Species Profile and Threats Database

For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for Acacia porcata - 1999-2001 (Leverington, A., 2001) [Recovery Plan].
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
Scientific name Acacia porcata [55115]
Family Fabaceae:Fabales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author P.I.Forst.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Austrobaileya 3(2): 261 (1990).
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Acacia porcata is a shrub to 0.5 m with branches growing horizontally (Orchard & Wilson 2001a).

This species is restricted to a small area in the Mundubbera Shire in the Burnett district of south-eastern Qld. It occurs 46 km SSW of Gayndah and 45 km SE of Mundubbera with a range of 6 km² (Halford 1996a; Leverington 2001; Leverington et al. 2003; Orchard & Wilson 2001a).

In 1998, A. porcata was known from nine populations containing a total of 1172 plants over a range of 6 km within Beeron Holding. Individual populations contained between 18 and 605 plants (see Table. 1). By 2003, a tenth population had been located and the total number of plants had increased to 1500 (Leverington et al. 2003).

Table. 1 Summary of population sizes from Leverington (2001)

PopulationNumber of plants
(1998 survey)
Site 1118
Site 218
Site 372
Site 4143
Site 531
Site 6605
Site B43
Site C97
Site E50

The notes below were provided by Leverington (2001):
Site 1: This is the type locality. Most plants occur on a rocky platform of approximately 75 m². A large number of dead seedlings was located near the type specimen about 200 m down the ridge from the main population. Scattered plants have been located between the main population and the type specimen. The type specimen, collected in 1988, died in 1998.

Site 2: This site is approximately 500 m². It seems to have been burnt about the mid-1980s. Most of the 1993 population comprised young plants (30 individuals) of an even age that appeared to have germinated after the fire. All mature individuals were growing on a rock platform protected from fire. This site would appear to be highly susceptible to extinction.

Site 3: This site comprises a long ridge with three sites occurring within 700 m. Lower slope plants occurred on a rock slab protected from fire. In 1993, a single individual was located on a cattle path on the crest of a ridge in an open stand of Acacia grandifolia. The 1996 survey located three distinct populations, including three plants at the 1993 site, six plants on one crest and 51 plants in a third pocket. A large number of dead seedlings was also located off the crest of one of the ridges. The 1998 census recorded 72 plants, with only two seedlings.

Site 4: This site was located in 1996. Plants were found in three distinct pockets over 4.6 ha with most occurring within 1 ha. Again, most plants, particularly older plants, occurred on rock slabs protected from fire. Seedlings occurred close to the mature plants, often in small gullies, or where water flows.

Site 5: This site on the crest of a small ridge covers about 500 m². One mature plant protected from fire was located. Many other plants were dead or in very poor condition.This site appears to be highly susceptible to extinction.

Site 6: This site is very different from all others because it faces north and south-east, rather than west/north-west. Germination events were evident, with large numbers of plants surviving. In contrast with all other sites, many of the plants were located in a dense stand of Grevillea whitei. A. porcata also occurred in lower slope positions than in all other sites. Plants occur in an area of approximately 4 ha. As in the other sites, dense pockets of plants occur.

Site B: This site comprises a small area of rocky outcrop with plants protected from fire. Plants were of similar age, with small numbers of seedlings. The plants were scattered over approx. 1200 m².

Site C: Plants occur over 6250 m² on the crest of a ridge. A small number of very old, mature plants was located some distance from a large number of plants from same age germination. A number of dead seedlings was also evident. The old mature plants occur in fire-protected areas.

Site E: This is the most remote site, occurring on a rocky slab on the side of a ridge about 2 km from the next nearest site. Plants at this site were of similar age, although more dispersed than at many of the other sites. The plants occur over about 500 m². This site would also appear to be highly susceptible to extinction (Leverington 2001).

Acacia porcata seems most closely related to Acacia longipedunculata but differs in having a longitudinal ridge on the outside of the pod and lacks conspicuous ribs or thickenings on the calyx tube (Forster 1990a).

