Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for Eastern Bristlebird Dasyornis brachypterus (New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH), 2012b) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement advice for predation, habitat degradation,competition and disease transmission by feral pigs (2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzq) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Eastern Bristlebird Species Profile (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC), 2005b) [Internet].
NSW:Eastern Bristlebird - endangered species listing. NSW Scientific Committee - final determination (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 1997) [Internet].
NSW:Eastern Bristlebird Threatened Species Information (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 1999ax) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Review of the Threatened Species Conservation Act Schedules 2007-2009 (NSW Scientific Committee (NSW SC), 2009b) [State Species Management Plan].
QLD:Eastern Bristlebird (Department of Environment and Heritage Protection (DEHP), 2013p) [Database].
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 89 - Eastern Bristlebird Dasyornis brachypterus (Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE), 1999) [State Action Plan].
Non-government
    Documents and Websites
Biodiversity Recovery Plan for Gatton and Laidley Shires, South-East Queensland 2003-2008 (Boyes, B., 2004).
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list)
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Dasyornis brachypterus [533]
Family Pardalotidae:Passeriformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Latham, 1802)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Dasyornis brachypterus

Common name: Eastern Bristlebird

Other names: Brown Bristlebird, Bristlebird

Dasyornis brachypterus is a conventionally accepted species (Christidis & Boles 1994; Schodde & Mason 1999; Sibley & Monroe 1990). It was recently divided into two subspecies on the basis of subtle phenotypic differences between birds in the northern regional population (subspecies D. b. monoides) and birds in the central and southern regional populations (subspecies D. b. brachypterus) (Schodde & Mason 1999), but this separation is not supported by preliminary genetic analysis (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Eastern Bristlebird is about 18–21 cm in length and about 33–51 g in weight. It is dark cinnamon-brown above, with pale colouring around the eyes and base of the bill, an off-white chin and throat, and a rufous-brown panel on each folded wing. It is greyish-brown below, with an off-white centre to the belly. It has red to red-brown irises, an off-white to pinkish-white gape, and pinkish-brown legs and feet. The sexes are alike, but females are slightly smaller than males. Juveniles are similar to the adults, but can be identified, if viewed at close range, by their pale brown or brown irises, and pale yellow gape (Higgins & Peter 2002).

The Eastern Bristlebird usually occurs singly or in pairs, or rarely in small groups of three or four (Baker 1998c; Chapman 1999).

Distribution
The Eastern Bristlebird is endemic to Australia and occurs in three geographically-separate regional populations in south-eastern Australia. The first, a northern population, occurs in south-eastern Queensland and north-eastern NSW, and consists of extant local populations at Conondale Range National Park, Main Range National Park, Mount Barney National Park, Lamington National Park, Border Ranges National Park, Grady's Creek and Gibraltar Range National Park (Barrett et al. 2003; Holmes 1989, 1997; Stewart 1997, 1998, 2001b; Stewart et al. 2004). The second, a central population, occurs on the central coast of NSW, and consists of extant local populations at Budderoo National Park and adjoining Barren Grounds Nature Reserve, in the Morton National Park-Red Rocks Nature Reserve area, and at Jervis Bay (Baker 1998c; Barrett et al. 2003; DEC 2006). The third, a southern population, occurs in south-eastern NSW and eastern Victoria, and consists of one extant local population in Nadgee Nature Reserve and another in adjoining Croajingalong National Park (Baker 1998c; Barrett et al. 2003; Bramwell, unpublished data; Clarke & Bramwell 1998; Gosper & Baker 1997).

Extent of occurence
The extent of occurrence is estimated to be 1100 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, this estimate was made prior to the discovery of a local population in Gibraltar Range National Park and is likely to underestimate the extent of occurrence (Stewart 2001b). The extent of occurrence of all three populations currently appears to be stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, the extent of occurrence has declined since colonial times, particularly at the southern limit of its range. In Victoria for example, there are historical records at scattered sites from the Victoria/NSW border to near Lake Tyers (Clarke & Bramwell 1998; White 1915), unconfirmed reports from Wilsons Promontory and Tarwin Lower-Walkerville (Cooper 1975; Mitchell 1995), and subfossil deposits indicating that the distribution once extended west at least as far as Nelson in western Victoria (Baird 1992). However, recent surveys indicate that the species currently occurs at only a single location (Howe Flat) in Victoria (Baker 1998c; Clarke & Bramwell 1998).

Area of occupancy
The area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 120 km² (Baker 1998c) and probably in the order of about 29 km². The area of occupancy of the northern regional population is estimated to be 9 km². The area of occupancy of the central and southern regional populations is estimated to be 20 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The area of occupancy has declined extensively since colonial times. The Eastern Bristlebird formerly occurred in scattered local populations along the east coast of Australia from Conondale Range in south-eastern Queensland to Nelson in western Victoria, with a number of populations located along the central coast of NSW from Sydney to Ulladulla (Baker 1998a). However, recent surveys have failed to locate the Eastern Bristlebird at more than 20 former sites in NSW (including all 13 former sites from Dorrigo to Mount Kembla) (Baker 1998a) or nine confirmed former sites and two unconfirmed sites in Victoria (Baker 1998c; Clarke & Bramwell 1998). The area of occupancy of the central and southern regional populations is now believed to be stable. In contrast, the area of occupancy of the northern regional population is continuing to decline (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Surveys of the northern regional population detected a total of 103 territories in 1987–1989 (Holmes 1989), 30 territories in 1996 (Holmes 1997) yet only 16 territories in 1997–1998 (Stewart 1997, 1998).

Captive breeding
A colony of Eastern Bristlebirds is maintained at David Fleay Wildlife Park in Queensland as part of a captive breeding program (D. Stewart 2007, pers. comm.).

Translocated populations
A translocation program has been undertaken in the Beecroft Peninsula Weapons Range, a Department of Defence controlled area, with 45 individuals translocated from the nearby Bherwerre Peninsula and Booderee National Park (Bain 2003, 2003a; DEC 2006). This area is actively managed for ground dwelling fire sensitive birds species. Radio-tracking of the individuals indicated a colony was successfully established (Bain 2003, 2003a; DEC 2006). Recent surveys have shown high Eastern Bristlebird counts and evidence of breeding which indicates the medium term success of this translocation (Bain 2006, cited in Baker 2009).

