In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable as Caladenia ovata|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Recovery plan for nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island South Australia (Taylor, D.A., 2012) [Recovery Plan] as Caladenia ovata.
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia ovata.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Caladenia ovata |
|Reference||Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia 33: 16, pl. 1, figs 1-5 (1909).|
|Other names||Arachnorchis ovata |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Caladenia ovata
Common name: Kangaroo Island Spider-orchid
The Kangaroo Island Spider-orchid is conventionally accepted as Caladenia ovata (CHAH 2005). The species has previously been referred to as Arachnorchis ovata and Phlebochilus ovata. Sometimes genus Caladenia is referred to as Arachnorchis.
The Kangaroo Island Spider-orchid is a terrestrial orchid with a slender, hairy flowering stem growing to 25 cm in height (Bates 2011). The orchid has erect, long and hairy leaves growing to 7 cm. Flowers are usually solitary (rarely two), odorless and are mainly yellow and red in colour, growing to 3 cm in width, with lanceolate upswept segments and sepals with tiny dark osmophores at the ends. The labellum (lip) is on a tremulous claw, grows to 1 cm in length, is broadly ovate, flat and not lobed. The margins of the labellum are entire, with its red tip rolled under (Bates 2011).
Herbarium records indicate that the Kangaroo Island Spider-orchid is endemic to South Australia (SA) and confined to the tip of Fleurieu Peninsula and to southern and eastern Kangaroo Island in an area bounded by Cape Willoughby in the east and Stun' Sail Boom River in the west (Davies 1986). The orchid occurs in Deep Creek Conservation Park (Fleurieu Peninsula), where numerous scattered populations each of less than a dozen individuals (with a total population estimated over 1000 individuals) are conserved (Davies 1992).
On Kangaroo Island (KI), there are six records from four known separate sub-populations of the species. Two plants, from a KI population located after Davies' 1986 report, are from Beyeria Conservation Park and are therefore in a protected area (Davies 1992; Neagle 2002). At least one previously known population has been presumed extinct since the mid-1980s, most likely due to increased salinity in its creek habitat caused by clearance of the area (Davies 1986), and the species has almost disappeared from KI (Bates 2011). Historically, while these records are from the eastern region of KI, the former extent of the Kangaroo Island Spider-orchid would have extended west (Davies 1986; Neagle 2002).
The extent of occurence of the Kangaroo Island Spider-orchid is 146 km².
The Kangaroo Island Spider-orchid grows on the southern Fleurieu Peninsula where it has been observed in acidic podsol on the crests and upper slopes of ridges. On Kangaroo Island the species has been collected growing in sandy soil, laterite accumulation and on hard yellow duplex soils over laterite, on slopes and crests (Bates & Weber 1990; Davies 1986; Jones pers. comm. 2001).
The Kangaroo Island Spider-orchid grows in Brown Stringybark (Eucalyptus baxteri) tall shrubland and tall open-shrubland in a medium density understorey dominated by Grass Tree (Xanthorrhoea semiplana), Mount Lofty Bush-pea (Pultenaea involucrata), Heath Tea-tree (Leptospermum myrsinoides) and Wire Rapier-sedge (Lepidosperma semiteres). The mean annual rainfall for the area where the species is found on KI (from Cape Willoughby and Kingscote) is between 485–543 mm, and minimum and maximum temperatures are 11.5°C and 19ºC respectively (Bates & Weber 1990; Davies 1986; Jones pers. comm. 2001; Taylor 2008).
The Kangaroo Island Spider-orchid seldom flowers except after bushfires (Neagle 2002). It has been recorded flowering in late September and in October. Because this species is unable to self pollinate or reproduce vegetatively, it relies on insect pollination to reproduce (Bates & Weber 1990; Davies 1986).
Pollinators of the Kangaroo Island Spider-orchid are most likely sexually attracted thynnid wasps (Bates 2011).
