In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered as Manorina melanotis|
|Listed Critical Habitat||
Manorina melanotis (Black-eared Miner) - Gluepot Reserve, Taylorville Station and Calperum Station, excluding the area of Calperum Station south and east of Main Wentworth Road.
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Recovery Plan for the Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis 2002-2006 (Revised February 2003): Conservation of old-growth dependant mallee fauna (Baker-Gabb, D.J., 2003) [Recovery Plan] as Manorina melanotis.
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Manorina melanotis.
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Manorina melanotis.
List of Migratory Species - Amendment to the list of migratory species under section 209 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (26/11/2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2013af) [Legislative Instrument] as Manorina melanotis.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Manorina melanotis |
|Other names||Manorina flavigula melanotis |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Manorina melanotis
Common name: Black-eared Miner
Other names: Dusky Miner
There has been controversy over the taxonomic status of the Black-eared Miner. Various authors have considered it to be a full species (Christidis & Boles 1994; Clarke et al. 2001; Schodde 1975; Wilson 1911), a subspecies or morphological variant of the Yellow-throated Miner (Matthews 1912, 1913; RAOU 1913; Schodde & Mason 1999; Silveira 1995) or a subspecies of the Western Australian 'Dusky Miner' Manorina flavigula obscura (Ashby 1922; Matthews 1925; RAOU 1926).
There are morphological and behavioural differences between Black-eared and Yellow-throated Miners (Clarke et al. 2001; Ford 1981; Joseph 1986; McLaughlin 1990, 1992; Starks 1987), and evidence for marked ecological separation exists (McLaughlin 1992; Joseph 1986). This morphological and ecological evidence supports the contention that the two miners are separate species (Fitzherbert et al. 1992). Molecular assessment by Christidis (1995) also indicated that the Black-eared Miner is a distinct species. Moreover, Clarke et al. (2001) showed that Black-eared and Yellow-throated Miners were clearly separable on phenotypic characters prior to extensive modification of mallee habitat that occurred after 1950. They argue that the Black-eared Miner should be afforded full species status given that widespread hybridisation is a recent development facilitated by human disturbance of their habitat. Black-eared Miners can interbreed with Yellow-throated Miners, resulting in fertile hybrids that display a range of intermediate plumages (Ford 1981; McLaughlin 1990, 1993).
The Black-eared Miner has a roughly uniform grey colouring from crown to rump. There is a black mask, starting at the bill and extending under and over the eye, and uniformly over the ear-coverts. There is often also a obscure grey 'moustache-streak'. The absence of a pale rump separates the Black-eared Miner from the Yellow-throated Miner, while the absence of pale tail-tips help separate it from both Yellow-throated and Noisy Miners (Pizzey & Knight 1999).
The Black-eared Miner is often seen in small parties (Pizzey & Knight 1999).
Black-eared Miners are restricted to small, local colonies in the mallee region of north-western Victoria, east to Hattah-Kulkyne National Park, and through the Murray mallee of South Australia north to the Murray River, and to the far south-west corner of NSW (Pizzey & Knight 1999).
Black-eared Miners were considered either common or locally common within their mallee habitat prior to 1940 (Favaloro 1966; Howe & Tregallas 1914; McLaughlin 1990; Starks 1987; Wilson 1912). However, there have been few recent records. In Victoria, there has been a decline in the number of colonies (Considine 1986; McLaughlin 1990, 1994; Starks 1987). This decline has continued despite the retention of a considerable area of apparently suitable habitat within conservation reserves (LCC 1989). At present in Victoria, there are six known widely-dispersed colonies of hybrid birds (Clarke & Clarke 1999a).
Joseph (1986) summarised the decline of the Black-eared Miner in South Australia and considered the species very nearly, if not already, extinct. However, following sightings of hybrid miners in the extensive mallee habitat of the Bookmark Biosphere Reserve north-west of Renmark, and at Glenburr Scrub near Murray Bridge in the early 1990s, surveys were conducted in 1996, which resulted in over 80 sightings of Black-eared Miners (Backhouse et al. 1997; Baker-Gabb 2001a; McLaughlin 1996), and over 200 colonies are now known from this area (Clarke & Clarke 1999b). Although they contain many hybrids, over a third of colonies contain mainly pure-bred Black-eared Miners.
