Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Caladenia argocalla
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan] as Caladenia argocalla.
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia argocalla.
 
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Caladenia argocalla
Scientific name Caladenia argocalla [54991]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author D.L.Jones
Infraspecies author  
Reference Jones, D.L. (1991) New taxa of Australian Orchidaceae. Australian Orchid Research 2: 15
Other names Arachnorchis argocalla [76218]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Caladenia argocalla

Common name: White-beauty Spider-orchid

The White-beauty Spider-orchid is conventionally accepted as Caladenia argocalla (CHAH 2005). The species has previously been referred to as Arachnorchis argocalla, Caladenia sp. R.J.Bates & J.Z.Weber LHS, Calonema argocalla, Calonemorchis argocalla and Caladenia patersonii. Sometimes genus Caladenia is referred to as Arachnorchis.

The White-beauty Spider-orchid is a terrestrial herb with a robust, rigid flowering stem that grows to 60 cm in height, and is covered in white hairs. The leaves are linear-lanceolate, grow to 20 cm in length and have long silky hairs. There are usually one or two striking white flowers that grow to 10 cm in length but without a discernible scent. Sepals grow to 15 cm in length, are droopy and creamy with tips dark and glandular for up to 5 cm and are not clubbed. Petals are similar but smaller. The labellum (lip) is broad (growing to 2 cm x 1.5 cm) and usually white but rarely has a pink blush. Marginal calli are short, often dark and the lamina has 6–8 rows of puplish or white topped calli that vary in shape from club-shapped to linear. The collumn is apprximately 1.5 cm in height, is broadly winged and has yellow basal glands with red markings (Bates 2011; Jones 1991b).

The White-beauty Spider-orchid is endemic to the Mount Lofty Ranges Region of South Australia (Southern and Northern Lofty Flora Regions) (Jones 1991b; Robertson & Bickerton 2000). The type collection was from 'Kapunda Hills, Barossa Valley'. Historically it has been recorded at a number of locations in and around the Barossa Valley, on the Fleurieu Peninsula, in the hills just south of Adelaide, east of Beevor Estate Hill and north near Clare. The species' former range, based on herbarium collections, was approximately 200 km from north to south (Robertson & Bickerton 2000).

The species no longer occurs south of Adelaide, where it has not been recorded since 1918. The present north-south range of the White-beauty Spider-orchid is approximately 130 km. There is a high probability that the species' range will continue to decline due to the very small size of two populations which are now at the southern limit of the species. All known populations of more than 10 plants occur within an area of 10 km² and the area of occupancy, as of the year 2000, was less than 5 ha (Robertson & Bickerton 2000).

The total number of mature plants of White-beauty Spider-orchid known in 1999 was 491. Unlike the related Pink-lipped Spider-orchid, in which vegetative plants have greatly outnumbered flowering plants in the 1999 census, few White-beauty Spider-orchid non-flowering leaves were observed at the time of flowering (estimated as one to each three or four flowering plants). This would suggest that the total population of mature and immature plants could have been 600–700 in 1999. However, infertile plants are difficult to detect amongst other herbaceous species in the grassy woodland understorey and may have been missed (Robertson & Bickerton 2000).

Generally, the species is thought to be restricted to the Mount Lofty Ranges, still being present near Mount Crawford and Clare. However the White-beauty Spider-orchid is assumed to be extinct over the southern half of its former range (Bates 2011).

The White-beauty Spider-orchid was possibly a common component of woodlands occurring on good quality fertile soils in areas with reliable rainfall.  However, the species is now more restricted due to clearing of its habitat. More specifically, the White-beauty Spider-orchid prefers open grassy herbland under light, in a mixed Eucalypt and Callitris forest (Bates 2011). The species is also noted to occur on hills and slopes in open forest dominated by Drooping She Oak (Casuarina stricta), and in Eucalypt woodlands with a grassy understory (Jones 1991b; Jones 1999 pers. comm.).

Flowering occurs in mid-September, October and early November (Bates 2011), and if fertilised, the White-beauty Spider-orchid forms a capsule containing large numbers of minute dust-like seeds (Roberston & Bickerton 2000). A plant may remain a juvenile for two to five years, producing only a single leaf each spring. Caladenia species are usually dormant over summer to autumn, storing nutrient reserves in a tuber (Robertson & Bickerton 2000). A mature plant is believed to have reproductive potential for approximately 10 years (Bates & Weber 1990).

Mycorrhizae generally invade the embryo or root system of juveniles in the very early stages of development and remain there for the life of the plant (Robertson & Bickerton 2000).

