Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Approved Conservation Advice for Dasyornis longirostris (western bristlebird) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2014ao) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Fitzgerald Biosphere Recovery Plan: A Landscape Approach to Threatened Species and Ecological Communities Recovery and Biodiversity Conservation (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2012) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:South Coast Threatened Birds Recovery Plan 2009-2018 (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009v) [State Recovery Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
NGO: Listed as Endangered (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Dasyornis longirostris [515]
Family Pardalotidae:Passeriformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Gould,1841
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Dasyornis longirostris

Common name: Western Bristlebird

The species is conventionally accepted (Higgins & Peter 2002; Schodde & Mason 1999). It was formerly, sometimes, referred to as Dasyornis brachypterus (e.g. Ford 1965; Serventy & Whittell 1962), presumably being treated as a subspecies of the Eastern Bristlebird. There is no geographical variation within the species throughout its range (Higgins & Peter 2002; Schodde & Mason 1999).

The Western Bristlebird is a medium-sized brown, ground-dwelling songbird with short wings and a long tail. It is 17 cm long and weighs 26–39 g. The crown and hindneck are dark brown with light-brown mottling. The sides of the neck are light brownish-grey with faint scalloping which merge into light-brown ear-coverts. The eyebrow is pale grey while the chin and throat are off-white with fine dark-brown scalloping. The upperbody is all dark brown, with the mantle, scapulars and upper back mottled pale grey, and the lower back and rump having a rufous tinge. The uppertail is olive brown with rufous edges. The breast is light brownish-grey with dark-brown scalloping and the belly is off-white, grading to brown on the flanks, with fine dark-brown scalloping. The undertail is brownish grey. The wings are rufous brown above and brownish grey below. The bill is dark grey with a pale base to the lower mandible, the eyes are red-brown and the legs and feet are greyish. The sexes are alike. Juveniles are similar to adults, but lack mottling and scalloping on their plumage (Higgins & Peter 2002).

The Western Bristlebird usually occurs in pairs, but has also been observed singly or in small family groups (McNee 1986; Smith 1987).

The Western Bristlebird is restricted to a coastal strip of southern Western Australia from Two Peoples Bay to near East Mount Barren in the eastern end of Fitzgerald River National Park, with a large gap further west of the National Park (Barrett et al. 2003; Blakers et al. 1984; Gilfillan et al. 2007; Higgins & Peter 2002). Most of the population occurs between Two Peoples Bay and Waychinicup River, and have been recorded at a number of different sites in, and near, Fitzgerald River National Park, between Gairdner River and East Mount Barren (Chapman & Newbey 1990; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Gilfillan et al. 2007; Higgins & Peter 2002; McNee 1986; Smith 1987).

In a major survey conducted in 1985, Western Bristlebirds were recorded at the following locations (McNee 1986):

  • Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve
  • Betty's Beach
  • The northern slopes of the Mount Manypeaks Range and the eastern areas of the Waychinicup Inlet area
  • Hassell (Cheyne) Beach
  • Western areas of Fitzgerald River National Park
  • A site just north of the Fitzgerald River National Park (McNee 1986).

Surveys have revealed their presence at 14 different sites in and near Fitzgerald River National Park (Gilfillan 2007).

The species was not known from areas east of Albany until 1945, when it was discovered at Two Peoples Bay (Buller 1945); it was subsequently recorded at Waychinicup River (Ford 1963), and in Fitzgerald River National Park in 1976 (Smith & Moore 1977).

The former distribution of the Western Bristlebird is poorly known. The first specimen was collected in 1839 near Perth (McNee 1986; Serventy 1948; Whittell 1941), but has not been seen there since. The species was certainly at King George Sound and near Wilsons Inlet (McNee 1986). Fossil remains are known from near Augusta (Baird 1991).