In NSW, the Black-eared Miner was less well known, with only eight likely records up until 1985 (Franklin 1996). However, hybrid birds were observed in 1997 and 1999 in two areas of the Scotia Mallee region adjacent to the border with South Australia (Boulton & Clarke 2000a). The only recent records from NSW are of about five hybrid colonies (Franklin 1996; Boulton & Clarke 2000a).
Small captive colonies of hybrid birds from South Australia have been established at three zoos (Clarke & Clarke 1999b).
In Victoria, there has been a decline in the numbers of birds within colonies and the quality of birds (hybrids versus pure-bred birds) (Considine 1986; McLaughlin 1990, 1994; Starks 1987). In South Australia in the Bookmark Biosphere Reserve, there are over 200 colonies (Clarke & Clarke 1999a) containing more than 3600 birds, of which about 1400 are Black-eared Miners and the rest are hybrids. The adult sex ratio in colonies is biased towards males, some of which help at nests but do not breed. Based on adult sex ratio data (64% male, Ewen et. al. 2001), and an average of five breeding pairs per colony, the effective breeding population in Bookmark is about 2000 mature individuals, including 760 Black-eared Miners (Baker-Gabb 2001a). There are about 50 hybrids in NSW (Boulton & Clarke 2000a). Since translocations in 2000, there are about 150 Black-eared Miners and hybrids in Victora (Clarke & Clarke 1999b).
Black-eared Miners are restricted to mature mallee eucalypt woodland, in areas that have not been burnt for at least 50 years and have not been cleared (McLaughlin 1990; Muir et al. 1999; Starks 1987).
Specific habitat requirements:
Black-eared Miners inhabit shallow sand mallee and chenopod mallee in the Sunset Country of Victoria and the Bookmark Biosphere Reserve in South Australia (McLaughlin 1992; Muir et al. 1999). The vegetation is dominated by multi-stemmed mallee eucalypts, including Eucalyptus dumosa, E. gracilis, E. oleosa and E. socialis, usually in association with a ground layer dominated by either Spinifex Triodia scariosa, or shrubs of the families Chenopodiacae and Zygophyllaceae (McLaughlin 1992; Muir et al. 1999; Starks 1987).
Black-eared Miners occur mainly in old-growth habitats that have not been burnt for at least 50 years (Higgins et al. 2001; Starks 1987). In the Bookmark Biosphere Reserve and the Tarawi Nature Reserve in NSW, more than 80% of mallee vegetation is older than 50 years, and hence suitable for the species. In Victoria, there is much less old-growth mallee. Within large areas of contiguous mallee in Bookmark Biosphere Reserve, sites with the highest quality colonies are more than 5 km from dams and man-made clearings (Clarke & Clarke 1999a, Muir et al. 1999). In contrast, all known Yellow-throated Miner colonies in the Bookmark region have been located within 2 km of permanent water and man-made clearings. In Victoria, colonies known to have contained Black-eared Miners were in blocks of contiguous mallee vegetation larger than 12 000 ha (McLaughlin 1994). In South Australia and NSW, all but one known colony occurs in areas of contiguous mallee larger than 100 000 ha. Black-eared Miners were once known to occur in small remnant patches of mallee (McGilp 1943; McGilp & Parsons 1937; Rix 1937), but this was prior to the expansion into and subsequent habitation of these areas by Yellow-throated Miners (Starks 1987). Even larger isolated blocks of suitable mallee such as the reserves at Bronzewing (20 000 ha) and Annuello (35 000 ha) have proved unable to retain viable populations.
Black-eared Miners nest in upright forks of mallee eucalypts or dense epicormic shoots (McLaughlin 1990). Many nests have been observed in Eucalyptus dumosa, E. oleosa and E. socialis, as well as in Dodder Cassytha spp. (usually on eucalypts). Two have been seen in the shrub Myoporum platycarpum and single nests have been found in the tree Santalum murrayanum, the shrubs Moonah, Melaleuca lanceolata and Pinbush, Acacia colletioides (Higgins et al. 2001). There are also records of nesting in Cyprus Pine, Callitris (McLaughlin 1990, 1992). They appear to prefer long unburnt (more than 55 years ago) mallee, possibly because of greater availability of high nesting sites. 50-66% of known colonies are in areas that show coppice regrowth (suggesting high levels of water stress), that are furthest from cleared areas, and in areas considered marginal for grazing of stock (Baker-Gabb 2001a; Muir et al. 1999). They build in denser foliage in tall mallees (often those in dune swale rather than on dune crest), in vertical forks of larger branches and often in epicormic shoots or among small twigs (Higgins et al. 2001; Muir et al. 1998). Within a colony, nests may be as little as 25 m apart (Backhouse et al. 1997; Baker-Gabb 2001a).
