Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Pavey, C., 2006) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008adh) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzq) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011j) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NT:Threatened Species of the Northern Territory, Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Pavey, C., 2006a) [Information Sheet].
QLD:Greater bilby (Department of Environment and Heritage Protection (DEHP), 2012) [Database].
QLD:Enhancing biodiversity hotspots along Western Queensland stock routes (Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (Qld DERM), 2009a) [Management Plan].
SA:Threatened Species - Reintroducing the Bilby to South Australia (South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH), 2009e) [Internet].
WA:Fauna Species Profiles - Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Reid, 1837) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2010c) [Information Sheet].
Non-government
    Documents and Websites
Priority Threat Management of Pilbara Species of Conservation Significance (Carwardine, J., S. Nicol, S. Van Leeuwen, B. Walters, J. Firn, A. Reeson, T.G. Martin & I. Chades, 2014).
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Extinct (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): August 2014 list)
NT: Listed as Vulnerable (Territory Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 2000 (Northern Territory): 2012 list)
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
SA: Listed as Vulnerable (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Vulnerable (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Macrotis lagotis [282]
Family Thylacomyidae:Polyprotodonta:Mammalia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Reid,1837)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.qmuseum.qld.gov.au/nature/endangered/html/bilby.html

Scientific name: Macrotis lagotis

Common name: Greater Bilby

Other names: Bilby, Rabbit-eared Bandicoot

Genetic studies indicate that, although there is some divergence between Queensland populations and those from the Northern Territory and Western Australia, the species is a single Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU) (Moritz et al. 1997; Southgate & Adams 1993). The Greater Bilby is the only surviving member of the sub-family Thylacomyinae (Pavey 2006).

The Greater Bilby is a delicately-built rabbit-sized marsupial with long, soft, blue-grey fur over most of the body and white to cream on the belly. It has large ears, a long pointed snout and a black tail with a white tip. Its forelimbs have three stoutly clawed toes (and two unclawed toes) that enable the Greater Bilby to burrow effectively. The hind limbs are slender. This species grows to 55 cm long with a tail up to 29 cm long. The Greater Bilby reaches a maximum weight of 2500 g for males and 1200 g for females (Cronin 1991; Pavey 2006; Southgate et al. 2007; Strahan 1998).

Before European settlement the Greater Bilby was found on over 70% of the Australian mainland; the species now only occurs in less than 20% of its former range (Southgate 1990a). Wild Bilby populations are now restricted predominantly to the Tanami Desert, Northern Territory (Johnson & Southgate 1990), the Great Sandy and Gibson Deserts, Western Australia (Friend 1990), and an outlying population between Boulia and Birdsville in south-west Queensland (Gordon et al. 1990). The species historically occurred in NSW and throughout South Australia, and is being reintroduced into these States. There are no confirmed records of the species occurring in Victoria, although it is thought that it may have occurred in parts of the Murray-Darling Depression bioregion in Victoria (Menkhorst 1995; Pavey 2006).

The Greater Bilby population in south-western Queensland was located in the late 1960s (Watts & Aslin 1974) and has been the subject of numerous studies (Gordon et al. 1990; Lavery & Kirkpatrick 1997). A field assessment in 2007 located active Greater Bilby burrows on the Davenport Downs property in south-western Queensland (EPBC referral 2008/3963). In Western Australia there are disjunct populations in the Gibson Desert, south-western Kimberley, inland areas of the Pilbara and northern Great Sandy Desert (Friend 1990). In the Northern Territory, it is sparsely distributed throughout the Tanami Desert and in nearby pastoral areas (Johnson & Southgate 1990). This species was formerly found in south-western Australia but is now apparently locally extinct (Abbott 2001).

The presence of the Greater Bilby is strongly associated with substrate type, mean annual rainfall, and the presence of Dingoes in the area (Southgate et al. 2007).

The extent of occurrence for the Greater Bilby has changed little in the past 20 years. The estimated extent of occurrence in the Northern Territory is 235 000 km². The species is not evenly distributed within this area, being more prevalent in the mid-latitudes of the Tanami Desert bioregion (Southgate et al. 2007).

The area of occupancy is very small compared to the extent of occurrence (Southgate et al. 2007).