The extent of occurrence of the Western Bristlebird is estimated at 600 km². This estimate is considered to be of medium reliability (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Western Bristlebird has declined in the western part of its original range (Higgins & Peter 2002; McNee 1986; Smith 1987). It previously occurred near Albany, at Wilson Inlet and King George Sound between the late 1860s and 1912 (Glauert 1945; Serventy 1948; Smith 1987; Whitley 1971; Whittell 1936). It was reported at Beaufort Inlet in April 1976 and October 1977 (Blakers et al. 1984; McNee 1986), but has not been seen there since (McNee 1986).

The area of occupancy of the Western Bristlebird is estimated, with low reliability, at 20 km2 (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Western Bristlebird occurs in three distinct locations: Fitzgerald River National Park, Hassell (Cheynes) Beach/Waychinicup National Park/Two Peoples Nature Reserve, and a translocated population near Walpole, though this last population may no longer occur there (Barrett et al. 2003; Gilfillan et al. 2007; McNee 1986). There is also a record of two Western Bristlebirds at Kundip Nature Reserve from December 2003 (Buchanan 2004; Napier 2004), but it is unknown whether this record represents a permanent subpopulation or was a record of vagrant or dispersing birds (Gilfillan et al. 2007).

A small population of Western Bristlebirds was translocated to near Walpole, Western Australia (Burbidge 2003; Garnett & Crowley 2000). Eight birds were translocated in 1999 with a further seven being added in 2000. A number of birds persisted after a fire in 2001, with at least five heard calling in 2002, but only one bird was heard calling between 2003 and 2005, and none has been heard since 2005 (Burbidge 2003; Gilfillan et al. 2007). Further translocations may be considered in the future, but need careful consideration as the success of this first translocation is uncertain (Gilfillan et al. 2007).

The distribution of the Western Bristlebird is fragmented, with populations in Fitzgerald National Park separated from those in the Hassell Beach/Waychinicup National Park/Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve area (Barrett et al. 2003; Higgins & Peter 2002; McNee 1986). The distance between these areas is about 120 km and, although the intervening area has been extensively surveyed, no Western Bristlebirds have been recorded, despite the habitat being apparently suitable for the species (Gilfillan et al. 2007).

In 1922 Thomas Carter conducted a six week search of the species' former range. The survey involved systematically searching an area of suitable vegetation along nearly 20 kilometres of coastline in southern Western Australia (Whitley 1971). A survey for both Western Bristlebirds and Western Whipbirds (Psophodes nigrogularis) was conducted along the south coast of Western Australia, between Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve and Cape Arid National Park, between May and August 1985 (McNee 1986). Annual surveys for the species have been conducted by the Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) since 1994 (Gilfillan et al. 2007).

The total population of the Western Bristlebird is not known with certainty. Estimates for the total population range between 1300–2000 breeding birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins & Peter 2002). Results of surveys suggest that there are at least 120 pairs patchily distributed in Fitzgerald River National Park (Gilfillan et al. 2007). The Two Peoples Bay/Manypeaks area was estimated to support about 500 pairs in 2001 (Comer & McNee 2001), at which time the total population would have consisted of about 620 pairs. However, a series of wildfires in the Albany area, including a major one in the Manypeaks area in January 2005, reduced the available habitat substantially, and the total population is thought to have declined to about 315 pairs. Apart from the impact of these wildfires, the population is probably stable (Burbidge 2007, pers. comm.).

The Western Bristlebird occurs in six subpopulations. The largest subpopulation occurs between Two Peoples Bay and the Waychinicup River, and is estimated to contain 1000 birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The maximum population of the Western Bristlebird in the Fitzgerald River National Park is estimated at 300 birds (Higgins & Peter 2002). The subpopulation of the Western Bristlebird in Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve has apparently been increasing. Up to 60 pairs were present in 1970, 86 pairs were recorded there in a partial census in 1976, the population was estimated at about 100 pairs in 1983 and 245 pairs in 1991 (Cale & Burbidge 1993; Smith 1987).