In a second translocation program, 50 birds were released to the Woronora Plateau in 2008 (DECC 2008, cited in Baker 2009). Monitoring will be conducted to gauge the success of this program (Baker 2009).

Fragmentation
The distribution of the Eastern Bristlebird is considered to be severely fragmented (Baker 2009; Garnett & Crowley 2000). The population is distributed across three geographically-separate regional populations, each of which is comprised of one or more isolated local populations (Baker 1998c; Barrett et al. 2003; Clarke & Bramwell 1998; Holmes 1997; Stewart 1997, 1998). This is thought in part to reflect the natural distribution of the species, as the Eastern Bristlebird was present in scattered and isolated local populations when the first Europeans arrived in Australia. However, subsequent extensive clearing and degradation of the bristlebird's habitat has further fragmented and isolated the populations (Baker 1997b; Chapman 1999; Hartley & Kikkawa 1994; Holmes 1989, 1998).

The Eastern Bristlebird has been well surveyed: the northern population has been surveyed intensively since the late 1980s (Holmes 1989, 1992, 1997; Lamb et al. 1993; Rohweder 1999, 2000b, 2002, 2003; Stewart 1997, 1998), and the central and southern populations have been surveyed intensively since the beginning of the 1990s (Bain & McPhee 2005; Baker 1998c; Baker & Whelan 1996; Bramwell, unpublished data; Clarke & Bramwell 1998). Consequently, knowledge of the distribution and estimates of population size are likely to be reasonably accurate.

The total population size of the Eastern Bristlebird is estimated at less than 2000 birds (Baker 1998c). Based on the estimated size of each regional population, the total population size is probably in the order of about 1790–1930 birds.

Northern Regional Population
The northern regional population is estimated to comprise less than 50 birds (Holmes 1997; Rohweder 1999, 2000b, 2003) in an area of 200 ha (Baker 1998c). The population declined rapidly toward the end of the 20th century. Surveys detected 154 birds in 103 territories in 1987–1989 (Holmes 1989), 36 birds in 30 territories in 1996 (Holmes 1997) and 26 birds in 16 territories in 1997–1998 (Stewart 1997, 1998). The northern regional population appears to be in gradual decline, with the results of recent surveys suggesting that numbers are stable in north-eastern NSW but in gradual decline in south-eastern Queensland (D. Stewart 2007, pers. comm.).

Central Regional Population
The central regional population is estimated to comprise of 1500–1600 birds in an area of about 8400 ha or less. This includes estimated populations of 250 birds in less than 2500 ha at Budderoo National Park, 600 birds in about 1600 ha at Barren Grounds Nature Reserve, 660–770 birds in about 4300 ha at Jervis Bay and a small number of birds in a very small (unquantified) area at Morton National Park-Red Rocks Nature Reserve (Baker 1998a, 1998c). The central regional population currently appears to be stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000). A decline in recorded population densities at Barren Grounds Nature Reserve, based on survey data collected in 1997 and 1999, is believed to have been an artifact of the less experienced observers in the 1999 survey, rather than an actual decline in population size (Bain & McPhee 2005).

Southern Regional Population
The southern regional population is estimated to comprise of 240–280 birds in an area of about 2800 ha. This includes estimated populations of 120 birds in about 2000 ha at Nadgee Nature Reserve (Baker 1998c) and 120–160 birds in about 800 ha in the Howe Flat area of Croajingalong National Park (Bramwell, unpublished data). The southern regional population currently appears to be stable (Baker 1998c; Garnett & Crowley 2000).

Population trend
The total population size of the Eastern Bristlebird has declined substantially since colonial times. Although no historical estimates of total population size are available, a decline in population size can be inferred from the extinction of many former local populations and a subsequent substantial contraction in the distribution of the species (Baker 1998c; Clarke & Bramwell 1998). The total population size currently appears to be in gradual decline, with surveys detecting an ongoing decline in the small northern regional population (Holmes 1989, 1997; Stewart 1997, 1998; D. Stewart 2007, pers. comm.).

Important populations
The small size of the Eastern Bristlebird population means that all extant populations are likely to be important to the long-term survival and recovery of the species. However, based purely on size, the most important populations are those that occur at Jervis Bay and Barren Grounds Nature Reserve which, combined, account for more than 60% of the total population (Baker 1998a, 1998c). Bain (2001) notes that the major stronghold of the NSW population is along the exposed, higher altitude regions of the Bherwerre Peninsula in Jervis Bay. The northern population might also be of special importance because birds in this population show subtle differences in plumage when compared to birds in the central and southern populations (Higgins & Peter 2002; Schodde & Mason 1999).

Cross breeding
No cross-breeding has been recorded between the Eastern Bristlebird and any other species. It is unlikely that any cross-breeding occurs in the wild because the other two species in the genus Dasyornis, the Western Bristlebird (D. longirostris) and the Rufous Bristlebird (D. broadbenti), do not occur within the current known range of the Eastern Bristlebird (Higgins & Peter 2002).

The Eastern Bristlebird is well protected within the reserves system. All currently known local populations, with the possible exception of the population at Grady's Creek, occur at least partially within conservation reserves (Baker 1998c; Clarke & Bramwell 1998; Holmes 1998; Stewart 2001b).

The Eastern Bristlebird inhabits low dense vegetation in a broad range of habitat types including sedgeland, heathland, swampland, shrubland, sclerophyll forest and woodland, and rainforest (Baker 1997b, 2000c; Bramwell, unpublished data; Chapman 1999; Holmes 1989, 1998; Miles 2004; Smith 1977, 1987). It occurs near the coast, on tablelands and in ranges (Blakers et al. 1984; Holmes 1989). The Eastern Bristlebird is found in habitats with a variety of species compositions, but are defined by a similar structure of low, dense, ground or understorey vegetation (Baker 2000c; Chapman 1999; Clarke & Bramwell 1998; Lamb et al. 1993).

