Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for the Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
SA:Threatened Flora of South Australia Fact Sheet - Threatened Flora on Kangaroo Island. Endangered Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina spp. Osbornii (South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH), 2010i) [Information Sheet].
SA:Draft Recovery Plan for 15 Nationally Threatened Plant Species, Kangaroo Island, South Australia, second edition 2003-2013 (Taylor, D.A., 2008) [State Recovery Plan].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
Scientific name Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii [3684]
Family Scrophulariaceae:Scrophulariales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author  
Infraspecies author W.R.Barker
Reference Barker, W.R. (1982) Taxonomic studies in Euphrasia L. (Scrophulariaceae). A revised infrageneric classification, and a revision of the genus in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 5: 218, figs. 9, 48A-C, 54 (map), 73, 74 [tax. nov.].
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Osborn's Eyebright is a short-lived erect perennial herb, generally 25-47 cm high (Barker 1982). The white, pink, lavender or purple flowers (Jessop & Toelken 1986; Barker 1982) vary over the species range.

This species is confined to SA and has been collected in the Upper SE (Yumali-Meningie road), on eastern Kangaroo I. (Dudley Peninsula-W of Cape Willoughby), Eyre Peninsula (Venus Bay), Yorke Peninsula, Northern Lofty region (Clare, Burra), Southern Lofty region (including Fleurieu Peninsula and Mt Compass) and the Flinders Ranges. It is notably absent from western Kangaroo I. and the southern parts of Yorke and Eyre Peninsulas (Barker 1982; Jessop & Toelken 1986).

The species was once widespread in settled areas (Cons. Council of SA 1991) and common, but is now reduced to a few localised populations on roadsides, private land and cemeteries (Cons. Council of SA 1991). Most herbarium collections are 'old'; the species was only collected from six montane and six lowland sites during the 1970's (Barker 1982). Three new populations were located in the early 1980's (Barker 1987).

The taxon's conservation status is discussed for each region of its distribution by Briggs & Leigh (1996):
(1) Lofty Ranges: Eric Bonython Conservation Park, Montacute Conservation Park and a Heritage Agreement Area (HAA), all with an unknown number of individuals (Briggs & Leigh 1996). In the early 1980s a population was discovered in Deep Creek Conservation Park, at the foot of Fleurieu Peninsula. A population on a council reserve near Clare, about 1 km from the Clare Cemetery, contained over 200 individuals in the early 1980s (Barker 1987).
(2) Yorke Peninsula: in a HAA with less than 1000 individuals.
(3) Kangaroo I.: Cape Hart Conservation Park with less than 1000 individuals.
(4) South Eastern region, SA: in a HAA with less than 1000 individuals.
(5) Eyre Peninsula: presumed extinct in this region (Briggs & Leigh 1996).

There are many different races of this subspecies (W.R. Barker, SA Herbarium 2000, pers. comm.).

The species has generally been recorded as growing in mallee scrubland (Barker 1982) but has also been found growing in sclerophyll forest and sometimes in sclerophyll woodland (Jessop & Toelken 1986). It is also found in heathy openings in wet sclerophyll forest (Barker 1982) and in a swamp at Mt Compass (Barker 1982; Jessop & Toelken 1986).

At Clare Cemetery in the early 1980s, the species grew in low Eucalyptus leucoxylon woodland with an open understorey of grasses, herbs and low shrubs, on the upper slopes of a hill. The area had been burnt recently (Barker 1987).

Flowers are borne June and Aug. to Dec. (Jessop & Toelken 1986).

Populations of Euphrasia species are transient. The persistence of populations is reliant upon the successful recruitment of seedlings. Patches of open ground are required for germination, and adequate moisture levels are required for seedling survival. Seed production is copious and the soil seed bank probably survives for decades. Profuse germination occurs after fire (Potts 1999).

Euphrasia species are non-host specific semi-parasites. The growth rate and reproductive output is reduced in the absence of hosts (Potts 1999).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Euphrasia collina subsp. osborniiin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006ku) [Internet].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Recovery Plan for the Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Recreational harvest Recovery Plan for the Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Recovery Plan for the Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns Recovery Plan for the Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Inappropriate disturbance regimes Recovery Plan for the Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lavandula stoechas (Topped Lavender, Bush Lavender, French Lavender, Common French Lavender, Italian Lavender, Spanish Lavender, Wild Lavender, Stoechas Lavender) Recovery Plan for the Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oxalis pes-caprae (Soursob, Bermuda Buttercup, Buttercup Oxalis, Cape Cowslip, Geelsuring, Oxalis, Sorrel, Sourgrass, Yellow-Flowered Oxalis, Yellow Sorrel) Recovery Plan for the Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Moraea flaccida (Cape Tulip,One-leaf Cape Tulip) Recovery Plan for the Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Recovery Plan for the Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Recovery Plan for the Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Activities that lead to swamp degradation Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Recovery Plan for the Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Loss of genetic heterogeneity Recovery Plan for the Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses (suggest Reproductive Resilience?):Indirect Species Effects:Reduction of genetic intergrity of a species due to hybridisation Recovery Plan for the Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Recovery Plan for the Osborn's Eyebright Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii (Moritz, K.N. & D.C. Bickerton, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].

Barker, W R (1987). Taxonomic Studies in Euphrasia L. (Scrophulariaceae). V. New and rediscovered taxa, typifications and other notes on the genus in Australia. J. Adel. Bot. Gard. 10(2):201-221.

Barker, W.R. (1982). Taxonomic studies in Euphrasia L. (Scrophulariaceae). A revised infrageneric classification, and a revision of the genus in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens. 5:1-304.

Briggs, J.D. & J.H. Leigh (1996). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants - Revised Edition. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.

Conservation Council of South Australia (1991). South Australia's Endangered Wildlife. Conservation Council of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.

Council of Heads of Australian Botanic Gardens (CHABG) (1994). Census of plants in botanic gardens. [Online]. Canberra: Australian National Botanic Gardens. Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chabg/census/census.html.

Jessop, J.P. & H.R. Toelken, eds. (1986). Flora of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: SA Government Printing Division.

Staff of the South Australian State Herbarium (2000). Personal Communication.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Euphrasia collina subsp. osbornii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 1 Aug 2014 19:23:32 +1000.