In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable as Caladenia concolor|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan] as Caladenia concolor.
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia concolor.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Caladenia concolor |
|Reference||Australian Orchids 1(7) (Oct. 1882) 8th. Plate.|
|Other names||Arachnorchis concolor |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Caladenia concolor
Common name: Crimson Spider-orchid
Other names: Maroon Spider-orchid
Arachnorchis concolor is currently subject to taxonomic review. A new classification has been proposed for the genus Arachnorchis (Jones et al. 2001) and a number of genera erected, reinstated or raised (Coates et al. 2002), however for the purposes of the EPBC Act the genus name currently remains Caladenia rather than Arachnorchis (Wheeler 2011 pers. comm.).
Caladenia concolor has been previously referred to as Calonema concolor, Arachnorchis concolor, Calonemorchis concolor and Caladenia patersonii var. concolor. In addition, the Burrinjuck Spider-orchid (Arachnorchis orestes) and the Bethungra Spider-orchid (Arachnorchis branwhitei) were originally described as Caladenia concolor. Jones split off these Burrinjuck and Bethungra populations in 2006. This split is a contentious issue, and will not be resolved until all of the orchids have been treated for the next Australian Plant Census (Wheeler 2011 pers. comm.). For the purposes of this profile, these will be treated as populations of Crimson Spider-orchid.
The Crimson Spider-orchid is a terrestrial herb with a hairy, dark red flowering stem that grows to 30 cm in height. The leaves of the species are narrow-lanceolate, are sparsely hairy and grow to 16 cm in length and 1.3 cm in width. Flowers are deep crimson or purplish-red colour, 8 cm across, with a spidery shape and have a strong fragrance that has been described as being like that of a hot motor. The labellum (lip) is ovate, growing to 0.5-1.0 cm in length, with poorly differentiated lobes that are dark red. Lateral lobes of the structure are fringed with acute, curving marginal teeth that grow to 0.3 cm in length and end in acute curving tips, and the midlobe has short blunt teeth. Central callistalks are short, with swelling to broadening heads that are in 4-6 rows but do not conspicuously overlap. Sepals and lateral petals grow to approximately 4.5 cm in length, are dark red and have dark and hairy filamentous tails that grow up to half the length of the segments. The tails of lateral petals and sepals are drooping or obliquely deflexed (Harden 1993; NSW DECCW 2005).
Historically, the Crimson Spider-orchid was found in north-eastern and southern central Victoria and southern NSW. Specifically, it was scattered across central and eastern parts of the goldfields between Albury and the Loddon River (Coates et al. 2002).
The Crimson Spider-orchid occurs in the Beechworth and Chiltern areas of Victoria within the Victorian Northern Inland Slopes Bioregion. Additional populations are thought to occur in the Central Victorian Uplands Bioregion in the Broadford/Tyaak area (DSE 2003). The species is reported from Stanley and Chiltern, however these populations are taxonomically uncertain.
Records from the Goldfields Region in the Bendigo and Castlemaine areas are unconfirmed (DSE 2003) and records from western (west of Wangaratta) Victoria are the Elegant Spider-orchid (Caladenia formosa) (Victorian Workshop Participants 2000).
New South Wales (NSW)
The Crimson Spider-orchid is confined to granite ridge country in the Nail Can Hill Crown Reserve near Albury (where the species was originally described), and from a small Crown land site north-west of Wagga Wagga (NSW NPWS 2003q).
Anecdotal evidence from local residents suggests that the species was previously much more common in the Albury area. It may be, however, that the main concentration of the species was in different habitat to that of currently known sites. Areas in the vicinity of Albury, and also Tabletop Mountain, Yambla Range (north of Albury), may also support populations and further survey work is required (NSW NPWS 2003q).
The NSW Scientific Committee listing (NSW Scientific Committee 1997b) also incorporates two populations which have each been described as separate species by Jones: Bethungra and Burrinjuck populations (Wheeler 2011 pers. comm.).
The Bethungra population comprises a few hundred plants in a very restricted area, less than half a hectare, in three small subpopulations on private property near Bethungra (Briggs 2011 pers. comm.). The area of Crown Land and private property in the vicinity of this site is poorly known and further survey work in the area could yield additional populations of the species and a better understanding of its habitat requirements.