Northern Regional Population
Birds in the northern regional population mostly occur in tall, dense, grassy ground-cover in open Eucalyptus forests or woodlands, often at the ecotone, or interspersed, with mature subtropical rainforest. The ground-layer vegetation in these habitats is usually about 1.0–1.5 m tall and fairly dense, providing about 65–90% coverage. Typical ground cover includes tussock-grasses such as Sorghum leiocladum, and other grasses including Imperata cylindrica, Poa labillardiera, P. sieberiana and Themeda triandra, with a variety of scattered small shrubs, woody herbs, patches of ferns and vine tangles (Hartley & Kikkawa 1994; Holmes 1989; Lamb et al. 1993; Rohweder 2000a). Birds in the northern regional population also sometimes occur in habitats more typical of the central and southern regional populations, such as heathland with stunted shrubs, or swampland with dense ferns and sedge tussocks. However, many of these habitats are located near the border of cool temperate rainforest, at sites that are no longer inhabited by the bristlebird (Holmes 1989; Roberts 1977; Robertson 1946).

Central and Southern Regional Populations
Birds in the central and southern regional populations occur in a variety of habitat types. They are often recorded in Gahnia sedgeland (Baker 1998a) and in low heathland dominated by shrubs such as Allocasuarina paludosa, Banksia ericifolia, Hakea teretifolia and Sprengelia incarnata or grass-trees (Xanthorrhoea sp.), and sometimes interspersed with thickets of taller shrubs or small trees such as species of Melaleuca or Leptospermum (Bain & McPhee 2005; Baker 1998a, 2000c; Bramwell, unpublished data; Clarke & Bramwell 1998; Gosper & Baker 1997; Loyn 1985; Pyke et al. 1995). They also often occur in dense swamp shrubland or in coastal or riparian scrub dominated by Melaleuca armillaris, M. ericifolia, M. squarrosa, Leptospermum laevigatum, Banksia ericifolia or Allocasuarina distyla, and often with tussock-grasses or sedges in the understorey (Baker 1998a, 2000c; Bramwell, unpublished data; Clarke & Bramwell 1998; Gosper & Baker 1997; Higgins & Peter 2002; Pyke et al. 1995; White 1915). They sometimes occur in open sclerophyll woodland or forest, typically dominated by Eucalyptus or Banksia, with an understorey of Leptospermum and other shrubs, and a dense ground layer of grasses or Pteridium esculentum (Bain & McPhee 2005; Baker 1998a, 2000c; Bramwell et al. 1992; Bramwell, unpublished data; Clarke & Bramwell 1998; Emison et al. 1987; Gosper & Baker 1997; Pyke et al. 1995). They occasionally occur in temperate rainforest that contains Acmena smithii (Baker 2000c; Clarke & Bramwell 1998; Emison et al. 1987).

Birds at some, but not all, sites in the central population have also been found to frequent the ecotone between heathland and woodland (Bramwell et al. 1992; Higgins & Peter 2002; Jordan 1987a). In a recent study to select suitable habitat for translocations in Jervis Bay and the Woronora Plateau, Baker (2009) radiotracked 12 individual Eastern Bristlebirds and found that while heathland to woodland ecotones may provide suitable habitat for some individual Eastern Bristlebirds, the species is neither dependant on, nor confined to, heathland to woodland ecotones.

The Eastern Bristlebird also is occasionally recorded in sites dominated by invasive weeds such as Lantana and blackberries (Rubus) (Chapman 1999; Gibson 1977; Lamb et al. 1993).

The effects of fire
The areas inhabited by the Eastern Bristlebird are prone to wildfire or subjected to controlled burns. The extent and frequency of fires is important in determining the suitability of habitat. Small-scale or low-intensity fires may leave small patches of unburnt habitat that provide refuge to the birds during fire and a base for the recolonisation of burnt areas post-fire, but intense and/or extensive fires can eliminate large areas of suitable habitat, including potential refuges, and thus render local populations extinct. Frequent fires may prevent vegetation from becoming dense enough to be inhabited by the species. Conversely, infrequent fires could allow vegetation to become too dense to be inhabited (Bain et al. 2008; Bain & McPhee 2005; Baker 1997b, 1998c; 2000c; Bramwell et al. 1992; Clarke & Bramwell 1998; Hartley & Kikkawa 1994; Holmes 1989, 1998; Lamb et al. 1993). The Eastern Bristlebird has been recorded at reasonably high densities in areas that have remained unburnt for long periods of time (Holmes 1998; Lamb et al. 1993), and it has been speculated that fire may not be necessary to maintain suitable habitat (Baker 2000c; Higgins & Peter 2002). Birds may resume foraging in burnt areas six months after fire and resume nesting in burnt areas two years after fire (Hartley & Kikkawa 1994; Holmes 1989). Studies of the central regional population indicate that population densities continue to increase for up to 13 years after fire and probably remain stable for several years after reaching a peak value (Bain & McPhee 2005; Baker 1998a, 1998c, 2000c; Bramwell et al. 1992; Jordan 1984).

Northern Eastern Bristlebird populations utilise rainforest as a refuge from fire (Holmes 1989, cited in Baker & Whelan 1996).

Associations with other threatened species
The Eastern Bristlebird has not been formally identified to occur in any of the ecological communities that are listed as being threatened under the EPBC Act. It is not known to associate with any species that is listed as being threatened, but it does occur in or near habitats that support the Hastings River Mouse (Pseudomys oralis), Spot-tailed Quoll (Dasyurus maculatus maculatus), Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata) and Long-nosed Potoroo (Potorous tridactylus tridactylus), all of which are listed as threatened under the EPBC Act.

The Eastern Bristlebird is claimed to be generally shy and cryptic, with their dull colouring providing excellent camouflage. However, if disturbed or in the presence of an intruder, individuals will move to a look-out perch and call (Baker & Whelan 1996).