The White-beauty Spider-orchid has affinities with both the Stark White Spider Orchid (Caladenia longicauda subsp. eminens) from Western Australia and C. floribunda from south-eastern Australia, but is geographically isolated from each, the former by the extensive barrier of the Nullarbor Plain. C. floribunda is found in coastal and near-coastal forests often growing close to swamps, whereas the White-beauty Spider-orchid grows in hills and valleys further inland. Its flowers are also generally much larger than those of C. floribunda and with broader, thicker-textured perianth segments than in both species. Both C. floribunda and the Stark White Spider Orchid have much longer marginal calli in the labellum fringe (Jones 1991b).

In addition, the White-beauty Spider-orchid can be confused with the smaller winter flowering coastal Winter Spider-orchid (Caladenia brumalis). The latter is known to have short, lanceolate leaves with a felt-like surface; smaller flowers which are often more yellow than white; and a narrower labellum with fewer rows of colourful calli. The species', like those above, have different habitat requirements and geographical ranges (Bates 2011).

Albino flowers of the Pink-lipped Spider-orchid (Caladenia behrii) are frequently misidentified as the White-beauty Spider-orchid. The Pink-lipped Spider-orchid is, however, a more slender species, with perfumed flowers, a more narrow labellum and a pink labellum tip on most of its flowers (Bates 2011).

Habitat Loss and Modification

The two largest surviving populations of White-beauty Spider-orchid occur in intact grassy woodland communities. This vegetation has been selectively cleared throughout the region due to soils suitable for agriculture and grazing. The habitat of the species is also likely to have suffered under modifications of fire regimes (Robertson & Bickerton 2000). Suitable habitat for the White-beauty Spider-orchid is, therefore, fragmented and modified to varying degrees, causing a number of threats to the species.

Fragmentation and Genetic Viability

Due to this habitat alteration, subpopulations of the White-beauty Spider-orchid are small, fragmented and isolated from each other genetically. In addition, flowering plants appear to outnumber non-flowering plants, which may indicate a mature population with little recruitment (Robertson & Bickerton 2000).

Invasive Species

Other than fragmented and genetically constrained subpopulations, the habitat modification has caused invasion by weeds. Both of the largest populations are threatened by weed invasion, notably by Topped lavender (Lavandula stoechas) and Cape Tulip (Homeria flaccida). Soursobs (Oxalis pes-caprae) and woody weed species such as Gorse (Ulex europaeus) and Hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) are a threat to roadside populations.

Pollinator Reduction

Habitat modifications may also have caused a reduction in habitat quality for pollinators. There is evidence of a low level of seed set, which may be due to lack of successful pollination.

Grazing and Illegal Collection

The 1999 survey found that a high proportion (33%) of White-beauty Spider-orchid plants at the main site were either grazed (by vertebrates or invertebrates), collected or unaccounted for. Due to the large, showy nature of the species it is therefore under potential threat from collection of either flower stems or whole plants. This is particularly an issue at sites where it grows close to main access tracks. In such locations, it has not yet been possible to discriminate herbivory from illegal collection.

Physical Disturbance

A subpopulation is known to occur mainly on a roadside verge and is potentially under threat from road widening or fence maintenance activities. On private land, grazing or minor clearance are potential threats (Robertson & Bickerton 2000).

Previous Recovery Actions

A recovery plan was prepared for the White-beauty Spider-orchid in 2000 (Robertson & Bickerton 2000). The following recovery actions were achieved between 2000 and 2007:

  • A fact sheet for the White-beauty Spider-orchid was prepared in 2001 (DEH 2001 cited in Quarmby 2010), and has been publicly disseminated.
  • Weed control programs were implemented at subpopulations 3, 5, 8, 9 and 10 since 2000.
  • Bush for Life sites were established at subpopulations 3 and 5 in 2002.
  • TPAG and NOSSA held annual weeding days at subpopulation 7 since 2002.
  • A site action plan was prepared for subpopulation 7 (Bickerton 2002b cited in Quarmby 2010).
  • Seed was collected from subpopulations 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10 and 13 since 2000, and is stored at BGA.
  • Plants in subpopulations 2, 3, 4, 7, 12 and 13 were artificially pollinated since 2000.
  • Plant lists and habitat information were compiled for all known subpopulations.
  • Searches of potential habitat were undertaken since 2000, resulting in the discovery of eight additional subpopulations (1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 11).
  • Annual surveys and monitoring of all subpopulations were undertaken since 2000.
  • Permanent monitoring quadrats were established in subpopulations 3, 5, 7, 9, 10 and 13 in 2004.
  • Biannual recovery team meetings began in 2000.
  • Rabbit-proof cages were installed around plants in subpopulation 13 since 2001.
  • On-going liaison with Clare and Gilbert Valleys Council regarding the proposed upgrade of Benny’s Hill Road since 2001.
  • Seed was collected, stored and re-dispersed at subpopulation 10 in 2003.
  • A fence was erected to protect subpopulation 2 in 2005.

