Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 139 - Brilliant Sun-orchid Thelymitra mackibbini (Coates, F., 2003b) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Endangered (Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria: 2005)
Scientific name Thelymitra mackibbinii [26941]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author F.Muell.
Infraspecies author  
Reference The Chemist and Druggist 4: Australasian Supplement 44 (Oct. 1881).
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/CA25677D007DC87D/LUbyDesc/Thelymitra+Mackibbinii/$File/thelymitra.jpg

The Brilliant Sun-orchid is an orchid with a flower stem growing to 30 cm tall. Its flowers are purple to pinkish with darker stripes and a yellow column tip (Backhouse and Jeanes 1995).

This species appears to be endemic to Vic. where it is confined to several sites in the western goldfields in the Midlands Natural Region (Conn 1993). Seven specimens were collected by W.H. Nicholls on 19 & 20 September 1941 from the Avoca Rd, approx. 2 miles from the Maryborough Post Office (this is the type material of T. chisholmii Nicholls, a synonym of T. mackibbinii). There are no recent collections from this site or elsewhere around the Maryborough district. Willis (1962) records the species from the Smythesdale district (no collections are known) and from Port Elliot, SA (an apparent misidentification of Thelymitra rubra Fitzg.). There is a September 1939 collection from the Bolangum Ranges about 20 km SW of St Arnaud.

Recent collections come from the Deep Lead Flora and Fauna Reserve, about 4.5 km NW of Stawell P.O. and the Bolangum Ranges. The Deep Lead Flora and Fauna Reserve population consisted of approximately nine flowering plants in 1981, about four flowering plants in 1997 and perhaps only one flowering plant observed in the last three seasons (1998-2000) (I. McCann 2001, pers. comm.). The Bolangum Ranges population has consisted of approximately 10 flowering plants from around 1990 to 1999 (J. Jeanes 2001, pers. comm.).

A single plant was found on private property near Bendigo in the late 1980's but the precise locality is unknown (J. Jeanes 2001, pers. comm.).

There are approximately 20 plants in total in Vic. (N.G.Walsh, N.H.Scarlett, R.F.Parsons & D.Frood, Victorian Workshop 2000, pers. comm.; G.W.Carr, 2000, pers. comm.).

Thelymitra mackibbinii favours woodlands within Box-Ironbark ecosystems, both those dominated by Eucalyptus tricarpa (Nicholls 1941) and those dominated by Eucalyptus leucoxylon ssp. leucoxylon. It grows in relatively flat terrain on well-drained, shallow gravely sand and clay loams (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995).

Flowering occurs from early Sept. to early Oct. (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995). Reproduction is from seed (most likely ripe and dispersed four to eight weeks after flowering), but the species has been observed growing in tufts, so it may be capable of some vegetative propagation (Nicholls 1941). The longevity of individual plants is unknown.

Little is known currently about the biology of Thelymitra mackibbinii. Seed capsules have been observed in the field, but it is unknown if these are the product of insect-pollination, autogamy or a combination of both (J. Jeanes 2001, pers. comm.). Self pollination has been observed at a Maryborough population, but bees were also seen to visit flowers and the viscidium was noted as being fully functional indicating that the species is probably capable of insect pollination. The large, freely opening, scented flowers may also indicate that insect pollination is likely (Nicholls 1941). Mycorrhizal relationships and response to fire are unknown.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Wood and Pulp Plantations:Habitat destruction due to forestry activities National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes, 1995) [Book].
National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes, 1995) [Book].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes, 1995) [Book].
National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Negative impact from animals National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].

Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes (1995). The Orchids of Victoria. Carlton: Miegunyah Press, Melbourne University Press.

Berwick, S., A. Moorrees & G. Backhouse (1998a). Recovery Plan for Audas' Spider-orchid, Caladenia audasii. Melbourne: Victorian Department of NRE.

Carr, G.W. (2000). Personal Communication. Melbourne: Vic NRE.

Conn, B.J. (1993). Natural Regions and Vegetation of Victoria. In: Foreman, D.B. and N.G. Walsh, eds. Flora of Victoria: Volume One. Page(s) 79-153. Melbourne: Inkata Press.

Duretto, M.F. (1999c). Rutaceae. In: Walsh, N.G. & Entwisle, T.J., eds. Flora of Victoria. 4:153-197. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

Jeanes, J. (2001). Personal communication.

Jeanes, J. & G. Backhouse (2000c). Wild Orchids of Victoria, Australia. Zoonetics, Seaford, Victoria.

Jones, D.L. (1999). Personal Communication.

Nicholls, W.H. (1941). An Addition to the Orchidaceae of Victoria. Chisholm, A.H., ed. Victorian Naturalist. 58:98-101. Brown, Prior & Anderson Pty Ltd, Melbourne.

Victorian Workshop Participants (2000). Personal communication.

Willis, J.H. (1970). A handbook to plants in Victoria, vol. 1, Ferns, Conifers and Monocotyledons. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Thelymitra mackibbinii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 29 Jul 2014 17:07:24 +1000.