The age of sexual maturity of the Eastern Bristlebird is unknown. Banding records indicate that birds are capable of surviving to more than four years of age (Bramwell & Baker 1990; Higgins & Peter 2002) and the longevity of birds that survive to maturity is probably at least six years (Holmes 1998). The generation length is estimated to be five years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Eastern Bristlebird breeds from August to February (Campbell 1900; Chaffer 1954; Higgins & Peter 2002; Morris et al. 1981). It builds a small, globular nest that has a side entrance and is made from grass, bark, sedges or reeds, and sometimes leaves (Chaffer 1954; Higgins & Peter 2002; McNamara 1946; North 1901-1904). The nest is placed less than 1 m above the ground in low dense vegetation, in or near the base of sedges, grasses, ferns and shrubs (Baker 2000c; Campbell 1900; Chapman 1999; Higgins & Peter 2002; Holmes 1989; McNamara 1946; North 1901-1904). Birds in the northern population nest most frequently in Sorghum leiocladum, and less often in Poa sieberiana, P. labillardiera and Pennisetum alopecuroides (Chapman 1999; Holmes 1989). Birds in the central population nest in Gymnoschoenus sphaerocephalus and other grasses, and in sedges such as Gahnia, Lepidosperma laterale and Leptocarpus tenax (Baker 2000c; Chaffer 1954; Higgins & Peter 2002; McNamara 1946).

Clutches consist of two, or sometimes three, eggs (Campbell 1900; Chaffer 1954; Higgins & Peter 2002; North 1901-1904). The eggs are white, cream or whitish-brown, sometimes with a pink tinge, and are marked with brownish, and sometimes some slatey-grey, spots (Chaffer 1954; McNamara 1946; North 1901-1904). The eggs are incubated by a single parent, presumed to be the female (McNamara 1946), for a period of at least three weeks (Chaffer 1954). The nestlings are fed by both parents (Chapman 1999), contradicting earlier claims that nestlings are probably fed and brooded by the female only (Chaffer 1954; McNamara 1946), during the fledging period of at least 16 days (Chapman 1999; Higgins & Peter 2002). Very little information is available on breeding success (Higgins & Peter 2002), but available records indicate that pairs probably rear only one brood per season, and that usually only one young is fledged per successful breeding attempt (Baker 1998c; Holmes 1989, 1998). Pairs readily desert their nests if disturbed, especially during the incubation period (Chaffer 1954; Hartley & Kikkawa 1994).

Eastern Bristlebirds mainly feed on seeds, small fruits and invertebrates, but it also take fungi and occasionally nectar, food scraps and tadpoles (Chapman 1999; Gibson & Baker 2004; Holmes 1998). They feed on the seeds or fruits of grasses and other plants including Acacia, Carex, Exocarpos and, possibly, Lycium ferocissimum (Gibson & Baker 2004; Lea & Gray 1935), and take nectar from Banksia ericifolia (Chapman 1999). The invertebrate component of the diet consists mainly of insects such as ants, beetles, flies, cockroaches, bugs, cicadas, grasshoppers, crickets, mantids and caterpillars, but also includes earthworms and spiders (Baker 1998c; Bramwell & Baker 1990; Gibson & Baker 2004; Holmes 1998; Lea & Gray 1935). Eastern Bristlebirds occasionally feed on rolled oats or discarded bread, and were once observed taking tadpoles of Crinia signifera from drying puddles (Gibson & Baker 2004).

Eastern Bristlebirds forage mostly on the ground, where they toss aside leaf litter with their bill, peck food items from the surface and probe into soil. They occasionally peck food items from foliage or branches, or captures insects in flight by sallying (Baker 1998c; Blakers et al. 1984; Chapman 1999; Gibson & Baker 2004; Hartley & Kikkawa 1994; Holmes 1998; Robertson 1946).

Eastern Bristlebirds are a sedentary (Blakers et al. 1984; Gibson 1977; Holmes 1989; Kikkawa & Hartley 1994; Lamb et al. 1993; McNamara 1946) or resident (Cooper 1991; Morris et al. 1981) species that undertake some local movements (Baker 1998a; Baker & Clarke 1999) and are able to recolonise some areas after being displaced by fire (Bramwell & Baker 1990; Hartley & Kikkawa 1994; Jordan 1984; Pyke et al. 1995). They are only capable of making weak, low, short-range flights (Baker 1998c; Bramwell & Baker 1990; Chaffer 1954; Chapman 1999; Hartley & Kikkawa 1994; Holmes 1989; Lamb et al. 1993), which suggests that most movements are likely to be terrestrial in nature (Higgins & Peter 2002) and, consequently, that they have a limited ability to disperse (Clarke & Bramwell 1998). Studies of radio-tagged birds indicate that Eastern Bristlebirds are capable of travelling a total distance of more than 1.5 km during the course of a day (Baker & Clarke 1999).

Eastern Bristlebirds are territorial during the breeding season and possibly throughout the year (Baker 2001; Chapman 1999; Kikkawa & Hartley 1994). The results of one study suggest that the territory is a core-area within the home range that is defended from conspecifics and advertised by loud directional song (Holmes 1989). Territories, some of which are probably permanent (Chapman 1999; Higgins & Peter 2002), range in size from about one to four hectares (Hartley & Kikkawa 1994; Holmes 1989). Home ranges are estimated to be about 10 ha in area (Baker 1998c, 2001).

Distinctiveness
The Eastern Bristlebird has been confused with the Pilotbird (Pycnoptilus floccosus) due to similarities in the appearance, behaviour, calls and habitat of the two species (M. Bramwell 2007, pers. comm.). It also could potentially be confused with the Rufous Scrub-bird, which exhibits a similar furtive behaviour. The Eastern Bristlebird can usually can be distinguished from this latter species by its larger size, somewhat different appearance, very different range of calls and preference for different habitats (Higgins & Peter 2002).