A reintroduction experiment was undertaken near Alice Springs in 1988. Despite modelling which indicated a median survival time of eight years, the population collapsed after only two years (Southgate & Possingham 1995). There were proposals to re-introduce the Bilby to public land in its inferred former range, where foxes have been controlled (Abbott 2001). A captive-bred population has been re-introduced to the wild in a predator-free fenced area at the 64 000 ha Scotia Sanctuary, 150 km south of Broken Hill. Between November 2004 and September 2005, 40 Greater Bilbies were released into the Scotia Sanctuary (Finlayson et al. 2008). Other reintroduction sites are located in West Australia at Dryandra Woodland and Peron Peninsula, in Queensland at Currawinya National Park, and in South Australia at Roxby Downs, Venus Bay Conservation Park, Thistle Island and Yookamurra Sanctuary (Pavey 2006).

The Greater Bilby's distribution appears to abruptly halt when it meets pastoral land (Southgate et al. 2007).

Surveys were conducted in the Tanami Desert, Northern Territory, by Southgate and colleagues (2007) using fixed transects (every four months between 1995–98), random plots (1996–98) and aerial surveys (May and August 1999).

Distribution information from 1983–85 are mapped in detail (Southgate 1990a). Although an attempt was made to correlate burrow numbers and Bilby density, no population estimates are available (Lavery & Kirkpatrick 1997). The Greater Bilby is generally considered to be declining, at least in Western Australia (Maxwell et al. 1996). Genetic research suggests that captive and reintroduced populations require additional genetic material from out-bred individuals (Smith et al. 2009).

A minority of sites presently containing Bilbies are within conserved lands (Maxwell et al. 1996). No wild Bilby populations occur within conservation reserves in the Northern Territory (Pavey 2006a). Greater Bilbies occur in the Gibson Desert Nature Reserve, Rudall River National Park and the proposed Percival Lakes Nature Reserve (Burbidge & Pearson 1989) in Western Australia. These last two sites are within the Great Sandy Desert. The main Queensland population mostly occurs within the Astrebla Downs National Park (Pavey 2006).

Historically, the Greater Bilby used a wide range of soil and vegetation types and land forms. Vegetation types included eucalypt open forest and woodland in south-west West Australia, the Southern Tablelands of NSW and around Adelaide (South Australia), tall shrublands and open woodlands in semi-arid regions, and hummock grasslands in arid Australia (Abbott 2001; Pavey 2006; Southgate 1990b). The previous distribution of the species was associated with a wide variety of climatic zones. The Greater Bilby occurred in areas which experienced principally summer rainfall in the north of Australia (eg. Tennant Creek, Northern Territory 370 mm pa) through the driest desert areas (eg. Birdsville, Queensland 165 mm pa; Finke, Northern Territory 191 mm pa; Warburton, Western Australia 213 mm pa) to the temperate areas in the south, east and west (eg. Goulburn, NSW 666 mm pa; Adelaide, South Australia 530 mm pa; Northam, Western Australia 433 mm pa) (Burbidge & Pearson 1989; Gibson 1986; McKenzie & Youngson 1983; Southgate 1990b).

Extant population of the Greater Bilby occur in a variety of habitats, usually on landforms with level to low slope topography and light to medium soils. It occupies three major vegetation types; open tussock grassland on uplands and hills, mulga woodland/shrubland growing on ridges and rises, and hummock grassland in plains and alluvial areas (Southgate 1990b). In the Tanami Desert the Greater Bilby is less abundant on dune and sand substrate than on laterite/rock features or drainage/calcrete substrates (Southgate et al. 2007). Laterite and rock feature substrates are an important part of Greater Bilby habitat. These habitat support shrub species, such as Acacia kempeana, A. hilliana and A. rhodophylla, which have root-dwelling larvae (Latz 1995 cited in Southgate et al. 2007) that provide a constant food source for the Greater Bilby. They also contain Spinifex hummocks which are quite uniform and discrete, providing runways between hummocks, enabling easier movement and foraging (Southgate et al. 2007).

The distribution of Greater Bilbies can be limited by the availability of suitable burrowing habitat, such as dunes where burrow excavtion is easier (Moseby & o'Donell 2003).

