meandering river channel" habitat (Earth Tech Engineering Pty Ltd 2004). The design recommendations include:

  • The establishment of off stream wetlands (billabongs or flood-runners) to maximise waterway diversity.
  • Areas of water depth up to 1 m should be available to fish species during low flows, as should areas of slow flowing water (5 cm/sec).
  • Stands of emergent vegetation and submerged weedy areas should be available along the river margins.
  • Where required, grade control structure (rock riffles) and limit slope and drop of these structures.
  • Ensure control structures have rough surfaces (to reduce flow velocity) and the crest should concentrate flows during low flow and spread high flows over a large width.
  • Pools should be available above and below structures to allow resting prior and after migration.
  • Control structures should have a meandering channel across the face with appropriate rock placement and the concentration of low flows to maximise flow depth.
  • A minimum depth of 20 cm should be maintained during winter and spring to ensure that such structures do not act as near permanent barriers to fish passage.
  • Riparian vegetation should have a range of structural elements.
  • Any engineering works should have pre and post construction monitoring to evaluate effectiveness.

Mitigation constructions

Offstream billabongs in the form of flood runners which join meander bends about once or twice a year would provide some refuge for fish during high flows and a source of organic carbon (in the form of dissolved organic material). These structures also provide habitat for non-fish fauna (Earth Tech Engineering Pty Ltd 2004).

Channels should be constructed to provide to habitat for fish under a range of flow conditions, including low flows. Areas of water depth up to 1 m should be available to fish species during low flows, as should areas of slow flowing water. Stands of emergent vegetation and submerged weedy areas should be available along the river margins. Woody debris is also desirable along bank margins, and a high loading is recommended along pool banks compared to channels between ponds (Earth Tech Engineering Pty Ltd 2004).

Smaller sized debris should be embedded in channel reaches (smaller debris reduces the level of channel instability caused by channel flows). Larger debris is suitable in pools as larger fish are likely to use deeper areas. Smaller fish are likely to use microhabitat patches in channel reaches between pools for shelter (Earth Tech Engineering Pty Ltd 2004).

Substrate

The Australian Grayling is known to prefer unsilted gravel and cobble substrates.

Migration structures

Migration structures should be deep enough (e.g. > 20 cm) to allow large fish to migrate without surface exposure (Earth Tech Engineering Pty Ltd 2004).

Cover/shelter

Material that can provide areas of cover and shelter includes the use of emergent or submerged vegetation, woody debris, substrate surface depressions, undercut banks and small backwaters (Earth Tech Engineering Pty Ltd 2004). Riparian vegetation provides cover and also provides a source of future woody debris. This vegetation also provides habitat for terrestrial insects and aquatic macroinvertebrates. Riparian vegetation should consist of diverse structural elements.

Monitoring

All mitigation works should be followed up by monitoring and evaluation programs (Earth Tech Engineering Pty Ltd 2004).

Management documents relavent to the species can be found at the start of this profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].
A review of biological information, distribution and status of the Australian grayling Prototroctes maraena Gunther in Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Technical Report. 52:20. (Jackson, P.D. & J.D. Koehn, 1988) [Report].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements The Impact of Global Warming on the Distribution of Threatened Vertebrates (ANZECC 1991) (Dexter, E.M., A.D. Chapman & J.R. Busby, 1995) [Report].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Habitat modification and negative impacts on species numbers due to recreational fishing National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Fishes of the family Prototroctidae (Salmoniformes). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 27:641-659. (McDowall, R.M. , 1976) [Journal].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Reduced rainfall caused by climate change National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Sea level rise:Inundation associated with climate change Prototroctes maraena in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006vb) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Temperature Extremes:Elevated water temperatures National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Reduced dissolved oxygen levels in waterways National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities The Action Plan For Australian Freshwater Fishes (Wager, R. & P. Jackson, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Weather Loach, Oriental Weatherloach) National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Carassius auratus (Goldfish) National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Gambusia holbrooki (Eastern Gambusia, Mosquitofish) National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Perca fluviatilis (Redfin, Redfin Perch) National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Salmo trutta (Brown Trout) National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].
A review of biological information, distribution and status of the Australian grayling Prototroctes maraena Gunther in Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Technical Report. 52:20. (Jackson, P.D. & J.D. Koehn, 1988) [Report].
Fishes of the family Prototroctidae (Salmoniformes). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 27:641-659. (McDowall, R.M. , 1976) [Journal].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation Cyprinus carpio (European Carp, Common Carp) National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by fish A review of biological information, distribution and status of the Australian grayling Prototroctes maraena Gunther in Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Technical Report. 52:20. (Jackson, P.D. & J.D. Koehn, 1988) [Report].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Occurrence of copepod parasite Learnea cyprinacea L. on the Australian grayling Prototroctes maraena Gunther. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 95:273-274. (Hall, D.N. , 1988) [Journal].
Experimental transmission and pathogenicity of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis, a new viral disease in redfin perch Perca fluviatilis L. Journal of Fish Diseases. 12:295-310. (Langdon, J.S., 1989b) [Journal].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
A review of biological information, distribution and status of the Australian grayling Prototroctes maraena Gunther in Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Technical Report. 52:20. (Jackson, P.D. & J.D. Koehn, 1988) [Report].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alterations to hydrology through water extraction National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].
Freshwater Fishes and Rivers of Australia Page(s) 61. (Lake, J.S., 1971) [Book].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Habitat modification due to levee construction and associated hydrology changes National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Impacts associated with reductions in flooding frequency National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Removal of wood snags from waterways National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Environmental impacts due to application of fertilisers, herbicides and pesticides National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Pesticide application National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Pollution due to run off of agricultural chemicals National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Changes to water and sediment flows leading to erosion, siltation and pollution National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Habitat degradation and loss of water quality due to salinity, siltaton, nutrification and/or pollution National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pestitcide application and runoff National Recovery Plan for Australian Grayling (Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzn) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development A review of biological information, distribution and status of the Australian grayling Prototroctes maraena Gunther in Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Technical Report. 52:20. (Jackson, P.D. & J.D. Koehn, 1988) [Report].

Australian Faunal Directory (AFD) (2012). Australian Faunal Directory. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/home.

Australian Fish Collection Records (undated). Collation of records from Australian Fish Collections.

Bacher, G.J. & T.A. O'Brien (1989). Salinity tolerance of the eggs and larvae of the Australian grayling, Prototroctes maraena Gunther (Salmoniformes: Prototroctidae). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 40(2):227-230.

Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant (2008a). Background and Implementation Information for the Murrray Hardyhead Craterocephalus fluviatilis National Recovery Plan. Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment.

Barnham, C (1998). Freshwater Fish of Victoria: Grayling. [Online]. Fisheries Victoria, Melbourne. Available from: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/DPI/nreninf.nsf/childdocs/-B1F754E6F182011F4A2568B30006520E-49A3E2BB3EDF7F50CA256BC80006E464-2B067B6CC15F68524A256DEA0029020F-76624D3A636EEB03CA256BEC0029FA75?open.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Prototroctes maraena in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 24 Aug 2014 00:04:01 +1000.