Detectability
The Eastern Bristlebird is usually detected by its call (Baker & Whelan 1996; Hartley & Kikkawa 1994), which can carry up to 400 m in still conditions (Chapman 1999), and it is more often heard than seen (Bramwell et al. 1992; Robertson 1946). It is difficult to observe because it is well-camouflaged, generally shy and elusive, and usually inhabits dense vegetation (McNamara 1946). It is sensitive to disturbance (Baker 1997c; Chaffer 1954; Hartley & Kikkawa 1994; Holmes 1989; Stewart 1997), especially in open areas, and may react to human observers that are a considerable distance away (Hartley & Kikkawa 1994). It is able to move quietly and rapidly through dense vegetation (Hartley & Kikkawa 1994), and can cover distances of up to 80 m in 10 seconds (Baker & Clarke 1999), or more than 100 m in less than a minute (Baker 1998c). Despite its tendency to flee in the presence of humans, the Eastern Bristlebird may emerge from cover and call if an observer moves slowly and quietly (Baker 1998c; Robertson 1946).

Given the susceptability of the Eastern Bristlebird to nest abandonment and behaviour modification, it is recommended that disturbance be avoided during the breeding period (August–February) (Campbell 1900; Chaffer 1954; Higgins & Peter 2002; Morris et al. 1981).

The current threats to the Eastern Bristlebird are habitat degradation, disturbance by humans and human activity, inbreeding depression and subsequent loss of genetic variation, predation, and collisions with vehicles. The major threat is from habitat degradation, and the primary cause of habitat degradation in the range of the Eastern Bristlebird is fire (Bain et al. 2008; Baker 1998c; Hartley & Kikkawa 1994; Holmes 1989, 1998).

Fire
The effect of fire on the Eastern Bristlebird is twofold: intense or widespread fires in areas inhabited by the Eastern Bristlebird can temporarily eliminate all available suitable habitat and cause the direct mortality of birds that, because of their immobility, are unable to escape the flames; and the too frequent or too infrequent occurrence of fires in some inhabited areas can cause the structure and composition of the local vegetation to become unsuitable for the species. Frequent fires can promote the invasion of habitats by introduced weeds and prevent vegetation from regenerating to a density sufficient for inhabitation by the Eastern Bristlebird. Protracted intervals between fires can allow vegetation to become too dense for inhabitation by the Eastern Bristlebird, promote the invasion of habitats by introduced weeds, and can also allow native trees and shrubs, which could potentially shade and retard the growth of a suitable dense ground cover, to become established (Baker 1998c; Clarke & Bramwell 1998; Hartley & Kikkawa 1994; Holmes 1989; Lamb et al. 1993; Roberts 1979). Frequent fires appear to have been a major cause in the decline of the Eastern Bristlebird in south-eastern Queensland and north-eastern NSW (McNamara 1946; Holmes 1989). Protracted intervals between fires, or associated changes in vegetation structure and composition, have been suggested as possible factors in the decline and/or extinction of some Eastern Bristlebird colonies in south-eastern Queensland (Holmes 1989, 1997; Roberts 1977; Rowheder 1999, 2000b) and Victoria (Clarke & Bramwell 1998).

In a study of an area burnt by an uncontrolled fire in the Jervis Bay area, Bain and colleagues (2008) identified that the Eastern Bristlebird was able to survive fire if near unburnt areas that acted as a refuge, with densities in unburnt areas increasing without apparent territorial aggression. Eastern Bristlebirds began reinhabiting areas that only had a low intensity of burning 1–9 months post fire, and their numbers returned to pre-fire levels in both the burnt and unburnt areas 9–13 months post fire (Bain et al. 2008). The apparent slight impact of this fire was due to the close proximity of unburnt habitat and refuges (Bain et al. 2008).

Habitat Degradation
The habitat of the Eastern Bristlebird is being degraded by feral pigs (Sus scrofa) and domestic livestock which, in the process of grazing, uproot and create tracks through the dense vegetation inhabited by the Eastern Bristlebird, trample nests, and possibly also interfere with the normal behaviour of the birds (Holmes 1989; Stewart 1997). In addition to its effect on habitat quality, the removal and trampling of dense vegetation inhabited by the Eastern Bristlebird might make it easier for potential predators such as feral cats (Felis catus) and foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to gain access to the habitat.

Other potential sources of habitat degradation are invasive weeds and dieback disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Phytophthora, both of which could potentially alter the structure and, hence, the suitability of Eastern Bristlebird habitats. All three regional populations are threatened by introduced invasive weeds: the southern and central populations by Chrysanthemoides monilifera, and the northern population by Ageratina adenophora, A. riparia and especially Lantana (DEC 2005b; Stewart 1997). Dieback disease has not yet been recorded in habitats occupied by the Eastern Bristlebird, but it could affect occupied habitat in the central and southern populations in the future (Baker 1998c; DEC 2005b).

One additional potential source of habitat degradation is the dieback of native vegetation in association with the presence of the Bell Miner (Manorina melanophrys). This form of dieback has been observed within or in close proximity to extant colonies and in areas that were formerly occupied by the Eastern Bristlebird. The dieback may have resulted or been exacerbated by the fire regime employed to benefit the Eastern Bristlebird's habitat, which may also be favourable to the Bell Miner (D. Stewart 2007, pers. comm.).

Population Fragmentation
The Eastern Bristlebird occurred in scattered and isolated populations before European settlement of Australia, but subsequent extensive clearing for residential development, agriculture, forestry and ongoing degradation from fire and grazing mammals, has further reduced and fragmented the habitat. The Eastern Bristlebird now only occurs in small, fragmented and isolated remnant populations that are susceptible to local extinction because of their small size and the low probability that they will be replenished by immigrants from other populations. The small size and isolated nature of the remaining populations also makes them susceptible to inbreeding, which can reduce the amount of genetic variation in small and isolated populations and, consequently, reduce the probability that such populations will survive if confronted with a threatening process (Baker 1997c, 1998c; Chapman 1999; Hartley & Kikkawa 1994; Holmes 1989, 1998).

Disturbance
The Eastern Bristlebird is sensitive to disturbance, the mere presence of humans walking through a territory is sufficient to evoke stress-related behaviour in the resident birds and nests are readily abandoned if birds are disturbed during the breeding season (Baker 1997c; Chaffer 1954; Hartley & Kikkawa 1994; Holmes 1989; Stewart 1997). For this reason recreational activities that bring humans in contact with or close proximity to Eastern Bristlebirds (such as bushwalking, birdwatching, horse and trail-bike riding, and four-wheel driving) are considered to be a potential threat to the species (Baker 1998c; Holmes 1998; Stewart 1997).