Eight Western Bristlebirds were translocated from Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve to near Walpole, west of Albany, in the spring of 1999, and another seven were translocated in the spring of 2000. Although the area was burnt in a bushfire in the autumn of 2001, at least seven birds persisted into the winter of 2001 (Burbidge 2003), but there is no evidence of persistence since mid-2005 (Gilfillan et al. 2007).

Though the overall population of the Western Bristlebird has declined since the late 19th and early 20th centuries (McNee 1986; Smith 1977, 1987), the population is considered to be stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000) or increasing (Chapman 1999). The population of the Western Bristlebird at Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve has increased since 1973, and it is considered that this has been due to the management policy of excluding fire from the area (Orr et al. 1995; Smith 1985, 1987).

The populations identified as being important for the species' long-term survival are those located in the Fitzgerald National Park and in the area between Hassell Beach and Two Peoples Nature Reserve, including Waychinicup National Park (Cale & Burbidge 1993; Chapman & Newbey 1990; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Gilfillan et al. 2007; McNee 1986; Orr et al. 1995).

Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve, Fitzgerald River National Park and Waychinicup National Park support populations of Western Bristlebirds (McNee 1986).

The Western Bristlebird is restricted to floristically diverse low dense coastal heathland (McNee 1986; Smith 1987).

Western Bristlebirds occur in heathland that is 0.5–1.5 m tall, comprising a diverse variety of shrubs such as banksias including Baxter's Banksia (Banksia baxteri), Dryandra-leaved Banksia (B. dryandroides), Candlestick Banksia (B. attenuata) or Scarlet Banksia (B. coccinea)), paperbarks (such as Melaleuca striata or M. thymoides), hakeas (such as Hood Leaved Hakea (Hakea cucullata), or Two-leaf Hakea (H. trifurcata )), Lambertia spp., Dryandra spp., Adenanthos spp., Leptospermum spp., Daviesia reversifolia and Dwarf Sheoak (Allocasuarina humilis). Their habitat usually has abundant sedges and, sometimes, thickets of stunted eucalypts, especially Mallee eucalypts. Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and Marri (E. calophylla) may also be present (Gilfillan et al. 2007; McNee 1986; Smith 1987; Smith & Moore 1977). They also occur on Grass Tree (Xanthorrhoea spp.) flats with dense heathland that is about 1 m tall, and abundant Sword-sedges (Anarthria spp.) (Whittell 1936). Shrubs comprised 40–80% of foliage cover at sites where Western Bristlebirds were recorded in 1985 (McNee 1986).

The frequency of burning these habitats determines the structure of the component vegetation. The Western Bristlebird has been recorded in areas:

  • Last burnt 3–5 years previously at Two Peoples Bay (although nesting does not occur in these areas until later years (Garnett & Crowley 2000))
  • last burnt 4–6 years previously at Lake Gardner (Smith 1987)
  • last burnt 9 years previously in southern Fitzgerald River National Park (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins & Peter 2002)
  • last burnt 5–12 years previously around the Waychinicup River (McNee 1986)
  • last burnt 14–28 years previously in northern Fitzgerald River National Park (McNee 1986)
  • It also occurs in areas last burnt at least 50 years previously, but at a lower population density than it does in less mature vegetation (Smith 1987).

Recovery of its habitat after fire may take longer in relatively dry areas such as Fitzgerald River National Park than in moist areas such as Two Peoples Bay (McNee 1986).

The Western Bristlebird can survive (or escape from) a fire, provided there is adequate unburnt vegetation nearby (Burbidge 2003; Garnett & Crowley 2000; McNee 1986). After a fire unburnt swampy vegetation dominated by sedges and thickets may be important as a refuge habitat (Smith 1987) and Western Bristlebirds have been recorded setting up new home ranges in the nearest available unburnt habitat (Burbidge 2003; Gilfillan et al. 2007). In moist areas, vegetation may be colonised as soon as 2–3 years after burning (Burbidge 2003).

