Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
QLD:Survey of Threatened Plant Species in South-East Queensland Biographical Region (Halford, D., 1998) [Report].
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Vulnerable (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Cycas megacarpa [55794]
Family Cycadaceae:Cycadales:Cycadatae:Cycadophyta:Plantae
Species author K.Hill
Infraspecies author  
Reference Telopea 5(1) (1992) 188.
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Cycas megacarpa

Cultivation: Some specimens have been misidentified and/or cultivated under the name Cycas kennedyana, a name which correctly belongs to Cycas media (Hill 1992; Hill & Osbourne 2001; Whitelock 2002). Species in cultivation from the Mount Morgan area, Queensland, may be sold under the name Cycas sp. "Mount Morgan" (Jones 2002).

History: Cycads are ancient plants which have fossil records dating back to the early Permian period (Hill 1998a). The Cycads in Australia were previously grouped into just one species, Cycas media (Hill 1992, 1996). Hill (1992, 1996) undertook a major taxonomic revision of the genus Cycas across Australia, including Queensland, whilst working on the Flora of Australia project. Hill (1992) described Cycas megacarpa as a distinct species from material collected near Miriam Vale in the Port Curtis District of Queensland.

Forster (2007) raises the issue that based on current knowledge Cycas megacarpa does not fit criteria for endangered listing. Foster (2007) suggests that Cycas megacarpa could be "classified as 'Vulnerable' based on the following IUCN categories; VU A2+4; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) + 2a(i,ii,iii,iv,v)".

Cycas megacarpa is a small to medium sized Cycad with an erect trunk standing around 3 m tall and approximately 15 cm wide (Hill 1992; Jones 2002). The leaves are 70–110 cm long and with 120–170 leaflets (Hill 1992; Jones 2002; Queensland Herbarium 2007). Young leaves are light green and densely covered in brown hairs while mature leaves are a glossy mid to dark green (Jones 2002). Mature leaves are shallowly keeled when viewed in cross section (Hill 1992; Jones 2002). All Cycads are unisexual with the female cones of Cycas megacarpa 15 cm wide and hairy and the male cones ovoid (egg-shaped), 18 cm long, 7 cm in diameter and coloured yellow to orange brown (Hill 1998a; Hill & Osbourne 2001; Jones 2002). The seeds are ovoid 38–50 mm long and 35–45 mm in diameter and are green in colour turning yellow (Hill 1992; Hill & Osbourne 2001; Jones 2002).

Cycad species contain many toxic compounds including the glucosides cycasin and macrozamin as well as neurotoxic non-protein amino acids (Schneider et al. 2002; Whitelock 2002). Schneider and colleagues (2002) indicate that these compounds are possibly linked to mutualistic pollination and used as a chemical defense against herbivory. Cycad seed have been used to make a type of flour by Indigenous Australians after undergoing a leaching process to remove the toxins (Beck 1993; Hill 1998a).

Cycas megacarpa is visually similar to Cycas media but Cycas megacarpa can be distinguished by the larger seeds, smaller leaves, as well as possessing a more slender trunk (Hill 1996, 1998a; Hill & Osbourne 2001).

Cycas megacarpa is endemic to south-east Queensland. It is found from as far south as Woolooga to Bouldercombe in the north (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Illegal collection of Cycad species is a major threat and, therefore, detailed distribution information is not available.

The extent of occurrence for Cycas megacarpa is 18 726 km². This has been calculated from detailed distribution information collected during the creation of the National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the Cycads (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

The area of occupancy for Cycas megacarpa is 46 km² (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

The Queensland Herbarium (2007) has identified 46 populations of Cycas megacarpa.

Cycas megacarpa is known to have been cultivated for horticultural use and is generally propagated from seed (Hill & Osbourne 2001; Jones 2002). Forster (2007) indicates that Cycas megacarpa translocation from threatened habitats could be beneficial for conservation when re-established into natural habitats to create new populations or augment existing populations. Forster (2007) adds, however, that "given the apparent mutualism between Cycads and pollinating insects, it could be stated that any sort of ex situ (e.g. botanic gardens, private collections) conservation is relatively worthless apart from providing a source of material for horticulture".

Many populations of Cycas megacarpa are very small and greatly fragmented, with only a handful of adult plants (Forster 2007). Cycad species are known to have little genetic flow between fragmented populations and Cycads are not known to disperse far from the parent plant (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Forster (2007) highlights that the low levels of dispersal, recruitment, specialised pollination mechanisms and slow seedling growth create restricted occurrences of Cycads.