The Black-eared Miner is monogamous, and pairs appear to remain together for life, only re-pairing upon the loss of a mate (Clarke & Clarke 1999a). Breeding males within a colony are close relatives, whereas females, the dispersing sex, are not (Baker-Gabb 2001a).
The population sex ratio of adults within breeding colonies in the Bookmark region is significantly male biased (64% male). In contrast, the sex ratio of nestling Black-eared Miners is significantly female biased (61% female). Since the nestling sex ratio is significantly different from the sex ratio of the adult population it would appear that females are experiencing higher mortality than males between fledging and gaining reproductive status (Ewen et al. 2001).
Like other members of the genus Manorina, the Black-eared Miner is colonial. Each colony typically contains several breeding pairs whose nests may be as little as 25 m apart. When breeding, the species is co-operative with up to twelve juvenile and adult non-breeding individuals (helpers) assisting at a nest. Helpers are predominately male, as is the case with other miners (Clarke 1988; Dow 1978).
Black-eared Miners lay clutches of two or three eggs. It is not known how long the incubation period lasts. For a large colony in the Bookmark Biosphere Reserve, reproductive success was high compared to other honeyeater species. 56% of nests containing eggs produced at least one fledgling (Higgins et al. 2001). In 2000, 38 (26%) of 145 recorded breeding attempts produced fledglings, resulting in high rates of recruitment.
Black-eared Miners are opportunistic breeders. Nests have been found in all months of the year, however breeding typically extends from September to December. Breeding appears to be linked to rainfall events during mild to warm seasons which promote elevated insect activity, increased lerp abundance and flowering events, both of mallee and understorey shrubs. Within a breeding period, birds will usually re-build and lay within two weeks of nest failure (Higgins et al. 2001).
The Black-eared Miner eats mainly invertebrates and lerps (the sugary exudate produced by psyllids). Prey is obtained mainly from gleaning and probing decorticating bark, limbs and twigs of eucalypts and gleaning from foliage, although birds will also forage on the ground and hawk for flying insects (McLaughlin 1990). Nectar from Eucalyptus spp., Eromophila spp. and Grevillea huegelii is also taken. In captivity Black-eared Miners are successfully maintained on a diet of commercial honeyeater and lorikeet mix and invertebrates (Clarke & Clarke 1999a).
When breeding, adult Black-eared Miners typically forage short distances from the nest (up to 0.8 km). When not breeding, birds move as groups (either as an entire colony or in smaller aggregations) over greater distances to forage (Clarke & Clarke 1999a).
Non-breeding Black-eared Miners remain within a non-breeding territory of several hundred hectares, and sightings of marked individuals have been made up to 2 km from the core home range during these non-breeding periods (Clarke & Clarke 1999a). A colony of 11 birds in Victoria occupied a 16 ha core home range and a total home range in excess of 40 ha (Backhouse et al. 1997; Baker-Gabb 2001a). A colony containing more than 40 individuals in Bookmark occupied a core breeding range of 12 ha and a total non-breeding home range of more than 100 ha (Baker-Gabb 2001a).
At their greatest density, colonies breed approximately 2 km apart in the Bookmark region (there is approximately one colony per 400 ha of total available habitat) (Clarke & Clarke 1999a). However, in Victoria, where the species is almost extinct, colonies occurred at densities of about one colony per 1450 ha of apparently suitable habitat in 1993 (McLaughlin 1994).
The Black-eared Miner can be confused with Yellow-throated Miner, M. flavigula, and in particular with hybrids between these two species. Clarke and Clarke (1999b) have developed a simple guide to distinguish Black-eared Miners from hybrids and Yellow-throated Miners in the field.