Increased Mortality
Predation is a potential threat to the Eastern Bristlebird. The impact of predation on the Eastern Bristlebird population is thus far unknown, but nests are known to be raided by the Pied Currawong (Strepera graculina) (D. Stewart 2007, pers. comm.) and there is anecdotal evidence to suggest that some birds may be taken by cats and foxes (Baker 1998c; Hartley & Kikkawa 1994; Stewart 1997).

The Eastern Bristlebird is sometimes killed by collisions with vehicles. The frequency of collisions is likely to be low, but even a low incidence of road deaths may be sufficient to have a significant impact upon small and isolated populations of the Eastern Bristlebird (Baker 1998c; Holmes 1998). For instance six Eastern Bristlebirds were reported killed in Jervis Bay National Park in the spring-summer of 1994–95 (Baker & Whelan 1996).

The Threat Abatement Plan: To reduce the impacts of Tramp Ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories (DEH 2006p) also lists the Eastern Bristlebird as a threatened species that they may be adversely affected by the Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) or the Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) and could become listed at a higher threatened category.

Breeding records indicate that Eastern Bristlebird pairs probably rear only one brood per season, and that usually only one young is fledged per successful breeding attempt. This low fecundity limits the ability of Eastern Bristlebird populations to persist and recover if confronted by a threatening process (Baker 1998c; Holmes 1989, 1998).

Recovery actions implemented
The following recovery actions have been implemented for the conservation of the Eastern Bristlebird:

  • Surveys have been undertaken and continue to be undertaken at known and potential sites (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Stewart et al. 2004; D. Stewart 2007, pers. comm.). The northern regional population is surveyed a minimum of four times per year (Holmes 1998), with the population in Queensland surveyed annually or biannually (D. Stewart 2007, pers. comm.). The central regional population is surveyed annually; and the southern regional population is surveyed biannually (Holmes 1998), with the population in Victoria surveyed once every two years (M. Bramwell 2007, pers. comm.).

  • Control measures for feral animals have been implemented at some sites (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Holmes 1998; Stewart et al. 2004).
  • Critical habitat has been protected and rehabilitated through the erection of fencing, establishment of firebreaks and introduction of measures to remove and control the spread of noxious weeds (DEC 2005b; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Stewart et al. 2004; York 2003).
  • Birds have been translocated into suitable habitat at Beecroft Peninsula, Jervis Bay (Bain 2003, 2003a; Bain 2006, cited in Baker 2009; DEC 2006), the Woronora Plateau (DECC 2008, cited in Baker 2009) and potential sites for additional translocations have been identified (D. Stewart 2007, pers. comm.).
  • Territories in Queensland have been mapped on a Geographical Information System (GIS) (Garnett & Crowley 2000).
  • The following measures have been implemented to reduce the impact of human activity: access to some inhabited areas is restricted; open fires are prohibited in some inhabited areas; and signs have been erected to reduce the incidence of road deaths (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Holmes 1998; NSW NPWS 1999; Stewart et al. 2004).
  • Fire management plans have been prepared and implemented and fire history mapping has been undertaken (Stewart et al. 2004; D. Stewart 2007, pers. comm.). For example, a fire management plan has been prepared for the Scenic Rim (Garnett & Crowley 2000), which encompasses Mount Barney National Park and Lamington National Park (D. Stewart 2007, pers. comm.).
  • A threat management plan has been prepared for the populations in Conondale Range National Park and Lamington National Park (D. Stewart 2007, pers. comm.).
  • A weed management strategy is being prepared for Main Range National Park (D. Stewart 2007, pers. comm.).
  • A study has been commenced to determine the taxonomic relationships between regional populations (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Holmes 1998).
  • A captive breeding program has been established (D. Stewart 2007, pers. comm.).
  • A draft national recovery plan was prepared (Holmes 1998).
  • A campaign has been commenced to educate the public about the Eastern Bristlebird and promote the recovery effort (Holmes 1998; Stewart et al. 2004).

Proposed recovery actions
The following recovery actions have been recommended for the Eastern Bristlebird:

  • Protect occupied habitat on private land by land purchase or conservation agreements (Garnett & Crowley 2000).
  • Maintain sub-populations at all sites with more than one extant territory (Garnett & Crowley 2000).
  • Map known and potential habitat (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

Additionally, DEC (2005b) outlined the following recovery actions for the NSW populations:
  • Control foxes and cats where Eastern Bristlebirds are vulnerable to predation, particularly after large-scale fire.
  • Map existing Eastern Bristlebird populations and fire histories. Prepare and implement fire management plans for all known populations.
  • Provide ongoing Environmental Impact Assessment advice and guidelines that aim to protect important habitat on private land and encourage consideration of cumulative impact.
  • Encourage private landholders with Eastern Bristlebird habitat to undertake voluntary conservation agreements.
  • Discourage the use of call playback at Eastern Bristlebird sites in northern NSW.
  • Exclude stock by fencing known habitat of northern NSW populations.
  • Control and monitor Lantana, Bitou Bush and other weeds.
  • Designate all areas of known habitat as Critical Habitat.
  • Encourage environmental protection zones to be assigned to important habitat and linking areas at each location.
  • Monitor habitat and its response to fire.
  • Undertake annual monitoring of populations at all known sites.
  • Finalise species recovery plan in 2009.
  • Undertake further survey, mapping and habitat assessment of known and potential habitats.
  • Undertake further translocations and or reintroductions.

Further Research

  • Undertake research into habitat selection, diet, movements, fire ecology, habitat disturbance and rehabilitation and indigenous significance (DEC 2005b).
  • Undertake research into the impacts of introduced carnivores (DEC 2005b).
  • Finalise report of preliminary genetic study (DEC 2005b).
  • Undertake further investigations into population genetics (DEC 2005b).