The Burrinjuck population occurs in two known sub-populations totaling approximately 100 plants in the Burrinjuck Waters State Park and Burrinjuck Nature Reserve. Other populations of the species have been reported from private land in the area and it is possible that additional occurrences within the Nature Reserve will also be found when further survey work is carried out (NSW DECCW 2005; NSW NPWS 2003q).
Records from the Cootamundra and Tumbarumba areas in NSW are unconfirmed (DSE 2003).
Annual searches have been conducted at various sites in Victoria and NSW since 1992. Monitoring of 5 populations in north-east Victoria has been undertaken since 1990 and in southern NSW since 2000 (DSE 2003).
Extensive surveys for further populations of the Crimson Spider-orchid were carried out in 2000. Areas searched included potential habitat in Nail Can Hill, Tabletop Mountain/ Yambla Range, Holbrook and Tarcutta Hills. One additional individual was found in the vicinity of the Nail Can Hill population, however, no new populations were discovered (NSW NPWS 2003q).
The three subpopulations in the Bethungra area (all within 200 m of each other) have been visited annually since 1998 (except in 2000). The numbers of leaves and flowers were recorded in each census, except for 1998 when only flowering plants were counted. The permanent tagging of all individuals was scheduled to commence in 2003, and was aimed to develop a more accurate understanding of population size and structure (NSW NPWS 2003q). The Bethungra population was surveyed from 2007 to 2010, and the population appeared to be stable (Briggs 2011 pers. comm.).
Little information is available on the status of the population in the Burrinjuck area. This species was first observed (one senescing plant) by Mallinson in 1992. Approximate numbers for subsequent years are: 1993- 12 plants, 1995- 25 plants and 1998- 14 plants. Searches in 1999 and 2001 did not locate any individuals of this species. There have not been any surveys of the Burrinjuck population since 2002 (Briggs 2011 pers. comm.).
The estimated total population size of the Crimson Spider-orchid is 80–90 (Scannell 2012), from 10 populations (Coates et al. 2002). Previous population abundance is unknown but likely to have been many hundreds (Coates et al. 2002).
There are many collections of this species at the National Herbarium, Melbourne from localities including Loddon River, Rushworth, Harcourt, Castlemaine, Heathcote, Beechworth, Tyaak, Bendigo, Elphinstone and Wattle Glen. Sixteen Victorian populations were monitored for 10 years, but records are considered insufficient to gauge trends in population dynamics (DNRE 2000).
Since the Albury population was rediscovered in 1995, the population has been closely monitored and data collected on leaf emergence, flowering and pod formation for individual plants. From an initial four plants observed in 1995, the numbers increased to 16 in 2002. Some of these were individuals newly recruited to the population; others were probably already present in 1995 but did not reappear above ground until several years later (NSW NPWS 2003q).
The population size at Bethungra is considerably larger than at Albury, and a higher frequency of natural pollination is taking place. Surveys from 2007–2010 suggest that the Bethungra population appears to be stable, and is offered some protection from interested landowners who have a property management agreement and implement suitable land management practices (Briggs 2011 pers. comm.; NSW NPWS 2003q).
While the Burrinjuck population has not been observed since 1998, the area is not well surveyed and it is considered likely that further populations will be located with additional survey work (NSW NPWS 2003q).
The Crimson Spider-orchid is reserved in Victoria at Chiltern - Pilot National Park. This site is managed by Parks Victoria (Central Region) (DSE 2003).
The population of Crimson Spider-orchid at Albury occurs in the Nail Can Hill Reserve, which is Reserved Crown Land for which the Department of Primary Industries (DPI) informally shares responsibility with Albury City for maintenance. This land is currently zoned Open Space. Most of the previous disturbances are now actively managed including fencing. The dense growth of annual grasses (Briza spp.) is being controlled through hand clearing. There is also potential for inadvertent damage to the small surviving population from track maintenance or vehicles leaving established tracks, however fencing and locked gates have significantly reduced the threat. In addition, the invasion of problematic noxious weeds and the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are being managed. Fire hazard is being managed through a firebreak, a system of mosaic burns and controlled grazing in restricted areas and at restricted times of the year. The area in which the Crimson Spider-orchid is found is being excluded from all planned fire (NSW NPWS 2003q).
The population in the Bethungra area is on private property, and the former owner and present manager of the property are members of the Recovery Team. A Registered Property Agreement with the DPI exists for the part of the property on which the species occurs (NSW NPWS 2003q).
