Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
Scientific name Graptophyllum reticulatum [55459]
Family Acanthaceae:Scrophulariales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author A.R.Bean & Sharpe
Infraspecies author  
Reference Austrobaileya 3(3) (1991) 550
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Graptophyllum reticulatum

Common name: Veiny Graptophyllum, Reticulated Holly

Veiny Graptophyllum is a slow-growing shrub of 1–2.5 m height and 1.5 m width (Lynch 2007). Leaves of the Veiny Graptophyllum are opposite and glabrous, 6–10 cm long, 3–4.5 cm wide, and darker above than below. The leaves are leathery, and have 5-8 pairs of pungent, 2 mm long teeth on the margins with a spine on the leaf-tip. Reticulation of leaf venation is raised in fresh and dried material. The corolla is white with mauve spots, 8–11 mm long. The Veiny Graptophyllum flowers between October and December. The species produces woody capsule fruit, but these have been rarely seen (Lynch 2007; Bean & Sharpe 1991).

The Veiny Graptophyllum is endemic to south-east Queensland, near Woombye and Buderim and has a range of 15 km² (Queensland Herbarium n.d).

The estimated total population is 800–1000 plants (Barry & Thomas 1994; W.J.F. McDonald 2001, pers. comm.) or 1500 plants (Shapcott 2002b).

The Veiny Graptophyllum is currently known to occur in three small populations (Queensland Herbarium n.d.; Shapcott 2002b). These are:

  • Buderim (700–1000 plants)
  • Triunia National Park near Woombye (approximately 400 plants)
  • Freehold land near Triunia National Park (approximately 100 plants.

The low total population size and small number of populations of the Veiny Graptophyllum make all populations of the species important to the survival of the species (Lynch 2007).

One population occurs in Triunia National Park.

Veiny Graptophyllum occurs in complex notophyll vine forest that occurs at altitudes of less than 600–700 m on the plateaux of the Beechmont, Springbrook, Mt. Tamborine and Maleny- Montville regions (Bean & Sharpe 1991; Lynch 2007; Queensland Herbarium n.d). The species occurs on creekbanks and hillsides on the upper slopes of olivine basalt caps, near the edge of escarpments (Lynch 2007). The basaltic soils are thin black loams usually high in organic matter (Queensland Herbarium n.d). Associated species include Syzygium francisii (Bean & Sharpe 1991).

Buderim
Part of this site has been disturbed. The Veiny Graptophyllum forms a clump at this site. The undisturbed area has a closed canopy dominated by Rusty Tulip Oak (Argyrodendron sp. Kin Kin), Acacia bakeri, Blush Coondoo (Planchonella queenslandica) and White Yiel Yiel or White Silky Oak (Grevillea hilliana). Three-leaved Bosistoa (Bosistoa transversa) forms a low tree layer and also dominates the tall shrub stratum, together with Hard Cryptocarya (Cryptocarya sclerophylla) and Red-fruited Laurel (C. laevigata). The climber Climbing Pandan (Freycinetia scandens) is abundant in the vicinity of a small watercourse. Other prominent climbers include Wait-a-while or Lawyer Vine (Calamus muelleri), Kangaroo or Water Vine (Cissus antartica), Corky Prickle-vine (Caesalpinia subtropica), Blood vine (Austrosteenisia blackii) and Zig-zag vine (Melodorum leichhardtii). There is a low shrub layer of Veiny Graptophyllum and Toothed Kamala (Mallotus megadontus) (Lynch 2007; W.J.F. McDonald 2001, pers. comm.).

Triunia National Park site
The dominant canopy species are Giant Water Gum (Syzygium francisii), Rusty Tulip Oak, Bangalow Palm (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana), Lancewood (Dissiliaria baloghioides), Rose Marara (Pseudoweinmannia lachnocarpa), White Booyong (Argyrodendron trifoliolatum), Moreton Bay Chestnut or Blackbean (Castanospermum australe) and Miva Mahogany (Dysoxylum mollissimum subsp. molle) (W.J.F. McDonald 2001, pers. comm.). Habitat management of Triunia National Park includes the maintenance of fencing to exclude cattle from the Park, weed control and fire suppression (Barry & Thomas 1994).

Reproductive capacity is presumed to be limited, due to the restricted extent of the populations, the low size of two of the populations, and the probable low level of recruitment. The populations are thought to be in decline. Though the habitat of the Veiny Graptophyllum is specialised and restricted in availability, the species does not fully occupy all available habitat (Lynch 2007).

The species is estimated to have a juvenile period of over two years and a lifespan of over 30 years (Lynch 2007).

The Veiny Graptophyllum regenerates mainly through resprouting. Seeds are presumed to have a short-lived viability, due to impacts such as insect activity, though some regeneration may occur from seeds. Seedling germination and establishment, as well as seed dispersal, may be dependent on irregular climatic triggers such as high rainfall events or seasons that may also assist in dispersal due to the Veiny Graptophyllum's creek or stream bank habitat preference.

Flowering of Veiny Graptophyllum occurs from August to December (Queensland Herbarium n.d). Aerial stems were seen to develop adventitious roots, suggesting the species relies to some extent on vegetative reproduction (Barry & Thomas 1994). The species has also been observed to regenerate vegetatively by suckering from rootstock following disturbance (W.J.F. McDonald 2001, pers. comm.). It is suspected that above ground growth is killed by fire (Barry & Thomas 1994).