The Kangaroo Island Spider-orchid is similar morphologically to the Narrow Lipped Spider-orchid (Caladenia leptochila) which has a much narrower labellum and perianth-segments abruptly up-swept (Bates & Weber 1990). Intermediate forms between the Narrow Lipped Spider-orchid and the Kangaroo Island Spider-orchid have been found (Bates 2011).
The main threat to the Kangaroo Island Spider-orchid is loss of habitat (for agriculture), clearance of native vegetation surrounding its creek habitat and inappropriate fire regimes. In addition, a previously known population on KI most likely became extinct due to increased salinity in the creek near which it occurred. This salinity was caused by habitat clearance (Davies 1986; Neagle 2002).
Weed invasion, road maintenance activities and forestry are also potential threats to the species (Davies 1986; Neagle 2002).
Threatened Plant Action Group (SA) received $40 000 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2001–02.
Part of this grant was used for the development of an interim multi-species recovery plan for 15 nationally threatened plant species on the island (including Kangaroo Island Spider-orchid). This plan forms part of the Kangaroo Island Threatened Plant Project (Taylor 2008). This recovery plan development included an assessment of the threats and status of the species' in the field which was used to prioritise on-ground recovery works and direct future recovery works; development of partnerships to carry out weed control, seed collection and planting, and site protection.
The aim of the Kangaroo Island Threatened Plant Project is to improve the environmental conditions of the Island for the 15 nationally threatened plant species. The project has, to date, achieved a variety of conservation objectives including (KINRMB 2011):
- Re-establishment and restoration works being undertaken for critical threatened plant habitat (including contruction of propagation facilities, propagation of tubestock, seedling trials, planting trials and spreading of topsoil for degraded roadsides).
- Development of a Bridal Veil Management Strategy for Kangaroo Island, treatment for weed infestations and research into impact of weeds on regenerating bushland.
- Development of a groundbreaking project to actively trial the use of fire in bushland recovery including the use of highly monitored ecological burn sites in areas of differing fire regimes to test effects of fire on the recovery of the bush, flora and fauna and the soil.
- Long term monitoring commitments to assess the lasting impacts of native herbivores and grazing on the bush.
- Wildlife exclusion fencing erected at key sites.
- Active volunteer programs.
Management documents for the Kangaroo Island Spider-orchid can be found at the start of this profile.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Caladenia ovata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006dg) [Internet].|
|Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting||Caladenia ovata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006dg) [Internet].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events||Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities||Caladenia ovata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006dg) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit)||Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||
Caladenia ovata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006dg) [Internet].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback||Phytophthora cinnamomi||Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies||Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
Bates, R.J (2011). South Australia's Native Orchids. Compact disc. Native Orchid Society of South Australia.
Bates, R.J. & J.Z. Weber (1990). Orchids of South Australia. Adelaide: Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbooks Committee.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2005). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Davies, R.J.P. (1986). Threatened Plant Species of the Mt Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island Regions of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.
Davies, R.J.P. (1992). Threatened Plants of the Murray Mallee, Mt Lofty Range and Kangaroo Island Region of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009w). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.
Jones, D.L. (2001). Personal Communication.
Kangaroo Island Natural Resource Management Board (KINRMB) (2011). Threatened Plants . Kangaroo Island Natural Resource Management Board, Government of South Australia.
Neagle, N. (2002). National Land and Water Resources Audit: Conservation Strategy Case Study: Kangaroo Island Subregion, South Australia. Adelaide: National Parks and Wildlife South Australia, Department for Environment and Heritage.
Taylor, D.A. (2008). Draft Recovery Plan for 15 Nationally Threatened Plant Species, Kangaroo Island, South Australia, second edition 2003-2013. [Online]. Department for Environment and Heritage, Government of South Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/Plants_Animals/Threatened_species_ecological_communities/Recovery_planning/Plans_for_threatened_plants_in_SA.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Caladenia ovata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 19 Sep 2014 09:56:55 +1000.