Two separate populations in the Burrinjuck area are currently known. One of these is within the Burrinjuck Waters State Park under the jurisdiction of the Minister for Sustainable Natural Resources and the other occurs in the National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) managed Burrinjuck Nature Reserve. The land is zoned Special Uses by Yass Shire Council (NSW NPWS 2003q).
The Crimson Spider-orchid is currently known from a variety of woodland and open forest habitats, usually within Box-Ironbark ecosystems, and often among low heathy shrubs. Soils are generally sand and clay loams that are often gravelly or stony and always well drained (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995). It does not occur in the Basalt Land systems (Victorian Workshop Participants 2000).
In Victoria, the Crimson Spider-orchid occurs in Box-Ironbark open forests, usually consisting of Long-leaved box (Eucalyptus goniocalyx), Red Stringybark (E. macrorhyncha), Red Box (E. polyanthemos), Red Ironbark (E. sideroxylon), on well drained, gravelly or stony sand and clay loam. The understorey typically consists of scattered heathy shrubs and grasses such as Fringed Brachyloma (Brachyloma ciliatum), Handsome Flat-pea (Platylobium formosum), Parrot-pea (Dillwynia phylicoides), Erect Guinea-flower (Hibbertia riparia), and Red Anther Wallaby-grass (Joycea pallida) (DSE 2003).
The habitat for the single known population of the Crimson Spider-orchid is regrowth woodland on granite ridge country in the Nail Can Hill Crown Reserve outside of Albury. Clearing took place in this reserve in the early part of the century but despite a history of grazing and burning, the regenerating woodland has retained a high diversity of plant species. The dominant trees of the woodland are Blakely's Red Gum (Eucalyptus blakelyi), Red Stringybark, Red Box and White Box (E. albens). The understorey is made up of a variety of shrubs, herbs and grasses including: Native Cherry (Exocarpos cupressiformis), Silver Wattle (Acacia dealbata), Hickory Wattle (A. implexa), Mountain Grevillea (Grevillea alpina), Austral Indigo (Indigofera australis), Hop Bitter-pea (Daviesia latifolia), Showy Parrot-pea (Dillwynia sericea), Common Beard-heath (Leucopogon virgatus), Slender Rice-flower (Pimelea linifolia), Purple Coral-pea (Hardenbergia violacea), Spreading Flax-lily (Dianella revoluta), Many-flowered Mat-rush (Lomandra multiflora), Kangaroo Grass (Themeda australis), Snow Grass (Poa sieberiana) and Wallaby Grasses (Austrodanthonia spp.) (NSW NPWS 2003q).
Bethungra and Burrinjuck populations
The Crimson Spider-orchid is also found in woodland which is broadly similar to the above. Dominant tree species are: Blakely's Red Gum, Red Stringybark, White Box. Red Ironbark and Tumbledown Red Gum/Dwyer's Red Gum (Eucalyptus dealbata and E. dwyeri) may also be present. Understorey species at this site include: Hickory Wattle, Varnish Wattle (Acacia verniciflua), Spreading Wattle (A. genistifolia), Native Cherry (Exocarpos cupressiformis), Violet Kunzea (Kunzea parvifolia), Native Box (Bursaria spinosa), Sticky Hop-bush (Dodonaea viscosa), Peach Heath (Lissanthe strigosa), Common Fringe-myrtle (Calytrix tetragona), Austral Indigo (Indigofera australis), Cunningham's Bush-pea (Pultenaea cunninghamii), Daphne Heath (Brachyloma daphnoides), Purple Coral-pea (Hardenbergia violacea), Ivy Goodenia (Goodenia hederacea), Nodding Blue Lily (Stypandra glauca), Creamy Candles (Stackhousia monogyna) and Bluebell (Wahlenbergia sp.) (NSW NPWS 2003q).