The current occurrence of the Greater Bilby is strongly associated with higher rainfall and temperatures, which promote areas of higher plant and food production. The Greater Bilby may also prefer these conditions as higher rainfall and temperatures are not well tolerated by foxes (Southgate et al. 2007).

In limited parts of the Greater Bilby's range, fire may be an important factor in improving the habitat favourability for the species. The occurrence of the Greater Bilby is associated with close proximity to recently burnt (< 1 year) habitat (Southgate et al. 2007). A post-fire ephemeral grass, Yakirra (Panicum) australiense, is suggested as an important part of the diet of the Greater Bilby in spinifex habitats (Southgate & Carthew 2007).

In the Tanami Desert bioregion juvenile Greater Bilbies are restricted to a mid-latitude zone, indicating that the southern and northern zones could be a demographic sink where mortality is greater than natality (Southgate et al. 2007).

The Greater Bilby is in general a solitary animal, nocturnal, and can breed throughout the year (Pavey 2006). Little microhabitat data are available for this species, but the main factor in reproduction appears to be the availability of a light to medium soil capable of sustaining burrows (Southgate 1990b). Females are polyoestrous and duration of oestrus is 12–37 days (mean 20.6) and gestation 14 days (McCracken 1986, 1990). Litters range from one to three (mean 1.94) and young exit the pouch at 70–75 days. Young initially remain in the natal burrow and are weaned two to three weeks later. Mortality around weaning is low. Females can commence breeding at six months. Maximum longevity, at least in captivity, exceeds five years (Southgate et al. 2000).

In captivity males have a strict dominance hierarchy and engage in scent-marking around their burrows (Johnson & Johnson 1983).

The Greater Bilby uses an opportunistic feeding strategy to persist in arid regions where food resources are temporally and spatially unpredictable. Greater Bilbies begin to forage after twilight (Gibson 2001 cited in Pavey 2006; Pavey 2006).

The Greater Bilby is omnivorous with many of its food resources changing between seasons and geography. Key plant foods include seed from grasses (such as Yakirra australiense) and sedges, plant roots, vegetative parts and bulbs from Bush Onion (Cyperus bulbosus) and Wurmbea deserticola. Some of the plant species which are key food resources for the Greater Bilby are promoted by fire (Pavey 2006; Southgate 1990b; Southgate & Carthew 2006, 2007; Southgate et al. 2007). The Greater Bilby also feeds on invertebrates including ants, beetles, termites, insect larvae and spiders (Southgate & Carthew 2006). The Greater Bilby excavates much of its food from the ground, creating holes up to 250 mm in depth. They dig to access termite mounds, expose bulbs, and expose the roots of Acacia spp. shrubs that have root-dwelling larvae (Pavey 2006).

The species is highly mobile, and can have large foraging ranges. Adult females have been known to move up to 1.5 km between burrows on consecutive days; adult males regularly move 2–3 km and up to 5 km between burrows on consecutive days. Movements of this range are far greater than other medium-sized mammals and bandicoots, indicating that the Greater Bilby is well adapted to the variability of resources in the arid regions (Southgate et al. 2007).

In a study of re-introduced Greater Bilbies to South Australia, Moseby & O'Donnell (2003) found that males had a greater average home range size (3.16 km²) than females (0.18 km²). The nightly home range movements of the Greater Bilby are generally less than 4 km (Southgate et al. 2007).

Although drought, disease, trapping and distribution of poison baits for rabbit control reduced population numbers of the Greater Bilby in south-western Australia, the biggest impact was the arrival of the fox (Abbott 2001). A study of the factors contributing to the apparent extinction of the Greater Bilby in south-western Australia found that fox predation was the primary factor associated with regional declines of the species (Abbott 2001). For example, data from NSW, South Australia and Western Australia show that the mean interval between the arrival of the fox in a district and the last record there of the Greater Bilby varied from 5–12 years (Abbott 2001). The historic decline and the current areas of occurrence of the Greater Bilby correlate well with the spread and current distribution of the fox (Southgate 1990a). Feral cats have been known to take the Greater Bilby as prey, although there is doubt over their role in the decline of the species. Likewise, Dingoes are also known to take the Greater Bilby as prey, but have not been substantially linked with the decline of the species (Southgate 1990a; Southgate et al. 2007). The Greater Bilby and Dingoes occur in similar environmental conditions, and the presence of Dingoes may in fact improve habitat favourability for the Greater Bilby. Dingoes are an important predator of cats and can possibly displace fox activity (Southgate et al. 2007).