The Black-eared Miner is most safely identifiable by a combination of the following characters (in approximate order of prominence in the field): (1) distinctly darker grey upperparts, chin, throat and breast; (2) dark-grey uppertail-coverts concolorous with the rest of the upper body (always strongly contrasting white or whitish on the Yellow-throated Miner); (3) tip of tail dark grey like the rest of the upperparts (prominent and contrasting white tip on the Yellow-throated Miner); (4) more extensive and solid black mask extending across the lores to the base of the upper mandible and narrowly although clearly and more broadly over the eye-patch (in the Yellow-throated Miner, mask peters out on anterior lores, is only narrowly suggested above and behind eye, and ear-coverts show fine pale scaling in close view); (5) typically lacks the pale post-auricular spot (although some may show hint of one in very close view, always an obvious spot or bigger crescent in the Yellow-throated Miner); (6) typically lacks or at best, shows only indistinct small olive-yellow patch on the side of the neck (always large and prominent patch on sides of neck and upper breast in the Yellow-throated Miner); (7) faint or no fine pale scaling on the hindneck (always obvious in the Yellow-throated Miner in fresh plumage) (Higgins et al. 2001).
The fundamental reason for decline of the Black-eared Miner is that most of its preferred habitat has been cleared. This has allowed the closely related Yellow-throated Miner to colonise habitat remnants and interbreed with Black-eared Miners. Genetic swamping is now the greatest threat. The other major threat is fire (Garnett & Crowley 2000).
Four major causes of decline of the Black-eared Miner are likely to be:
Clearing and habitat fragmentation
Loss of suitable habitat (Favaloro 1966; Joseph 1986; McLaughlin 1990, 1992; Schodde 1981, 1990; Starks 1987) has occurred throughout the range of the Black-eared Miner. In Victoria, mallee habitat on the most fertile soils (preferred by Black-eared Miners) has been selectively cleared for agriculture (Blakers & MacMillan 1988; LCC 1987). This clearance and modification of vegetation has also favoured a range expansion of the Yellow-throated Miner, which threatens the Black-eared Miner through hybridisation.
Grazing by domestic stock and feral and native herbivores is sufficiently high on most reserves and pastoral properties that it limits the regeneration of many mallee plants (Forward & Robinson 1996). Dams and their associated clearings and degradation attract Yellow-throated Miners. Black-eared Miners do not need permanent water (Clarke & Clarke 1999a).
A major cause of decline is introgressive hybridisation by the Yellow-throated Miner (McLaughlin 1990; Schodde 1981; Starks 1987). Black-eared and Yellow-throated Miners were clearly separable on phenotypic characters before extensive clearing occurred after 1950 (Clarke et al. 2001). McLaughlin (1992) demonstrated that habitat occupied by breeding Black-eared Miners is significantly structurally dissimilar from Yellow-throated Miner habitat, and that the two species are predominantly allopatric (overlapping in space). However, colonies of distinctly intermediate-plumaged miners were found to occupy a range of habitat types that in structure overlapped both Black-eared and Yellow-throated Miner habitat. This suggests that although Yellow-throated and Black-eared Miners would not normally come into contact (as would have been the case when Black-eared Miners were occupying remnant habitat), the flow of genetic material between the two species is maintained by the presence of hybrid miner colonies (these colonies would not have been present prior to extensive land clearing). Uncontrolled genetic introgression will eventually result in the loss of the biological and genetic diversity contributed by the Black-eared Miner (e.g. Cade 1983).
The species prefers mallee vegetation that has not been burnt for at least 50 years (McLaughlin 1990, 1992; Starks 1987). Habitats of this age are now uncommon throughout the distribution of the Black-eared Miner (LCC 1987), except in the Bookmark Biosphere Reserve. Large wildfires remain one of the most serious threats to the Black-eared Miner, and the potential scale of wildfire in mallee habitats suggests that even the largest reserves may be consumed by fire (Benshemesh 1990; Clarke & Clarke 1999a).
Baker-Gabb (2001a) recommended that clearing or fragmentation of intact mallee is highly undesirable and may result in the death of birds or their subsequent genetic swamping by Yellow-throated Miners. Fire access tracks about 5 m wide do not constitute a threat. Dams with their associated clearings and degradation by herbivores attract Yellow-throated Miners, thereby increasing the likelihood of genetic introgression. Putting new dams in blocks of intact mallee is highly undesirable and allowing current dams to persist and provide water for herbivores in conservation reserves is not recommended. Above-ground tanks are recommended for fire fighting purposes.
Because Black-eared Miners require mallee that has not been burnt for 50 or more years, large wildfires constitute a threat of only slightly lesser magnitude than clearing. Fires may also lead to habitat fragmentation and regional extinctions. Strip burns around 100 m wide with lengths of 1 to 5 km burnt in a year (Willson 1999) to provide strategic fire breaks and protect large blocks of intact mallee should not pose a threat.