The two areas at Burrinjuck Nature Reserve for which records of the Burrinjuck population exist support somewhat different natural vegetation communities. The population along the road occurs in an Open Forest dominated by several Eucalypt species including: Long-leaved Box (Eucalyptus goniocalyx), Broad-leaved Peppermint (Eucalyptus dives), Brittle Gum (E. mannifera) and Scribbly Gum (E. rossii). The understorey is dominated by the shrubs Dogwood (Cassinia aculeata), Sticky Hopbush and Waxy Wattle (Acacia caesiella); and the ground layer contains Handsome Flat-pea (Platylobium formosum), Cunningham's Bush-pea, Rock Fern (Cheilanthes austrotenuifolia) and Snow Grass (Poa sieberiana). Further up the ridge where the second population occurs this community grades into a Tall Open Forest in which the tree species Broad-leaved Peppermint, Long-leaved Box and Red Stringybark predominate. The understorey here includes: Rusty Wattle (A. rubida), Grey-leaved Hibbertia (Hibbertia obtusifolia), Bidgee-widgee (Acaena novaezelandiae), Twining Glycine (Glycine clandestina), Starwort (Stellaria pungens) and Snow Grass (NSW NPWS 2003q).
Being associated with Box-Ironbark forests, the Crimson Spider-orchid is likely to occur within the same habitats as a diversity of threatened woodland bird species, such as the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor) and the Regent Honeyeater (Xanthomyza phrygia).
The Crimson Spider-orchid is a terrestrial deciduous herb that emerges annually from a subterranean tuber. A single leaf is produced in response to rainfall in autumn/winter. Flowering occurs from late August to October (generally September), however the exact timing and amount of flowering varies from year to year. The causes of this variation are not yet fully understood (NSW DECCW 2005; NSW NPWS 2003q).
If pollination has been successful, the seed capsule ripens by early summer and the seed is shed by early December. At this point, the leaf withers. The Crimson Spider-orchid spends summer and early autumn as a dormant tuber (growing annually from the root stem). The species is unable to reproduce vegetatively, and reproduction is therefore entirely from seed. In addition, the species grows in an independent relationship with a mycorrhizal fungus that assimilates some nutrients for the orchid (NSW DECCW 2005; NSW NPWS 2003q).
Pollination in the Crimson Spider-orchid is through a process known as pseudocopulation. Perianth segments of the flower sexually attract pollinators (usually male thynnid wasps) by producing a scent that mimics the female wasp pheromone. The male wasp then attempts to copulate with the labellum of the flower (physically similar to the female wasp) resulting in pollination via sexual deception. Natural pollination is extremely rare for the species, due to both a lack of appropriate pollinators and the small number of plants in the wild (Jones 1988; NSW NPWS 2003q).
The Crimson Spider-orchid has often been confused with other taxa of similar appearance (DSE 2003). In the area where this species occurs, the Rosella Spider-orchid (Caladenia rosella) is similar, but the latter is musk-scented and has paler pink-streaked flower-parts (NSW DECCW 2005).
In addition, the Crimson Spider-orchid has been confused with the Elegant Spider-orchid, and also with red-flowering variants of other species, most notably the Wine-lipped Spider-orchid (C. oenochila) (Jeanes et al. 2001).
In order to survey for the species, random 'meander' surveys should be conducted initially during the flowering period. This is to cover large areas of potential habitat if the species has not been detected previously at the site. Once the species is detected, or there are known areas where the species has previously occurred, targetted surveys should be conducted along parallel line transects approximately 10 m apart (Briggs 2011 pers. comm.).
Weed invasion (by exotic annual grasses), grazing by the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and kangaroos (Macropus sp.), inappropriate fire regimes, disturbance (due to uncontrolled access and roads and tracks and their maintenance), timber harvesting and illegal collection are the main threats to the Victorian population of Crimson Spider-orchid (DSE 2003).
In NSW, the species is threatened by habitat clearance, stock grazing, weeds (particularly Briza spp.), the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), small population sizes, low recruitment and pollination rates, rubbish dumping, firewood collection, inappropriate fire regimes and arson (NSW NPWS 2003q; NSW Scientific Committee 1997b).
Management histories, including fire histories, are well known for the Crimson Spider-orchid but the response of these populations to management has not been quantified (Coates et al. 2002).
The following objectives were identified in the National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates et al. 2002):
- Acquire accurate information for conservation status assessments.
- Identify key biological functions.
- Identify important, common and potential habitat.
- Ensure that all existing populations and their habitat are protected and managed appropriately.
- Increase the size of populations in the wild.
- Determine the growth rates and viability of populations.
- Establish populations in cultivation.
- Establish cultivated plants in the wild.
- Build a network of government and non-government organisations and individuals.
- Co-operate in bioregional policy implementation and manage recovery plan implementation.