Clearing of habitat for grazing and fire are also potential threats (Southgate 1990a). Changed fire regimes may play a roll in the decline of the Greater Bilby as it is thought a mosaic of successional changes are necessary to meet the habitat requirements for many medium sized animals (Burbidge et al. 1988; Southgate et al 2007). Seed from fire-promoted plants is a significant part of the Greater Bilbies diet, thus fire regimes will affect habitat suitability for the Bilby (Southgate 1990a; Southgate & Carthew 2007; Southgate et al 2007).

Other likely causes of decline are competition and disruption of habitat by rabbits and cattle. The presence of the Greater Bilby has good correlation with the absence or low occurrence of rabbits and stock (Southgate 1990a).

Field energetic studies have indicated that Greater Bilbies are susceptible to effects of nutrient and water stress and would also be vulnerable to low food availability, conditions which could occur during prolonged droughts (Gibson & Hume 2000).

The National Recovery Plan (Pavey 2006) aims to achieve two major objectives; improve and at least maintain the national conservation status of the Greater Bilby over the duration of the Plan; and achieve an accurate assessment of distribution, trends in occurrence, and successfully reduce the impacts of key threatening processes. The National Recovery Team will oversee the development and implementation of this Recovery Plan, and to ensure that all relevant stakeholders are involved and/or informed of progress.

Recovery actions recommended by the National Recovery Plan (Pavey 2006) include:

  • Reduce fox and cat numbers at reintroduction sites and key wild populations where Greater Bilbies are in decline.
  • Ensure that captive populations of the Greater Bilby continue to be managed effectively for reintroduction purposes, and to continue management of Greater Bilby populations that have been reintroduced into the wild or that occur within predator-proof fences within the former range.
  • Ensure that an effective and uniform monitoring methodology is developed and refined. This methodology should be used to interpret changes in Greater Bilby occurrence within and across sites.
  • Continue to monitor occurrence and relative abundance trends of the Queensland Greater Bilby population.
  • Monitor trends in occurrence of Greater Bilby populations in Western Australia and the Northern Territory.
  • Monitor trends in abundance and occurrence of the Greater Bilby at each reintroduction site, and measure the impacts of threatening processes on Greater Bilby populations at reintroduction sites.

    Southgate and colleagues (2007) also recommend that the northern parts of the Tanami Desert need to be protected from pastoral expansion, specifically areas with laterite and rock feature substrates and drainage areas. Lateritic areas are often the preferred position for mine infrastructure, airstrips, and tailings dumps as this type of substrate has a low probability of inundation.

    The relationship among predators in the Tanami Desert is complex and more research is required to gain a better understanding of the interactions among the predator species, and the effects that baiting has on the predator and prey community dynamics. The development of more discriminate control measures is required to target and remove particular predator species such as control measures that target foxes and cats but not Dingoes (Southgate et al. 2007).

    The importance of seed from fire promoted plants in the Greater Bilby's diet, and the role of fire in improving habitat favourability for the Greater Bilby needs to be determined before developing a fire management program (Southgate et al. 2007).

    The Arid Recovery Reserve near Roxby Downs, South Australia, has released hand-reared Greater Bilbies successfully into predator and competitor free areas. This, along with known populations in areas of degraded habitat and co-existence with cattle and horses, suggests that the Greater Bilby can withstand a "reasonable" level of habitat disturbance, and that successful reintroductions rely on the removal of predators and enough area to allow for natural dispersal of the species (Moseby & O'Donnell 2003).
    Threatened Species Network Community Grants focusing on the Greater Bilby include:

    Arid Lands Environment Centre (Western Australia) received $19 000 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2001–02, part of which was for a three week survey along the Canning Stock Route to gather information on the distribution, status and habitat requirements of the Greater Bilby. Information was to be used for formulation of a joint national recovery plan and to provide information on other nationally threatened species.