Birds Australia Gluepot Reserve received $24,386 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2000-01, part of which was for assistance in the recovery of the Black-eared Miner by closing dams and erecting exclusion fencing around two house dams to reduce grazing.
Birds Australia Gluepot Reserve (SA) received $13 122 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2001-02, part of which was for the co-ordination of volunteers to monitor the use of artificial nesting sites.
The Lower Mallee Land Management Group (SA) received $3,300 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2002-03, part of which was for the protection of Black-eared Miner habitat and populations through the establishment of a fox control program and continuing monitoring.
Birds Australia Gluepot Reserve received $6,500 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2002-03, part of which was for the restoration and enhancement of habitat for the Black- eared Miner, and closure of the last two dams to reduce kangaroo and feral goat numbers.
The Australian Landscape Trust received $15 000 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2002-03, part of which was for the reduction in the number of artificial watering points within habitat by closing station dams, and a co-operative regional effort by several property owners to protect habitat.
The Action Plan for Australian Birds, the Recovery Plan for the Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis 1997-2001, the Recovery Plan for the Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis 2002-2006, and the Action Statement for the Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis provide guides to threat abatement and management strategies for the Black-eared Miner (Backhouse et al. 1997; Baker-Gabb 2001a; Fitzherbert et al. 1992; Garnett & Crowley 2000).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||A Biological Survey of the South Olary Plains South Australia (Forward, L. & A. Robinson, 1996) [Report].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements||The Impact of Global Warming on the Distribution of Threatened Vertebrates (ANZECC 1991) (Dexter, E.M., A.D. Chapman & J.R. Busby, 1995) [Report].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||
Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Manorina melanotis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qb) [Internet].
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species||Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified||Manorina melanotis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qb) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds||
Bird Communities of the Australian Mallee - Composition, derivation, structure and seasonal cycles. In: diCastri, F., D.W. Goodall & R.L. Specht, eds. Mediterranean-type Shrublands. (Schodde, R., 1981) [Book].
The status and distribution of the Black-eared Miner (Manorina melanotis) in Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute of Environmental Research Technical Report. 49. (Starks, J., 1987) [Report].
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers||Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||
Management of Malleefowl with regard to fire. In: Noble, J.C., P.J. Ross & G.K. Jones, eds. The Mallee Lands: A Conservation Perspective. Page(s) 206--211. (Benshemesh, J., 1990) [Book].
The status and distribution of the Black-eared Miner (Manorina melanotis) in Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute of Environmental Research Technical Report. 49. (Starks, J., 1987) [Report].
|Species Stresses (suggest Reproductive Resilience?):Indirect Species Effects:Reduction of genetic intergrity of a species due to hybridisation||Manorina melanotis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qb) [Internet].|
Ashby, E. (1922). The Dusky Miner (Myzantha obscura) Gould, with subspecies compared with the Yellow-throated Miner (Myzantha flavigula), Gould. Emu. 21:252--256.
Backhouse, G., J. McLaughlin, M. Clarke & P. Copley (1997). Recovery Plan for the Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis 1997-2001. Vic. Dept Natural Resources & Environment, Melbourne.
Baker-Gabb, D.J. (2001a). Recovery Plan for the Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis 2002-2006: Conservation of old-growth dependant mallee fauna. SA Dept Environment & Heritage, Adelaide.
Benshemesh, J. (1990). Management of Malleefowl with regard to fire. In: Noble, J.C., P.J. Ross & G.K. Jones, eds. The Mallee Lands: A Conservation Perspective. Page(s) 206--211. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
Blakers, M. & L. MacMillan (1988). Mallee Conservation in Victoria Research Paper No. 6. RMIT Faculty of Environmental Design and Construction, Melbourne.
Boulton, R. & M. Clarke (2000a). The status of the Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis in New South Wales. Unpubl. Report to NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Dubbo.
Cade, T.J. (1983). Hybridisation and gene exchange among birds in relation to conservation. In: Schonewald-Cox, C.M., S.A. Chambers, B. MacBryde & T. Larry, eds. Genetics and Conservation: A reference for Managing Wild Animal and Plant Populations. Benjamin Cummings, London.
Christidis, L. (1995). Molecular assessment of the taxonomic and genetic status of the Black-eared Miner (Manorina melanotis). Museum of Victoria, Melbourne.
Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (1994). The Taxonomy and Species of Birds of Australia and its Territories. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Monograph 2. Melbourne, Victoria: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.