The following conservation measures for the Crimson Spider-orchid were undertaken in Victoria prior to 2003 (DSE 2003):
- Annual searches at various sites in Victoria and NSW since 1992.
- Monitoring of 5 populations in north-east Victoria since 1990 and in southern New South Wales since 2000.
- Fencing, weed control and fire management planning in (NSW) and at Chiltern Box-Ironbark National Park (Victoria).
- Hand pollination, seed collection.
- Preliminary fungal isolation and culture.
- All known sites were visited during preparation of the recovery plan.
The following is a list of intended management actions as outlined in the Action Statement 143 - Crimson Spider-orchid Caladenia concolor (DSE 2003):
- Confirm the determination of the Mt Pilot population and other unconfirmed populations.
- Acquire baseline population data at all locations.
- Measure population trends and responses against recovery actions. Conduct annual censusing of populations, collate, analyse and report on census data and re-prioritise and adjust recovery actions and/or threat management
- Determine habitat requirements of key populations. Identify key populations, conduct surveys, identify ecological correlates of populations and prepare habitat descriptions.
- Provide information and advice, including maps, regarding the location and management of Crimson Spider-orchid sites to landholders, land managers and other authorities, especially Catchment Management Authorities and local government authorities.
- Incorporate actions to protect, enhance and restore Crimson Spider-orchid habitat into relevant Regional Catchment Strategies or their subordinate strategies via Biodiversity Action Plans. Implement these actions, according to priority, as resources become available, in conjunction with other agencies, community groups and landholders.
- Incorporate information regarding the location and management of Crimson Spider-orchid sites into local planning schemes, including environmental significance overlays, and apply the Victorian Planning Provisions so as to protect these sites.
- Manage risks to populations. Identify and implement strategies to control threats and identify disturbance regimes to promote regeneration and recruitment for key populations and their habitat.
- Promote in-situ recruitment by preparing habitat for seedling recruitment and restocking populations with seed.
- Undertake or encourage and support research, including the following; describe life history, evaluate natural pollination levels and causes of pollinator limitation, determine the effects of artificial pollination on growth survival and reproduction, determine spatial distribution of mycorrhizal fungi, determine optimal conditions for growth of mycorrhizal fungi in-situ.
- Increase populations ex-situ. Using the Chiltern Box-Ironbark population only, hand-pollinate plants, collect and store seed and determine seed viability. Collect and store mycorrhizal fungi. Establish and maintain cultivated populations and record such collections in a database of threatened orchid taxa in cultivation.
- Develop and implement materials for land manager, landholder and community information, including technical information on in-situ recovery techniques.
- Involve community groups in recovery actions where appropriate and provide support under the Botanic Guardians scheme.
The following is a list of existing conservation measures for the Crimson Spider-orchid undertaken in NSW prior to 2003:
- Vehicle access was restricted (by local residents in conjunction with the Albury Botanic Gardens and the DPI) via the fencing of the Nail Can Hill Reserve. This occurred prior to March 1999, and also reduced impacts of grazing, rubbish dumping and removal of firewood at the Reserve (NSW NPWS 2003q).
- Further fencing and weed control measures were carried out in 1999 by the Australian Trust for Conservation Volunteers, with funding provided by DPI and the NSW Biodiversity Strategy (NSW NPWS 2003q).
- Hand-pollination and localized removal of Briza spp. was also carried out in the Albury population, with funding provided by DPI (NSW NPWS 2003q).
- The Albury Hume Bush Fire Risk Management Plan was developed and finalised in 2000. The exclusion of fire from Crimson Spider-orchid sites, and the inclusion of this stipulation in the Fuel Management Plan for Nail Can Hill, was discussed by representatives of the Albury Hume Bush Fire Management Committee (NSW NPWS 2003q).
- Ex-situ cultivation of the Crimson Spider-orchid has occurred, and the species' fungal associate has been successfully cultured by Kings Park Botanic Gardens, with small quantities of seed also being successfully germinated (NSW NPWS 2003q).
- Members of the indigenous Wiradjuri community have assisted with fencing areas from cattle grazing and illegal vehicle damage, and enabling survey work associated with indigenous heritage surveys (Scannell 2012).
- In 2000, Greencorps volunteers assisted with surveys (Scannell 2012).