    Ngaanyatjarra Council (Western Australia) received $20 000 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2001–02 for the survey and monitoring of populations around Tjirrkarli and Warburton communities; assessment of impacts of predation and fire; trial of hunting and humane baiting for predator control, and patch burning to improve habitat quality.

    Tangentyere Council Inc (Northern Territory) received $15 000 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2001–02, part of which was for examination of the use of Aboriginal predation and fire management techniques to protect threatened fauna in the Tanamai Desert.

    Central Land council (Northern Territory) received $23 640 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2003–04, part of which was for monitoring the distribution and abundance of the Greater Bilby in areas that are baited to control foxes and unbaited areas of the Tanamai Desert.

    Jarlmadangah Burru Aboriginal community (Western Australia) received $29 700 the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2003–04 for identification of areas of this species in and around Edgar Range through traditional owners undertaking tracking transects, mapping of active burrows and presence/absence of feral animals; collation of baseline data.

    Parngurr Community Inc (Western Australia) received $21 850 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2003–04, part of which was for tracking surveys over parts of the Great Sandy Desert to map populations of the Greater Bilby on Martu Lands, and for fire management aimed at improving country for the Greater Bilby.

    Jarlmadangah Burru Aboriginal community (Western Australia) received $18 000 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2004–05 for development of on-ground options for the Greater Bilby in and around Edgar Range; use of data to carry out fire management, and work with landholders to explore development of a regional management plan.

    Ngaanyatjarra Council (Aboriginal Corporation) (Western Australia) received $33 000 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2005–06, part of which was for the monitoring of population, habitat changes and predation levels for this species, and updating of the Ngaanyatjarra thrreatened species database

    Parngurr Community Inc (Western Australia) received $44 460 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2006–07, part of which was for the gathering of detailed information on ecology and behaviour of this species; localised control of feral predators, and documentation of project work by young Martu from community schools.

  • The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation National Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Pavey, C., 2006) [Recovery Plan].
    Distribution and abundance of the greater bilby Macrotis lagotis Reid (Marsupialia: Peramelidae). In: Seebeck, J.H., P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 293-302. (Southgate, R.I., 1990a) [Book].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes National Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Pavey, C., 2006) [Recovery Plan].
    Distribution and abundance of the greater bilby Macrotis lagotis Reid (Marsupialia: Peramelidae). In: Seebeck, J.H., P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 293-302. (Southgate, R.I., 1990a) [Book].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements The Impact of Global Warming on the Distribution of Threatened Vertebrates (ANZECC 1991) (Dexter, E.M., A.D. Chapman & J.R. Busby, 1995) [Report].
    The Implications of Climate Change for Land-based Nature Conservation Strategies (Pouliquen-Young, O. & P. Newman, 1999) [Report].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Reduced rainfall caused by climate change The Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Marsupialia: Peramelidae) in south-western Australia: original range limits, subsequent decline, and presumed regional extinction. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 20:271-305. (Abbott, I., 2001) [Journal].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought National Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Pavey, C., 2006) [Recovery Plan].
    Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities National Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Pavey, C., 2006) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Pavey, C., 2006) [Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby (Macrotis lagotis) (Southgate, R., 1997) [Recovery Plan].
    Distribution and abundance of the greater bilby Macrotis lagotis Reid (Marsupialia: Peramelidae). In: Seebeck, J.H., P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 293-302. (Southgate, R.I., 1990a) [Book].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) The Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Marsupialia: Peramelidae) in south-western Australia: original range limits, subsequent decline, and presumed regional extinction. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 20:271-305. (Abbott, I., 2001) [Journal].
    National Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Pavey, C., 2006) [Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby (Macrotis lagotis) (Southgate, R., 1997) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby (Macrotis lagotis) (Southgate, R., 1997) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) Distribution and abundance of the greater bilby Macrotis lagotis Reid (Marsupialia: Peramelidae). In: Seebeck, J.H., P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 293-302. (Southgate, R.I., 1990a) [Book].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease The Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Marsupialia: Peramelidae) in south-western Australia: original range limits, subsequent decline, and presumed regional extinction. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 20:271-305. (Abbott, I., 2001) [Journal].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus dingo (Dingo, Warrigal, New Guinea Singing Dog) National Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Pavey, C., 2006) [Recovery Plan].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) National Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Pavey, C., 2006) [Recovery Plan].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Distribution and abundance of the greater bilby Macrotis lagotis Reid (Marsupialia: Peramelidae). In: Seebeck, J.H., P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 293-302. (Southgate, R.I., 1990a) [Book].
    Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of highways National Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Pavey, C., 2006) [Recovery Plan].
    Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of railway tracks National Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Pavey, C., 2006) [Recovery Plan].
    Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Vehicle related mortality National Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Pavey, C., 2006) [Recovery Plan].
    Transportation and Service Corridors:Utility and Service Lines:Habitat modification due to construction and maintenance of gas pipeline easement National Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Pavey, C., 2006) [Recovery Plan].