The Western Bristlebird occurs in similar areas to the Western Whipbird (Psophodes nigrogularis), Noisy Scrub-bird (Atrichornis clamosus) and the western subspecies of the Ground Parrot (Pezoporus wallicus flaviventris), all of which are listed as threatened taxa under Australian or State Government legislation (Garnett & Crowley 2000; McNee 1986; Orr et al. 1995).

There is no specific information on the age of sexual maturity, life expectancy or natural mortality of the Western Bristlebird. However, the generation length is estimated to be five years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The breeding season of the Western Bristlebird is from July to October, with the main period of laying in August and September (Smith 1987). Two speckled, dull-white or brownish-white eggs are laid in a loosely constructed, domed, globular nest. The base and sides of the nest are made from leaves of plants such as the Pineapple Bush (Dasypogon bromeliifolius), Anarthria scabra, Cyathochaeta clandestina and Dasypogon spp., as well as twigs, with the rest made of finer pieces of rushes, grass and twigs. Each nest is usually placed near the ground in a clump of sedges but sometimes in dense shrubs (Chapman 1999; Serventy & Whittell 1962; Smith 1987; Whittell 1936).

Nothing is known of the role of each sex in nest building, incubation or feeding the nestlings (Smith 1987).

The diet of the Western Bristlebird consists of invertebrates and seeds. Known food items include the seeds of Anarthria scabra, Daviesia spp. and Acacia spp., as well as earthworms, snails and insects such as ants and beetles and their larvae (Buller 1945; Chapman 1999; Milligan 1902a; Smith 1987).

The Western Bristlebird forages on or close to the ground, probing leaf-litter or pecking the ground, or gleaning items from the foliage of plants (Smith 1987).

The Western Bristlebird is sedentary. It lives in pairs within territories or fixed home-ranges (McNee 1986; Smith 1987). The species is capable of undertaking short local movements and can recolonise areas burnt by fire, provided that unburnt refuge habitat is available nearby (McNee 1986). Western Bristlebirds at Walpole relocated 2–3 kilometres from long-unburnt vegetation into an area burnt more recently (some parts were burnt 3 years previously and others 6 years previously).


In the absence of fire at Two Peoples Bay, home-ranges have remained stable over the last 30 years (Burbidge 2003, 2007, pers. comm.). Here, the home-range of pairs of Western Bristlebirds, determined by mapping locations of singing birds, was estimated at 6.5 ha (range 6–8 ha), with pairs spending at least 60% of their time in a core area of 1–3 ha (Smith 1987). One radio-tracked Western Bristlebird, at Two Peoples Bay, had a home-range of 6 ha, and another had a home-range of 21 ha (Murphy 1994).

In the Fitzgerald River National Park, population densities of Western Bristlebirds have been estimated at 0.1 birds/ha (Smith & Moore 1977), and 0.3 birds/ha at Two Peoples Bay (Higgins & Peter 2002). Near Mt Gardner, at Two Peoples Bay, 12 pairs were recorded in an area of about 80 ha (Smith 1987).

The Western Bristlebird is shy, elusive and seldom seen, though it is often heard (McNee 1986; Smith 1987; Whittell 1936).

The species is usually detected only by its vocalisations, usually between May and October. It has distinctive calls, which are most intense at dawn and, to a lesser extent, at dusk (McNee 1986; Smith 1987; Whittell 1936). The song bouts are short and infrequent and large numbers of observations are needed to build up an adequate picture of the area used by the species. There are two song types and three call notes. The most frequently given song is a highly variable melodious whistle of five to eight notes (Smith 1987).

