In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Plectranthus torrenticola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008sy) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Plectranthus torrenticola |
|Reference||Austrobaileya 3(4) (1992) 729.|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Plectranthus torrenticola
Conventionally accepted as Plectranthus torrenticola (CHAH 2011).
Plectranthus torrenticola is a slightly scented, multi-stemmed herb 30–50 cm in height. The leaves are opposite, narrowly oval-shaped, fleshy, silvery hairy, with 10–16 teeth on each margin. Inflorescences (flowerheads) are terminal spikes to 30 cm long, with clusters (verticillasters) of 10–12, light-purple, two-lipped flowers, 9.8–12.2 mm long (Forster 1992a; Qld DNR 2000; Queensland Herbarium 2008).
Plectranthus torrenticola is known from eight locations in the Sunshine Coast hinterland of south-east Queensland, from the Blackall Range (south of Nambour) to Kin Kin (between Gympie and Noosa). Five of these locations are in national parks and forest reserves and three occur outside of conservation reserve (Queensland Herbarium 2008). The distribution has a range of approximately 60 km and encompasses an extent of occurrence of approximately 500 km².
Plectranthus torrenticola locations include:
- Mapleton Falls National Park (NP) (Briggs & Leigh 1995)
- north of Kondalilla NP (Halford 1998)
- State Forest 918 (Halford 1998) (since converted to a forest reserve)
- State Forest 1239 (Halford 1998) (since converted to a forest reserve)
- Dunethin Rock, near Bli Bli (Halford 1998).
There is no information on the abundance of Plectranthus torrenticola, although one source suggested that the species is "not common" at known sites (Qld DNR 2000).
This species is conserved in Kondilla NP and Mapleton Falls NP (Briggs & Leigh 1995). The locations in state forest have been converted to forest reserves (Queensland Herbarium 2008).
Plectranthus torrenticola grows in open heathland on rock outcrops, or in dappled shade under eucalypt open forest close to margins of rainforest and often along creek lines, at altitudes of 250–450 m (Forster 1992a; Halford 1998). The species occurs on shallow soils and often, but not exclusively, near water (Forster 1992a; Halford 1998).
In dry sclerophyll forest communities adjacent to Plectranthus torrenticola stands, the common dominant trees are Blackbutt (Eucalyptus pilularis), Flooded Gum (E. grandis), Grey Gum (E. propinqua) and Brush Box (Lophostemon confertus). Other associated species include Cockspur Flower (Plectranthus parviflorus), P. graveolens, Small-leaved Bleeding Heart (Omalanthus stillingifolius), Spiny-headed Mat-rush (Lomandra longifolia), Peperomia leptostachya, Rock Felt Fern (Pyrrosia rupestris), Basket Fern (Drymaria rigidulai), Logania spp., Dodonaea spp., Schoenus spp. and Westringia spp. (Forster 1992a; Halford 1998; Qld DNR 2000).
Plectranthus torrenticola flowering occurs in February–April and is believed to be fire-sensitive. Like many Plectranthus species, P. torrenticola produces roots from branch nodes where the branches come in contact with the soil surface. Pollinators are suggested to be bees and flies, as these are the most common pollinators for other Plectranthus species (Halford 1998).
Plectranthus torrenticola is distinguished from the closely related P. argentatus, P. graniticola and P. omissus by the complete absence of sessile (not stalked) glands and the larger, hairless flowers (Forster 1992a; Qld DNR 2000; Queensland Herbarium 2008). Characters distinguishing Plectranthus torrenticola from P. argentatus and P. omissus are presented below (Halford 1998):
|Character||P. torrenticola||P. argentatus||P. omissus|
|4-celled sessile glands||absent||present||present|
|corolla tube angle||30°||0°–10°||110°–130°|
|trichomes on corolla
|corolla upper lobe size
(length x width mm)
|1.7–2.1 x 1.9–2.2||1.4–1.5 x 1.5–1.7||2.4–2.5 x 2.4–2.5|
|corolla lower lobe size
(length x width mm)
|4.6–5.6 x 2.7–4.5||4–4.2 x 4–4.2||4.4–4.5 x 3–3.2|
A number of threats affecting Plectranthus torrenticola have been identified, including:
- weed invasion by Crofton Weed (Ageratina adenophora) and Mistflower (Ageratina riparia), which compete for habitat at one site within a national park (Forster 2008 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008sy)
- habitat degradation (trampling) caused by unregulated visitation at Kondalilla NP (ANRA 2009; Forster 1992a; Halford 1998)
- broad-scale clearing (ANRA 2009)
- inappropriate fire regimes (ANRA 2009; Qld DNR 2000)
- degradation caused by feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) (ANRA 2009; Qld DNR 2000)
- grazing pressure (ANRA 2009; Qld DNR 2000)
- restricted distribution (ANRA 2009)
- inappropriate timber harvesting (ANRA 2009; Qld DNR 2000), although the harvesting and clearing of rainforest for timber has ceased (Qld DNR 2000).
One of the three populations occurring outside of conservation reserves is in an area of remnant vegetation as defined under the Queensland Vegetation Management Act 1999 and is currently protected from broad-scale clearing (TSSC 2008sy). Of the other two sites, one is in an area proposed for urban development and the other is subject to high unregulated visitation (Forster 1992a; Queensland Herbarium 2008).
Refer to the Commonwealth Conservation Advice (TSSC 2010sy) for information on research priorities and recovery priority actions to mitigate threats including habitat loss, disturbance and modification, and weeds. Raising awareness of the species and enabling recovery of additional populations are also encouraged in the Advice.
Due to the inadequate conservation of populations, it has been suggested that further protection is needed for the species long term survival and the maintenance of its genetic diversity (Qld DNR 2000).
Management documentation relevant to Plectranthus torrenticola includes:
- Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Plectranthus torrenticola (TSSC 2008sy).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Plectranthus torrenticola in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006rn) [Internet].|
|Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting||Plectranthus torrenticola in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006rn) [Internet].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Plectranthus torrenticola in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006rn) [Internet].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Ageratina riparia (Mistflower, Mist Flower, Creeping Croftonweed, River Eupatorium, Spreading Mistflower)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Plectranthus torrenticola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008sy) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Ageratina adenophora (Crofton Weed, Catweed, Hemp Agrimony, Mexican Devil, Sticky Agrimony, Sticky Eupatorium)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Plectranthus torrenticola (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008sy) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Sus scrofa (Pig)|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
Australian Natural Resources Atlas (ANRA) (2009). Biodiversity Assessment - Species at risk and their Recovery Process. [Online]. Available from: http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/vegetation/assessment/index.html. [Accessed: 24-Apr-2010].
Briggs, J.D. & Leigh, J.H. (1995). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants. Revised edition. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Forster, P.I. (1992a). Five New Species of Plectranthus L. Herit (Lamiaceae) from Queensland. Austrobaileya. 3(4):729-740.
Halford, D. (1998). Survey of Threatened Plant Species in South-East Queensland Biographical Region. [Online]. Brisbane: Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee. Available from: http://www.daff.gov.au/rfa/regions/qld/environment/threatened-plant.
Queensland Department of Natural Resources (Qld DNR) (2000). Species Management Manual. Forest and Fauna Conservation and Ecology Section, Queensland Department of Natural Resouces.
Queensland Herbarium (2008). Specimen label information. Viewed 26 June 2008.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008sy). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Plectranthus torrenticola. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/55728-conservation-advice.pdf.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Plectranthus torrenticola in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 7 Mar 2014 14:52:31 +1100.