Clarke, M. (1988). The reproductive behaviour of the Bell Miner Manorina melanophrys. Emu. 88:88--100.
Clarke, R. & M. Clarke (1999a). Field Management of the Black-eared Miner. Unpubl. final report to the Black-eared Miner Recovery Team.
Clarke, R. & M. Clarke (1999b). Translocation Proposal for the Black-eared Miner. Unpubl. report to the Black-eared Miner Recovery Team.
Clarke, R., I. Gordon & M. Clarke (2001). Intraspecific phenotypic variability in the black-eared miner (Manorina melanotis); human-facilitated introgression and the consequences for an endangered taxon. Biological Conservation. 99(2):145-155. Elsevier.
Considine, M. (1986). Black-eared Miners - A forgotten species. RAOU News. 68.
Dow, D.D. (1978). Breeding biology and development of the young of Manorina melanocephala, a communally breeding honeyeater. Emu. 78:207--222.
Ewen, J., R. Clarke, E. Moysey, R. Boulton, R. Crozier & M. Clarke (2001). Primary sex ratio bias in an endangered cooperatively breeding bird, the black-eared miner, and its implications for conservation. Biological Conservation. 101:137-145.
Favaloro, N.J. (1966). Honeyeaters of the Sunset Country. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 79:621--626.
Fitzherbert, K., J. McLaughlin & D. Baker-Gabb (1992). Action Statement No 26 Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis. [Online]. Vic. Dept. Conservation & Environment, Melbourne. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/CA256F310024B628/0/C37DDB6C1D54250DCA2570920020E099/$File/026+Black-eared+Miner+1992.pdf.
Ford, H.A. (1981). A comment on the relationships between miners Manorina spp. in South Australia. Emu. 81:247--250.
Forward, L. & A. Robinson (1996). A Biological Survey of the South Olary Plains South Australia. SA Dept Environment & Natural Resources, Adelaide.
Franklin, D. (1996). The status of the Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis in New South Wales. RAOU Report Series. 99.
Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.
Higgins, P.J., J.M. Peter & W.K. Steele (Eds) (2001). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume Five - Tyrant-flycatchers to Chats. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Howe, F.E. & T.H. Tregallas (1914). Rarer birds of the mallee. Emu. 14:71--84.
Joseph, L. (1986). The decline and present status of the Black-eared Miner in South Australia. South Australian Ornithologist. 30:5--13.
LCC (1987). Mallee Area Review. Land Conservation Council, Melbourne.
LCC (1989). Mallee Area Review Final Recommendations. Land Conservation Council, Melbourne.
Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.
Matthews, G.M. (1912). Austral Avian Record. In: 1. 51.
Matthews, G.M. (1913). A List of the Birds of Australia. Witherby & Co., London.
Matthews, G.M. (1925). The Birds of Australia. Witherby & Co., London.
McGilp, J.N. (1943). The Murray Mallee and its birds. South Australian Ornithologist. 16:2--4.
McGilp, J.N. & F.E. Parsons (1937). Mallee Whipbird Psophodes nigrogularis (leucogaster?), and other mallee birds. South Australian Ornithologist. 14:3-13.
McLaughlin, J. (1990). Surveys and observations of the Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis in Victoria, 1989-1990. RAOU Report Series. 71.
McLaughlin, J. (1992). The floristic and structural features of Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis habitat. RAOU Report Series. 84.
McLaughlin, J. (1993). Plumage patterns and the identification of the endangered Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis. Australian Bird Watcher. 15:116--123.
McLaughlin, J. (1994). Searches for the Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis in the Victorian Murray Mallee, 1992/1993. RAOU Report Series. 93.
McLaughlin, J. (1996). Cheating extinction. Wingspan. 6(3):6--11.
Muir, A., D. Quin & S. Dominelli (1999). Habitat Requirements of Black-eared Miners in South Australia. Unpubl. report to the Black-eared Miner Recovery Team.
Pizzey, G. & F. Knight (1999). The Graham Pizzey and Frank Knight Field Guide to the Birds of Australia. Pymble, Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
RAOU (1913). Official Checklist of the Birds of Australia. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Melbourne.
RAOU (1926). Official Checklist of the Birds of Australia. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Melbourne.
Rix, C.E. (1937). In the fast dwindling mallee. South Australian Ornithologist. 14:86--91.
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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Manorina melanotis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 26 Jul 2014 13:27:04 +1000.