Fire
The main threat to the Western Bristlebird is extensive, or frequent, fire. Fires at intervals of less than 5–10 years may lead to its local extinction (Smith 1987). The optimum fire frequency for the species is unknown, however, the maximum fire frequency to maintain viable populations of the Western Bristlebird is not less than 20 years (Burbidge 2003). Severe or large scale fires have the potential to destroy all suitable habitat, including refuges (Gilfillan et al. 2007; McNee 1986; Smith 1977, 1987). Fire frequency greater than every 5–10 years will lead to the extinction of a population, but what happens to its heath habitat in the absence of fire for 50 or more years is unknown. Some areas of heath around Mt. Gardner have not been burnt for at least 45 years and the density of birds in these areas is less than in areas burnt 20 years ago (Smith 1987)

Land Clearing and Grazing
Clearing of heathland and draining of swamps for agriculture and urban development has also contributed to the decline in numbers and contraction of the range of the Western Bristlebird. Grazing and land clearing are potential threats, and were probably major causes of the species' decline around Albany (McNee 1986). Grazing and land clearing are no longer considered to be immediate threats to the species (Chapman 1999; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Smith 1977).

Infrequent burning allows the development of a mosaic of different ages of vegetation, enabling the Western Bristlebird to persist, or to move into nearby unburnt refuges when confronted with fire. After fire, the heathland takes several years to regenerate before becoming suitable for habitation by the species (Garnett & Crowley 2000; McNee 1986). The increase in population size of the Western Bristlebird at Two Peoples Bay, since 1973, has been attributed to the management policy of excluding fire from the area (Orr et al. 1995; Smith 1985, 1987). The Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) is implementing a series of conservation measures aimed at decreasing the incidence and extent of wild fires in the Manypeaks/Two Peoples Bay area (Burbidge et al. 2005) and in the Fitzgerald River National Park (Gilfillan et al. 2007).

A national draft recovery plan is being prepared for the Western Bristlebird.

Two mitigation approaches have been adopted for the Western Bristlebird: translocation of Bristlebirds; and fire management strategies in concert with long-term population monitoring (Burbidge 2003; Danks 2004). However, the translocated population near Walpole does not seem to have survived. It is unknown whether this was due to the fires that burnt the area in the autumn of 2001 or other factors.

Major studies on the Western Bristlebird include:

  • Smith (1985) details the effects of fire on the Western Bristlebird.
  • Smith (1987) provides details of many aspects of the species' biology.
  • McNee (1986) provides information about a comprehensive survey conducted in 1985, including the composition and structure of suitable vegetation at various sites.
  • Murphy (1994) details the capturing of Western Bristlebirds.
  • Burbidge (2003) published the results of a study on the effects of bushfires on the species.

The following documents may inform protection and management of the Western Bristlebird:

  • Research plan for the Western Ground Parrot, Western Whipbird and Western Bristlebird (Cale & Burbidge 1993)
  • The Action Plan for Australian Birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000)
  • South Coast Threatened Birds Recovery Plan (Gilfillan et al. 2007).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Dasyornis longirostris in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hg) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage Dasyornis longirostris in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hg) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Dasyornis longirostris in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hg) [Internet].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Dasyornis longirostris in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006hg) [Internet].

Baird, R.F. (1991). Holocene avian assemblage from Skull Cave (AU-8), south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 15:267-286.

Barrett, G., A. Silcocks, S. Barry, R. Cunningham & R. Poulter (2003). The New Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia.

Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

Buchanan, B. (2004). Kundip Nature Reserve. Western Australian Bird Notes. 109:15-16.

Buller, K.G. (1945). A new record of the Western Bristlebird. Emu. 45:78-80.

Burbidge, A.H. (2003). Birds and fire in the Mediterranean climate of south-west Western Australia. In: Abbot, I., & N. Burrows, eds. Fire in Ecosystems of South-west Western Australia: Impacts and Management. Page(s) 321-347. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Burbidge, A.H. (2007). Personal Communication. Principal Research Scientist, Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation. April 2007.

Burbidge, A.H., S. Comer & A. Danks (2005). 'Threatened birds and wildfire in south-west Western Australia' In: Fire and Birds. Fire Management for Biodiversity. Wingspan (Supplement). 15 (3):18-20.