Government Funded Projects
In 2001, Birds Queensland received $13 000 through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants Program to implement the "Eastern Bristlebird - Community, Habitat and Management Project". This project promotes 'hands-on' community and landholder participation to help to increase the quantity and quality of habitats, both on public and private lands, available for the Endangered Eastern Bristlebird in Queensland. This project has a regional focus, and aims to increase community awareness of the problems faced by this species and the threats to its habitat.

In 2008, the Condamine Catchment Natural Resource Management Corporation Limited, Queensland, received $218 636 through the Caring for our Country Grants Program to implement an Eastern Bristlebird habitat restoration project.

The Action Plan for Australian Birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000) provide guides to conservation actions, threat abatement and management strategies for the Eastern Bristlebird.

Additional threat abatement and management actions may also be found in the Commonwealth threat abatement plans AGDEH (2005p), DEH (2006p), DEWHA (2008adf) and DEWHA (2008adg).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Land clearance (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001w) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Dasyornis brachypterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006he) [Internet].
Eastern Bristlebird: species management plan for northern populations (Holmes, G., 1989) [Report].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Dasyornis brachypterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006he) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use Dasyornis brachypterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006he) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) Dasyornis brachypterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006he) [Internet].
Eastern Bristlebird: species management plan for northern populations (Holmes, G., 1989) [Report].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Dasyornis brachypterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006he) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Dasyornis brachypterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006he) [Internet].
The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Dasyornis brachypterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006he) [Internet].
The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) Dasyornis brachypterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006he) [Internet].
Draft Recovery Plan for the Eastern Bristlebird (Dasyornis brachypterus) (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2001g) [State Recovery Plan].
July and August 1997 Eastern Bristlebird Survey (Stewart, D., 1997) [Report].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001ab) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Dasyornis brachypterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006he) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 6. Pardalotes to Spangled Drongo (Higgins, P.J. & J.M. Peter (Eds), 2002) [Book].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Habitat dieback associated with bell miners Manorina melanophrys (Bell Miner) Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Dasyornis brachypterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006he) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Vehicle related mortality Dasyornis brachypterus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006he) [Internet].

Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2005p). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pig.html.

Bain, D. (2001). The current distribution of the Eastern Bristlebird (Dasyornis brachypterus) and suitable habitat around the Jervis Bay region. Report for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Bain, D. (2003). Annual Progress Report: Commonwealth Scientific Research Permit, Regulation 17, Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations 2000. Permit Number: E2002-35012 Eastern Bristlebird Translocation. Report to the Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.

Bain, D. (2003a). Translocation of the Eastern Bristlebird around Jervis Bay, 2003- An update for interested parties.

Bain, D. & N. McPhee (2005). Resurveys of the Eastern Bristlebird Dasyornis brachypterus in central-eastern New South Wales 1999-2001: their relationship with fire and observer competence. Corella. 29:1-6.

Bain, D., J.R. Baker, K.O. French and R.J. Whelan (2008). Post-fire recovery of eastern bristlebirds (Dasyornis brachypterus) is context-dependent. Wildlife Research. 35:44-49.

Baird, R. (1992). Fossil avian assemblage of pitfall origin from Holocene sediments in Amphitheatre Cave (G-2), south-western Victoria. Records of the Australian Museum. 44:21-44.

Baker, J. (1997b). The decline, response to fire, status and management of the Eastern Bristlebird. Pacific Conservation Biology. 3:235-243.

Baker, J. (1998a). Radio-tracking Eastern Bristlebirds at Jervis Bay. Canberra: Environment Australia.

Baker, J. (1998c). Ecotones and fire and the conservation of the endangered Eastern Bristlebird. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Wollongong.

Baker, J. (2000c). The Eastern Bristlebird: cover dependent and fire-sensitive. Emu. 100:286-298.

Baker, J. (2001). Population density and home range estimates for the Eastern Bristlebird at Jervis Bay, south-eastern Australia. Corella. 25:62-67.

Baker, J. (2009). Assessment of Eastern Bristlebird habitat: Refining understanding of appropriate habitats for reintroduction. Ecological Management & Restoration. 10:136-139.

Baker, J. & J. Clarke (1999). Radio-tagging the Eastern Bristlebird: methodology and effects. Corella. 23:25-32.

Baker, J. & R. Whelan (1996). The Ground Parrot and Eastern Bristlebird at Jervis Bay National Park- Survey and Management Recommendations. Australian Flora and Fauna Reserach Centre.

Barrett, G., A. Silcocks, S. Barry, R. Cunningham & R. Poulter (2003). The New Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia.

Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

Bramwell, M. (2007). Personal Communication.

Bramwell, M. & J. Baker (1990). The Eastern Bristlebird. Bramwell, M., J. Bramwell, L. Telford, & J. Marthick, eds. Barren Grounds Bird Observatory and Field Study Centre Report 1988-1990. RAOU Report 76. Page(s) 9-17. Melbourne: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.

Bramwell, M., G.H. Pyke, C. Adams & P. Coontz (1992). Habitat use by Eastern Bristlebirds in Barren Grounds Nature Reserve. Emu. 92:117--121.

Campbell, A.J. (1900). Nests and Eggs of Australian Birds. Sheffield, Private.

Chaffer, N. (1954). The Eastern Bristle-bird. Emu. 54:153-162.

Chapman, G. (1999). Bristlebirds: see how they run. Wingspan. 9(1).

Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (1994). The Taxonomy and Species of Birds of Australia and its Territories. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Monograph 2. Melbourne, Victoria: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.

Clarke, R. & M. Bramwell (1998). The Eastern Bristlebird Dasyornis brachypterus in East Gippsland, Victoria. Australian Bird Watcher. 17:245-253.

Cooper, R.M. (Ed.) (1991). 1987 New South Wales Bird Report. Australian Birds. 24:49-69.

Cooper, R.P. (1975). The avifauna of Wilsons Promontory. Australian Bird Watcher. 6:87-102.

Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2006p). Threat Abatement Plan for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/trampants.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzp). Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/cats08.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzq). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/foxes08.html.

Emison,W.B., C.M. Beardsell, F.I. Norman, R.H. Loyn & S.C. Bennett (1987). Atlas of Victorian Birds. Melbourne: Department of Conservation (Forest & Lands) & Royal Australian Ornithological Union.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Gibson, J.D. (1977). The birds of the County of Camden. Australian Birds. 11:41-80.