    Southgate, R., R. Paltridge, P. Masters & T. Nano (2005). An evaluation of transect, plot and aerial survey techniques to monitor the spatial pattern and status of the bilby (Macrotis lagotis) in the Tanami Desert. Wildlife Research. 32:43-52.

    Abbott, I. (2001). The Bilby Macrotis lagotis (Marsupialia: Peramelidae) in south-western Australia: original range limits, subsequent decline, and presumed regional extinction. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 20:271-305.

    Australian Museum Business Services (AMBS) (2004). The Provision of Data for National Fauna Survey Standards: Non-flying Mammals Draft Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage. Page(s) 248-250. East Sydney (NSW), AMBS.

    Burbidge, A. A. & D. J. Pearson (1989). A search for the rufous hare-wallaby in the Great Sandy and Little Sandy Deserts, Western Australia, with notes on other mammals. Technical Report No. 23. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth.

    Burbidge, A.A., K.A. Johnson, P.J. Fuller, & R.I. Southgate (1988). Aboriginal knowledge of the mammals of the central deserts of Australia. Australian Wildlife Research. 15:9-39.

    Cronin, L. (1991). Key Guide to Australian Mammals. Balgowlah, NSW: Reed Books.

    Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011j). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened mammals. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.5. [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement: Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-mammals.html.

    EPBC referral 2008/3963 (2008). APA Group/Energy generation and supply (non-renewable)/via Diamantina River Rd, 200km NW of Windorah/QLD/Davenport Downs Compressor Station. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/epbc/epbc_ap.pl?limit=999999&name=current_referrals&text_search=2008%2F3963.

    Finlayson, G.R., E.M. Vieira, D. Priddel, R. Wheeler, J. Bentley & C.R. Dickman (2008). Multi-scale patterns of habitat use by re-introduced mammals: A case study using medium-sized marsupials. Biological Conservation. 141 (1):320-331.

    Friend, J.A. (1990). Status of bandicoots in Western Australia. In: Seebeck, J., P. Brown, R. Wallis & C. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 73-84. Sydney: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

    Gibson, D.F. (1986). A Biological Survey of the Tanami Desert in the Northern Territory. Technical Report. 30. Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory.

    Gibson, L.A. & Hume, I.D. (2000). Seasonal field energetics and water influx rates of the greater bilby (Macrotis lagotis). Australian Journal of Zoology. 48:225-239.

    Gordon, G., L.S. Hall & R.G. Atherton (1990). Status of bandicoots in Queensland. In: Seebeck, J.H., P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 37-42. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.

    Johnson, C.N. & Johnson, K.A. (1983). Behaviour of the bilby, Macrotis lagotis (Reid), (Marsupialia: Thylacomyidae) in captivity. Australian Wildlife Research. 10:77-87.

    Johnson, K.A. & R.I. Southgate (1990). Present and former status of bandicoots in the Northern Territory. In: Seebeck, J., P. Brown, R. Wallis & C. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 85-92. Sydney: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

    Lavery, H.J. & Kirkpatrick, T.H. (1997). Field management of the bilby Macrotis lagotis in an area of south-western Queensland. Biological Conservation. 79:271-281.

    Maxwell, S., A.A. Burbidge & K. Morris (1996). The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. [Online]. Wildlife Australia, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/action-plan-australian-marsupials-and-monotremes.