Cale, P.G. & A.H. Burbidge (1993). Research plan for the Western Ground Parrot, Western Whipbird and Western Bristlebird. Australian National Parks & Wildlife Service.

Chapman, A. & K.R. Newbey (1990). A Biological Survey of the Fitzgerald Area, Western Australia. Final Report (June 1987) Part 1. WA Dept Conservation & Land Management.

Chapman, G. (1999). Bristlebirds: see how they run. Wingspan. 9(1).

Comer, S. & S. McNee (2001). Surveys for the Western Bristlebird and Western Whipbird. Unpublished Report to the South Coast Threatened Birds Recovery Team, Albany.

Danks, A. (2004). South Coast Biodiversity. An Overview of Biodiversity Values, Threats and Conservation in the South Coast Region. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Albany.

Ford, J. (1963b). Branch report, Western Australia. Emu. 63:90-92.

Ford, J. (1965). New information on the distribution of birds of south-western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist. 10:7-12.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Gilfillan, S., S. Comer, A.H. Burbidge, J. Blyth & A. Danks (2007). South Coast Threatened Birds Recovery Plan Western Ground Parrot Pezoporus wallicus flaviventris, Western Bristlebird Dasyornis longirostris, Noisy Scrub-bird or Tjimiluk Atrichornis clamosus, Western Whipbird (Western Heath Subspecies) Psophodes nigrogul. Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth.

Glauert, L. (1945). Bristle-birds in Western Australia. Emu. 44:334.

Higgins, P.J. & J.M. Peter (Eds) (2002). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 6. Pardalotes to Spangled Drongo. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Higgins, P.J., J.M. Peter & W.K. Steele (Eds) (2001). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume Five - Tyrant-flycatchers to Chats. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

McNee, S. (1986). Surveys of the Western Whipbird and Western Bristlebird in Western Australia, 1985. RAOU Report Series. 18.

Milligan, A.W. (1902a). Description of a new Bristle Bird (Sphenura). Emu. 1:67-69.

Murphy, D. (1994). Capture, Radiotracking and Habitat Utilisation of the Western Bristlebird: Report on a Feasibility Study. WA Dept Conservation & Land Management.

Napier, C. (2004). Kundip Nature Reserve. Western Australian Bird Notes. 110:15.

Orr, K., A. Danks & K. Gillen (1995). Two Peoples Nature Reserve Management Plan 1995-2005. Perth: Department of Conservation and Land Management for National Parks and Nature Conservation Agency.

Schodde, R. & I.J. Mason (1999). The Directory of Australian Birds: Passerines. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.

Serventy, D.L. (1948). The birds of the Swan River district, Western Australia. Emu. 47:241-286.

Serventy, D.L. & H.M. Whittell (1962). Birds of Western Australia. Paterson Brokensha, Perth.

Smith, G.T. (1977). The effect of environmental change on six rare birds. Emu. 77:173-179.

Smith, G.T. (1985). Fire effects on populations of the Noisy Scrub-bird (Atrichornis clamosus), Western Bristlebird (Dasyornis longirostris) and Western Whipbird (Psophodes nigrogularis). In: Ford, J.R., ed. Symposium on Fire Ecology and Management in Western Australian Ecosystems. Page(s) 95-102. WA Institute of Technology, Perth.

Smith, G.T. (1987). Observations on the biology of the Western Bristle-bird Dasyornis longirostris. Emu. 87:111-118.

Smith, G.T. & L.A. Moore (1977). An extension of the range of the Western Bristlebird. Western Australian Naturalist. 14:28.

Whitley, G.P. (1971). Field notes on birds by Thomas Carter. Western Australian Naturalist. 12:41-44.

Whittell, H.M. (1936). The bristlebirds of Western Australia. Emu. 35:197-201.

Whittell, H.M. (1941). A review of the work of John Gilbert in Western Australia. Emu. 41:112-129.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Dasyornis longirostris in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 23 Aug 2014 04:04:36 +1000.