Survey work was undertaken for the National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the Cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium 2007). The Recovery Plan identifies the need for additional surveys in the Bouldercombe-Mt Morgan and Dee Range areas to ensure all populations are accounted for and to achieve the recovery plan objectives (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Burnett Water (2001) conducted vegetation surveys as part of the Environmental Impact Statement procedure for the Walla Weir wall raising. Burnett Water (2001) did not find any Cycas megacarpa and, additionally, the habitat which Cycas megacarpa prefers was not located within the survey area.

The Queensland Herbarium (2007) projects the total number of adult Cycas megacarpa to be greater than 372 964 individuals and has identified 46 populations. Connell Hatch (2009) surveyed 200–400 individuals in an area south of Mount Larcom.

Population information for Cycas megacarpa (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Population id. number Tenure Projected occupancy of population (ha) Projected No. plants in population (* = actual number) No plants per ha No. plants in 50 x 50 metres Seedlings present/absent in 50 x 50 metre plot
1 Grazing Homestead Perpetual Lease n/a scattered 10 n/a n/a
2 not available c. 100 thousands n/a n/a n/a
3 Freehold Title >850 159 800 188 47 +
4 Grazing Homestead Perpetual Lease n/a hundreds n/a n/a n/a
5 Freehold Title & Road Reserve c. 100 5600 56 14 +
6 Road Reserve 20 28* 1.4 n/a +
7 State Forest Reserve 1 5* 5 5 -
8 State Forest Reserve 800 115 200 144 36 +
9 Grazing Homestead Perpetual Lease n/a 49* 196 49 +
10 Vacant Crown Land n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
11 Freehold Title & Road Reserve 5 19* 3.8 19 -
12 Freehold Title & Road Reserve 5 4* 1.3 4 -
13 Freehold Title n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
14 Freehold Title & Road Reserve >200 14 400 72 18 +
15 Freehold Title & Road Reserve c. 50 35* 8 2 +
16 National Park n/a < 10 n/a n/a n/a
17 Freehold Title & Road Reserve 100 33* 3 n/a +
18 Road Reserve 0.1 1* 1 1 -
19 State Forest Reserve c. 250 76 750 307 77 +
20 Freehold Title 3 119* 39.7 n/a +
21 State Forest Reserve 2 c. 30 15 n/a +
22 State Forest Reserve 1.1 90* 81.8 n/a -
23 Freehold Title 4 65* 16.25 n/a + (1)
24 Freehold Title 4 12* 3 n/a -
25 Not avaliable (FR - unknown code) 2 54* 27 n/a -
26 State Forest Reserve n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
27 Freehold Title c. 150 c. 300 2 n/a n/a
28 State Forest Reserve n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
29 State Forest Reserve n/a < 50 n/a n/a n/a
30 State Forest Reserve c. 20 thousands n/a n/a n/a
31 Freehold Title & Road Reserve 1 7* 7 7 -
32 Freehold Title 0.25 1* 1 1 -
33 Freehold Title n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
34 Freehold Title 1 c. 20 n/a n/a n/a
35 Vacant Crown Land 0.25 3* 1 3 -
36 National Park 1 14 14 14 -
37 National Park 1 c. 150* 150 25 +
38 Road Reserve 0.1 3 3 3 -
39 State Forest Reserve n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
40 Freehold Title 0.1 1 (male) 1 1 -
41 State Forest Reserve 0.0001 1 1 1 -
42 State Forest Reserve 1 <10 10 <10 -
43 National Park 1 <20 20 <20 +
44 Freehold Title 1 <20 20 <20 n/a
45 Freehold Title 1 <20 20 <20 n/a
46 State Forest Reserve 1 <40 40 <40 n/a


The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List indicates Cycas megacarpa populations are in decline (Hill 2003).

Historical records suggest that populations of Cycas megacarpa were previously much larger (Queensland Herbarium 2007; Whitelock 2002). Forster (2007) states that the decline of Cycas megacarpa is not a recent phenomenon but has been accelerated through human induced destruction of habitat and selective poisoning. Both the Queensland Herbarium (2007) and Forster (2007) propose a minimum viable population size of 3500–4500 individuals for Cycas megacarpa.

Of the 46 known populations of Cycas megacarpa only seven of these can be considered viable in the long term (Forster 2007; Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Population structure is determined by the height of individuals. Large adults are those between 5–8 m tall; reproductive aged plants are >1 m tall and juveniles <50 cm in height (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Reproductive aged plants are only thought to be >1 m tall, as plants <1 m tall have not yet been observed to reproduce (Forster 2007).