The species grows on exposed, rocky, granite ridges in shallow, sandy, well-drained, weakly acidic soils. The soils are also dark due to high organic content. The species grows on hills that range between 400 and 548 m asl. The climate is subtropical and subcoastal, with hot, moist summers and mild, dry winters (Halford 1996a; Leverington 2001).

Due to the extensive areas of rock outcrop, vegetation is variable in density and structure. It is predominantly open forest or open woodland with an open to sparse shrub layer (Halford 1996a; Leverington 2001). In the upper stratum Eucalyptus exserta, Corymbia petalophylla and Eucalyptus dura dominate with Acacia grandifolia, Allocasuarina inophloia and Callitris endlicheri occasionally present. The understorey is diverse in composition and structure. Much of the area is dominated by Triodia pungens (Leverington 2001).

Three other threatened plant species occurring in the same habitat as Acacia porcata are Newcastelia velutina, Acacia eremophiloides and Acacia grandifolia are all listed as Vulnerable under the EPBC Act 1999 (Leverington 2001).

The rough topography and the unsuitability of the vegetation on the steep slopes for forage have limited the amount of disturbance of the habitat due to domestic stock (Leverington 2001).

Flowers recorded from Aug. to late Sept.; fruit from Nov. and Dec. Seeds are released soon after maturing (Leverington 2001).

The species is self-compatible. Plants produce large amounts of viable seed annually (Leverington et al. 2003). Field observations indicated much seed remains under the parent plant (Leverington 2001). Forster (1990a) observed seeds were dispersed up to 3 m from the parent plant. The seeds have a small white aril that may promote secondary dispersal by ants. Some seed predation has been reported before it is dispersed. Seed is easily germinated by scarification of the seed coat or by placing the seed in boiling water (Leverington 2001).

This species is a perennial shrub that could survive at least 10 years in the wild. Fire has been observed to kill individuals with no regeneration from the root, stem or shoots (Leverington 2001). Germination of seed is stongly promoted by fire but seedling mortality may be high (Leverington et al. 2003).

Studies indicate that the levels of genetic diversity are high when compared with other species. The current data suggest that inbreeding might not be a threat to the population (Leverington 2001).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Recovery Plan for Acacia porcata - 1999-2001 (Leverington, A., 2001) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Recovery Plan for Acacia porcata - 1999-2001 (Leverington, A., 2001) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Conservation Statement and Draft Recovery Plan for Acacia porcata (Halford, D., 1996a) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Acacia porcata - 1999-2001 (Leverington, A., 2001) [Recovery Plan].
Protected status:Protected status:Lack of secure conservation land tenure Recovery Plan for Acacia porcata - 1999-2001 (Leverington, A., 2001) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Conservation Statement and Draft Recovery Plan for Acacia porcata (Halford, D., 1996a) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Acacia porcata - 1999-2001 (Leverington, A., 2001) [Recovery Plan].

Forster, P.I. (1990a). Acacia porcata (Mimosaceae), a new species from south-east Queensland. Austrobaileya. 3(2):261-264.

Halford, D. (1996a). Conservation Statement and Draft Recovery Plan for Acacia porcata.

Leverington, A. (2001). Recovery Plan for Acacia porcata - 1999-2001. [Online]. Qld Parks & Wildlife Service. Available from:

Leverington, A., R. Edgar & G. Gordon (2003). Multi-species recovery plan for Acacia eremophiloides, Acacia grandifolia, Acacia porcata, Bertya granitica and Newcastelia velutina 2003-2007. Page(s) 17. Qld Parks & Wildlife Service. Qld Environmental Protection Agency.

Orchard, A.E. & A.J.G. Wilson, eds. (2001a). Flora of Australia, Volume 11B, Mimosaceae, Acacia Part 2. In: Flora of Australia. Canberra, ACT: ABRS & CSIRO.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Acacia porcata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: Accessed Mon, 28 Jul 2014 22:36:35 +1000.