    McCracken, H.E. (1986). Observations on the oestrus cycle and gestation period of the greater bilby, Macrotis lagotis (Reid) (Marsupialia: Thylacomyidae). Australian Mammalogy. 9.

    McCracken, H.E. (1990). Reproduction in the greater bilby, Macrotis lagotis (Reid) - a comparison with other perameloids . In: Seebeck, J.H., P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 199-204. Surrey Beatty & Sons: Chipping Norton, NSW.

    McKenzie, N. L. & Youngson, W. K. (1983). Mammals. In: A. A. Burbidge & N. L. McKenzie, eds. Wildlife of the Great Sandy Desert, Western Australia. Vol. 12. Page(s) 62-93. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Perth.

    Menkhorst, P.W. (1995). Mammals of Victoria. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

    Moritz, C., A. Heideman, E. Geffen & P. McRae (1997). Genetic population structure of the greater bilby Macrotis lagotis, a marsupial in decline. Molecular Ecology. 6:925-936. The University of Queensland, Qld 4072, Australia.

    Moseby, K.E & E. O'Donnell (2003). Reintroduction of the greater bilby, Macrotis lagotis (Reid) (Marsupialia: Thylacomyidae), to northern South Australia: survival, ecology and notes on reintroduction protocols. Wildlife Research. 30:15-27.

    Pavey, C. (2006). National Recovery Plan for the Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis. [Online]. Northern Territory Department of Natural Resources, Environment and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/m-lagotis.html.

    Pavey, C. (2006a). Threatened Species of the Northern Territory, Greater Bilby Macrotis lagotis. [Online]. Northern Territory Government, Department of Natural Resources, Environment, and the Arts. Available from: http://lrm.nt.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species/specieslist.

    Smith, S., P. McRae & J. Hughes (2009). Faecal DNA analysis enables genetic monitoring of the species recovery program for an arid-dwelling marsupial. Australian Journal of Zoology. 57:139-148.

    Southgate, R (2005). Age classes of the Greater Bilby (Macrotis lagotis) based on track and faecal pellet size. Wildlife Research. 32:625-630.

    Southgate, R. & Adams, M. (1993). Genetic variation in the greater bilby (Macrotis lagotis). Pacific Conservation Biology. 1:46-51.

    Southgate, R. & Possingham, H. (1995). Modelling the reintroduction of the greater bilby Macrotis lagotis using the metapopulation model analysis of the likelihood of extinction (ALEX). Biological Conservation. 73:151-160.

    Southgate, R. & S. Carthew (2006). Diet of the bilby (Macrotis lagotis) in relation to substrate, fire and rainfall characteristics in the Tanami Desert. Wildlife Research. 33:507-519.

    Southgate, R. & S. Carthew (2007). Post-fire ephemerals and spinifex-fuelled fires: a decision model for bilby habitat management in the Tanami Desert, Australia. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 16:741-754.

    Southgate, R., R. Paltridge, P. Masters & S. Carthew (2007). Bilby distribution and fire: A test of alternative models of habitat suitability in the Tanami Desert, Australia. Ecography. 30:759-776.

    Southgate, R.I. (1990a). Distribution and abundance of the greater bilby Macrotis lagotis Reid (Marsupialia: Peramelidae). In: Seebeck, J.H., P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 293-302. Surrey Beatty & Sons: Chipping Norton, NSW.

    Southgate, R.I. (1990b). Habitats and diet of the greater bilby Macrotis lagotis Reid (Marsupialia: Peramelidae). In: Seebeck, J.H., P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 303-309. Surrey Beatty & Sons: Chipping Norton, NSW.

    Southgate, R.I., P. Christie & K. Bellchambers (2000). Breeding biology of captive, reintroduced and wild greater bilbies, Macrotis lagotis (Marsupialia: Peramelidae). Wildlife Research. 27:621-628.

    Strahan, R. (Ed.) (1998). The Mammals of Australia, Second Edition, rev. Sydney, NSW: Australian Museum and Reed New Holland.

    Watts, C.H.S. & Aslin, H. (1974). Notes on the small mammals of north-eastern South Australia and south-western Queensland. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. 98:61-70.

    EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Macrotis lagotis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 24 Sep 2014 00:05:28 +1000.