In 2012, seed and mycorrhizal encapsulation trials were planned to improve ex situ conservation of the Crimson Spider-orchid and other orchids (Scannell 2012; Sommerville et al. 2008).
NSW Recovery Actions
The following is a table of the recovery actions for the Crimson Spider-orchid as identified in the Draft Recovery Plan for the Crimson Spider-orchid (Caladenia concolor) (NSW NPWS 2003q):
|1.1||Ensure that road and track maintenance does not impact on the existing population of Crimson Spider-orchid||National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS)|
|1.2||Secure agreement of the Albury City Bush Fire Risk Management Committee to exclude planned fire from the Crimson Spider-orchid population||NPWS|
|1.3||Carry out hand removal of Briza spp. and other weeds in the vicinity of the existing population of Crimson Spider-orchid||Albury City|
|2.1||Carry out detailed survey of the physical and biological environment where the three species currently occur||NPWS|
|2.2||Carry out additional survey for populations of Crimson Spider-orchid||NPWS, DPI, Albury City|
|2.5||Design and implement a detailed monitoring program for all three Spider Orchid species||NPWS, Albury City|
|3.1||Hand cross-pollinate selected individuals of the Crimson Spider-orchid||Albury City|
|3.2||Implement and evaluate a program of carefully controlled in situ management techniques to promote recruitment of the Crimson Spider-orchid||Albury City|
|4.1||Complete and publish scientific descriptions of the two new species||Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research/NPWS|
|4.1||Nominate the two new species for listing under the TSC Act||NPWS|
|5.1||Collect a small percentage of seed from the Albury population for propagation||Albury City|
|5.2||Establish and grow Crimson Spider-orchids in cultivation||NPWS|
|6.1||Develop a habitat model for Crimson Spider-orchid||NPWS|
|6.2||Carry out genetic analyses of all individuals of the Crimson Spider-orchid at Albury and at Chiltern and Stanley in Victoria||CSIRO plant industry|
|6.3||Initiate a study of the effect of fire in promoting recruitment in the population of the Burrinjuck population||NPWS|
|7.1||Develop an appropriate arrangement for the long term conservation and management of Crimson Spider-orchid||NPWS, DPI, Albury City|
|8.1||Inform the local community about the value of Crimson Spider-orchid and its habitat||NPWS, DPI, Albury City|
Management documents for the Crimson Spider-orchid can be found at the start of this profile. Other documents relevant to the species include:
- DSE (2003) Action Statement 143- Crimson Spider-orchid Caladenia concolor. Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne.
- NSW DECCW (2005) Crimson Spider-orchid Caladenia concolor - profile. NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water.
- NSW NPWS (2003q) Draft Recovery Plan for the Crimson Spider-orchid (Caladenia concolor).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes, 1995) [Book].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock||National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].|
|Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting||The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes, 1995) [Book].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes, 1995) [Book].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development||The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes, 1995) [Book].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit)||The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||
The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes, 1995) [Book].
National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species||The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes, 1995) [Book].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals||National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].|
Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes (1995). The Orchids of Victoria. Carlton: Miegunyah Press, Melbourne University Press.
Briggs, J. (2011). Personal Communication. NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (DECCW).
Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard (2002). National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007. [Online]. Melbourne: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/25-orchids/index.html.
Department of Natural Resources and Environment (2000). NRE Threatened Flora IUCN Assessment Data Sheets.
Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) (2003). Action Statement 143- Crimson Spider-orchid Caladenia concolor. Melbourne: Department of Sustainability and Environment.
Environment Australia (EA) (1999c). Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits. [Online]. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/rabbits08.html.
Harden, G.J. (ed) (1993). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Four. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.
Jeanes, J. (2001). Personal communication.
Jones, D.L. (1988). Native Orchids of Australia. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Reed.
Jones, D.L., M.A. Clements, I.K. Sharma & A.M. McKenzie (2001). A new classification of Caladenia R.Br. (Orchidaceae). The Orchadian. 13(9):389-417.
NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (DECCW) (2005). Crimson Spider-orchid Caladenia concolor - profile. [Online]. Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10122. [Accessed: 27-Jan-2011].
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2003q). Draft Recovery Plan for the Crimson Spider-orchid (Caladenia concolor) (Including populations at Bethungra and Burrinjuck to be described as two new species). Hurstville: New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service.
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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Caladenia concolor in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 20 Apr 2014 06:06:16 +1000.