Gibson, L. & J. Baker (2004). Diet of the Eastern Bristlebird Dasyornis brachypterus in New South Wales. Corella. 28:79-81.

Gosper, C.R. & J. Baker (1997). Notes on the birds of Nadgee, particularly the Striated Fieldwren Calamanthus fuliginosus. Australian Bird Watcher. 17:111-125.

Hartley, S.L. & J. Kikkawa (1994). The population management of the Eastern Bristlebird (Dasyornis brachypterus). Brisbane: Department of Environment & Heritage, Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service.

Higgins, P.J. & J.M. Peter, eds. (2002). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds Volume 6: Pardalotes to Shrike-thrushes. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Holmes, G. (1989). Eastern Bristlebird: species management plan for northern populations. Brisbane & Sydney: Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service & NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Holmes, G. (1992). General Survey of Eastern Bristlebird Population, Spicers Gap, November 1992.

Holmes, G. (1997). Conservation status of Eastern Bristlebirds in south-east Queensland and north-east New South Wales.

Holmes, G. (1998). Eastern Bristlebird Recovery Plan 1998-2003. Brisbane: Queensland Deptartment of Environment.

Jordan, R. (1984). The Eastern Bristlebird: effects of fire on a population. Jordan, P. & R. Jordan, eds. RAOU Report 11: Barren Grounds Bird Observatory and Field Studies Centre Report 1982-1984. Page(s) 30. Melbourne: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.

Jordan, R. (1987a). Barreng Grounds and its birds. Jordan, R. & P. Jordan, eds. RAOU Report 27: Barren Grounds Bird Observatory and Field Studies Centre Report 1984-1986. Page(s) 25-37. Melbourne: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.

Lamb, D., M. Turnbull & N. Meyers (1993). Eastern Bristlebird Habitat Assessment in Southern Queensland and Northern New South Wales. Australian National Parks & Wildlife Service.

Lea, A.H. & J.T. Gray (1935). The food of Australian birds. Emu. 35:145-178.

Loyn, R.H. (1985). Ecology, distribution and density of birds in Victorian forests. In: Keast, A., H.F. Recher, H. Ford, & D. Saunders, eds. Birds of Eucalypt Forests and Woodlands: Ecology, Conservation, Management. Page(s) 33-46. Chipping Norton, New South Wales: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

McNamara, E. (1946). Field notes on the Eastern Bristle-bird. Emu. 45:260-265.

Miles, J. (2004). Permanent Vegetation Plots in Nadgee Coastal Heaths. Unpublished report to Department of Environment and Conservation, Merimbula, New South Wales.

Mitchell, P. (1995). Notes on reports. Bird Observer. 752:14-15.

Morris, A.K., A.R. McGill & G. Holmes (1981). Handlist of Birds in New South Wales. Sydney: NSW Field Ornithologists Club.

New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1999). Eastern Bristlebird Species Profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au. [Accessed: 05-Feb-2007].

North, A.J. (1901-1904). Nests and Eggs of Birds Found Breeding in Australia and Tasmania Special Catalogue 1. Volume 1. Sydney: Australian Museum.

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) (2005b). Eastern Bristlebird Species Profile. [Online]. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10206. [Accessed: 05-Feb-2007].

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) (2006). Endangered Eastern Bristlebirds return to Beecroft Peninsula in Jervis Bay. Media release (6 March 2006). [Online]. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au. [Accessed: 30-Jan-2007].

Pyke, G.H., R. Saillard & J. Smith (1995). Abundance of Eastern Bristlebirds in relation to habitat and fire history. Emu. 95:106-110.

Roberts, G.J. (1977). Birds and conservation in Queensland. Sunbird. 8:73-82.

Robertson, J.S. (1946). The Eastern Bristle-bird in Queensland. Emu. 45:265-270.

Rohweder, D. (1999). Survey for the Eastern Bristlebird Dasyornis brachypterus in Northern New South Wales. Unpublished report to New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Kyogle.

Rohweder, D. (2000a). Assessment of Eastern Bristlebird (Dasyornis brachypterus) Habitat, Northern New South Wales: Vegetation Structure and Floristics. Unpublished report to New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Kyogle.

Rohweder, D. (2000b). Population Census for Eastern Bristlebird (Dasyornis brachypterus) in Northern New South Wales. Unpublished report to New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Kyogle.

Rohweder, D. (2002). Population Census for Eastern Bristlebird (Dasyornis brachypterus) in Northern New South Wales - Spring 2001. Unpublished report to New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Kyogle.

Rohweder, D. (2003). Population Census for Eastern Bristlebird (Dasyornis brachypterus) in Northern New South Wales - Spring 2002. Unpublished report to New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Kyogle.

Schodde, R. & I.J. Mason (1999). The Directory of Australian Birds: Passerines. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.

Sibley, C.G. & B.L. Monroe (1990). Distribution and Taxonomy of the Birds of the World. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.

Smith, G.T. (1977). The effect of environmental change on six rare birds. Emu. 77:173-179.

Smith, G.T. (1987). Observations on the biology of the Western Bristle-bird Dasyornis longirostris. Emu. 87:111-118.

Stewart, D. (1997). July and August 1997 Eastern Bristlebird Survey. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Environment.

Stewart, D. (1998). The Eastern Bristlebird - Survey and Recovery Progress Report September 1998. Unpublished report to Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane.

Stewart, D. (2001b). Northern population of the Eastern Bristlebird (Dasyornis brachypterus monoides) Translocation Report. Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service.

Stewart, D. (2007). Personal Communication.

Stewart, D., S. Gillman & D. Rounsevell (2004). The recovery process for the Eastern Bristlebird Dasyornis brachypterus in Queensland. Sunbird. 34:66-79.

White, S.A. (1915). The birds of Mallacoota. Emu. 14:135-144.

York, J. (2003). Weeds removed to improve bristlebird habitat. The Bristlebird Bulletin. 3:1.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Dasyornis brachypterus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 17 Sep 2014 11:35:42 +1000.