Populations of Veiny Graptophyllum are threatened by urban development, weeds and the potential for fire and other disturbance. The low rate of recruitment is also a potential threat.

Urban Development
Urban development may increase the risks of hydrological changes, nutrient pollution and potential hybridisation between Veiny Graptophyllum and other Graptophyllum species planted in local gardens.

An additional threat associated with development in the Buderim region specifically and the Sunshine Coast in general is the risk of land slips, with over 70% of mapped landslips in the area occurring on Tertiary basalts, generally on lower bound slope angles of at least 15 degrees. The increase in vegetation clearing and cutting of benches into hillsides for dwelling construction increases the risk of land slippage.The Buderim population of the Veiny Graptophyllum is located on rocky, basalt substrates with slopes of up to 20 degrees, in areas designated as having high landslip potential (Lynch 2007).

Weeds
The following weed species threaten the Veiny Graptophyllum through competition for habitat resources: Ochna serrulata, Ageratina riparia, Senna pendula var. glabrata, Cinnamomum camphora, Solanum torvum, Coffea arabica, Lantana camara var. camara, Passiflora spp., and Asparagus plumosus (Barry & Thomas 1994; Lynch 2007; W.J.F. McDonald 2001, pers. comm.).

Fire
The Veiny Graptophyllum, as a rainforest dependent species, is susceptible to fire. The Buderim population has a high fire risk associated with its urban location and prior targeted disturbance of the plants.

Other Disturbance
Historically, cattle-grazing was a threat to one known population.

Fragmentation and disturbance of native ecosystems may have influenced insect and predator dynamics that may assist in explaining the decline in the reproductive capacity of the species.

Shapcott (2002b) found during a study of four Graptophyllum species that the Veiny Graptophyllum had the lowest genetic diversity of the group. Gene flow among populations was low, leading to the possibility that populations may diverge and lose allelic diversity due to "drift" (change in the frequency that a gene variant (allele) occurs in a population). Shapcott (2002b) found that the population in Buderim, with the largest number of individual plants, contained much higher genetic diversity than other better protected but smaller populations of the species.

The National Recovery Plan (Lynch 2007) for the Veiny Graptophyllum outlines specific objectives for the protection of the species. These objectives include:

  • Protection, restoration or maintenance of all known and newly located populations.
  • Determine the extent of the species distribution by confirming the species presence in areas of potential habitat.
  • Address the key threats to the Veiny Graptophyllum and any assessable potential threats.
  • Develop research programs that assist with the recovery and conservation of the Veiny Graptophyllum.
  • Promote community awareness and education in relation to the Veiny Graptophyllum, and facilitate community involvement in conservation of this species.

A National Recovery Plan (Lynch 2007) has been adopted for the Veiny Graptophyllum.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Graptophyllum reticulatum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006mg) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Graptophyllum reticulatum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006mg) [Internet].
Geological Events:Avalanches/Landslides:Habitat modification due to landslides Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ageratina riparia (Mistflower, Mist Flower, Creeping Croftonweed, River Eupatorium, Spreading Mistflower) Graptophyllum reticulatum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006mg) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Senna pendula var. glabrata (Climbing Cassia, Christmas Cassia) Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Solanum torvum (Devil's Fig) Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) Graptophyllum reticulatum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006mg) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ochna serrulata (Ochna, Mickey Mouse Bush, Mickey Mouse Plant, Birds Eye Bush) Graptophyllum reticulatum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006mg) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Passiflora suberosa (Corky Passion Flower, Corky Passionfruit, Small Passion Flower, Small Passionfruit) Graptophyllum reticulatum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006mg) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Cinnamomum camphora (Camphor Laurel, Camphor Tree, Gum Camphor, True Camphor, Japanese Camphor, Formosa Camphor, Shiu Leaf) Graptophyllum reticulatum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006mg) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Salvia splendens Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Asparagus plumosus (Climbing Asparagus-fern) Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Graptophyllum reticulatum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006mg) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by Glycine spp. Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by garden escapes Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses (suggest Reproductive Resilience?):Indirect Species Effects:Reduction of genetic intergrity of a species due to hybridisation Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum (Lynch, A.J.J., 2007) [Recovery Plan].

Barry, S.J. & G.T. Thomas (1994). Threatened Vascular Rainforest Plants of South-east Queensland: A Conservation Review. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.

Bean, A.R. & P.R. Sharpe (1991). Notes on Graptophyllum Nees (Acanthaceae) in Australia. Austrobaileya. 3:549-553.

Lynch, A.J.J. (2007). Recovery Plan for Graptophyllum reticulatum. [Online]. Report to Department of the Environment and Water Resources, Canberra.. Brisbane: Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/g-reticulatum.html.

McDonald, W.J.F. (2001). Personal Communication.

Queensland Herbarium (2008b). Unpublished data.

Shapcott, A. (2002b). Conservation genetics of Graptophyllum sp in SE Qld. Maroochydore: University of the Sunshine Coast.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Graptophyllum reticulatum in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 1 Aug 2014 18:27:03 +1000.