Current Recovery Actions

A national recovery plan was prepared and adopted for twelve threatened orchid species in the Lofty Block region of South Australia (including the White-beauty Spider-orchid) (Quarmby 2010), and the following recovery actions were recommended.

Recovery Objectives Performance Criteria 
 1. To increase the extent of occurrence of the species. 1.1 The extent of occurrence of the species is increased by at least 10 percent within five years. 
 2. To increase the number of extant sub-populations. 2.1 There are at least 15 extant sub-populations after five years. 
 3. To increase the population size of the species.  3.1 The population size of the species is increased by at least 10 percent within five years. 
3.2 At least 8 sub-populations contain >20 mature individuals after five years. 
 4. To increase the area of occupancy of the species. 4.1 The area of occupancy of the species increased by at least 10 percent within five years. 
 5. To maintain or improve the quality of habitat critical to survival. 5.1 At least 10 sub-populations are actively managed to improve habitat condition. 
 6. To safeguard against the risk of sub-population extinctions. 6.1 Seed from each sub-population and mycorrhizal fungi are preserved in long-term storage within five years. 
 7. To increase the knowledge of the biology and ecology of the species. 7.1 There is an increased number of research projects undertaken related to the biology and ecology of the species within five years. 
 8. To maintain or increase the level of community participation in the recovery process.  8.1 At least 5 private landholders and 7 public land management authorities are involved in implementing recovery actions for the species during the term of this plan. 
8.2 At least 6 community groups and 20 volunteers are involved in implementing recovery actions for the species during the term of this recovery plan. 

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Recreational harvest Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lepus capensis (Brown Hare) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Caladenia argocalla in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006dv) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Avena barbata (Bearded Oats) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ulex europaeus (Gorse, Furze) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lavandula stoechas (Topped Lavender, Bush Lavender, French Lavender, Common French Lavender, Italian Lavender, Spanish Lavender, Wild Lavender, Stoechas Lavender) Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn, May, Azzarola, Singleseed Hawthorn, English Hawthorn, Red Hawthorn, White Hawthorn, Whitethorn) Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Echium plantagineum (Paterson's Curse, Salvation Jane, Purple Bugloss, Blue Echium, Blueweed, Blue Weed, Lady Campbell Weed, Plantain-leaf Viper's Bugloss, Purple Echium, Riverina Bluebell) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Homeria flaccida (One-leaved Cape Tulip, One-leaf Cape Tulip) Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oxalis pes-caprae (Soursob, Bermuda Buttercup, Buttercup Oxalis, Cape Cowslip, Geelsuring, Oxalis, Sorrel, Sourgrass, Yellow-Flowered Oxalis, Yellow Sorrel) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Briza maxima (Quaking Grass, Blowfly Grass) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort, Common St John's Wort, Perforate St John's Wort, St John's Grass, St John's Blood, Klamath Weed, Witch's Herb, Devil's Flight, Tipton Weed, Gammock, Goatsbeard, Goatweed, Herb John, Penny John, Rosin Rose, Touch and Heal) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Moraea flaccida (Cape Tulip,One-leaf Cape Tulip) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Watsonia spp. (Watsonia, Bulbil Watsonia, Wild Watsonia, Bugle Lily) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by exotic pasture species Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects Caladenia argocalla in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006dv) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Caladenia argocalla in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006dv) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Declining genetic diversity Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Lack of pollination Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004 (Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Utility and Service Lines:Powerline easement maintenance and construction; mortality due to collision with powerlines Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].

Bates, R.J (2011). South Australia's Native Orchids. Compact disc. Native Orchid Society of South Australia.

Bates, R.J. & J.Z. Weber (1990). Orchids of South Australia. Adelaide: Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbooks Committee.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2005). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Jones, D.L. (1991b). New Taxa of Australian Orchidaceae. Australian Orchid Research. 2. Essendon: Australian Orchid Foundation.

Jones, D.L. (1999). Personal Communication.

Robertson, M.A. & D. Bickerton (2000). Recovery Plan for Caladenia argocalla (White beauty spider orchid) - 2000-2004. [Online]. National Heritage Trust. NPW and Threatened Species Network, SA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/archive/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/c-argocalla/index.html.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Caladenia argocalla in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 23 Aug 2014 21:57:20 +1000.