Following surveys of a large and a small Cycas megacarpa population the Queensland Herbarium (2007) discovered that:

  • 80% were juveniles and 14% were of reproductive age within the large population
  • 40% were juveniles and 11% were of reproductive age within the small population.

In the small population it was determined that there was no longer steady replacement recruitment occurring (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Cycas megacarpa experience a delayed fertilisation of the seed, unique to Cycads, which means seeds will not be ready to germinate for at least nine months after they drop from the parent plant (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

The Queensland Herbarium (2007) and Forster (2007) indicate there are seven populations with more than 3500 individuals that can be classified as viable in the long term and therefore necessary for the species long term survival. Population eight (Biloela), population 19 (Kroombit) and population 30 (Wonbah) are especially significant as they have a large number of individuals that cover a natural range of size classes and are conserved within State Forests (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Also considered important is Population Two (Bouldercombe) which occurs on a recreational reserve, Population Three (Mt Morgan), Population Five (Dee Range) and Population 14 (Biloela), all of which occur on freehold land (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

The Queensland Herbarium (2007) stresses that while small populations are not viable in the long term, they are worth conserving or translocating to conserve genetic variation. Forster (2007) indicates that the current lack of knowledge about the genetics of Cycas megacarpa could be 'hiding' the degree of genetic loss occurring and/or the inadequate genetic conservation. The National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the Cycads lists loss of genetic variation as one of the threats to Cycas megacarpa (Queensland Herbarium 2007).


Populations of Cycas megacarpa in the Mount Morgan area were believed to hybridise with Cycas ophiolitica, producing larger seeds than the more southerly occurring plants (Hill 1992, 1996, 1998a; Hill & Osbourne 2001). However, according to the Queensland Herbarium (2007), the two species are not currently believed to overlap and the relationship between Cycas megacarpa and Cycas ophiolitica is now unknown. Queensland Herbarium (2007) considers that systematic and genetic studies are needed to accurately establish species boundaries and that the genetic continuity within and between populations of Cycas ophiolitica also needs additional research.

Hybridism within the Cycas genus is linked to weak fertility barriers and the lack of pollinator specificity (Hill 1992, 1996). The result of this is a high rate of natural hybridisation that is naturally limited through distance and distinct geographical features or barriers, therefore hybridisation generally occurs only where species distributions overlap (Hill 1992; Hill 1996).

The Queensland Herbarium (2007) identified 20 populations which existed in reserve situations, these included four populations within National Parks, 12 populations within State Forests, three populations in Roadside Reserves and one population within a Forest Reserve. The Queensland Government Environment Protection Agency (QLD EPA 2008) places these populations within three different National Parks and 12 Forest Reserves. Populations within the reserve system are still at risk of being illegally removed; a 7 m high individual was removed from a National Park in 2003 (Forster 2007).

The Queensland Government Environmental Protection Authority has published an over-arching master plan for Queensland's park system (QLD EPA 2001). This document provides a guide for the direction as well as strategies for managing the wide variety of parks within Queensland (QLD EPA 2001).

Cycas megacarpa is found in woodland, open woodland and open forests, often in conjunction with a grassy understory (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998; Jones 2002; Queensland Herbarium 2007). This species is found in habitat dominated by Eucalyptus crebra and Corymbia citriodora as well as Corymbia erythrophloia, Eucalyptus melanophloia and Lophostemon confertus (Queensland Herbarium 2007). There are also reports that it can be found in or on the edge of rainforest habitat (Hill 1998a; Jones 2002; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998).

Periodic fires of different intensities are a natural part of the habitat of Cycas megacarpa. Mature plants can survive most fires, however, fire is likely to kill small seedlings and juveniles (Queensland Herbarium 2007).
This species often grows on undulating to hilly terrain at an altitude of 40–680 m. The soil is typically a well draining rocky or shallow clay, clay/loam, derived from acid volcanic, ironstone or mudstone (Hill 1998a; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998; Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Cycas megacarpa populations with corresponding Queensland Vegetation Management Act (December 2005) habitat type codes, descriptions, status and percentages of the population within each habitat type (QLD EPA 2004; Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Population Id. Number Regional ecosystems with code and short description Vegetation Management Act (December 2005) status % of regional ecosystem
1 11.3.25 - Eucalyptus tereticornis or E. camaldulensis woodland fringing drainage lines; 11.3.4 - Eucalyptus tereticornis and/or Eucalyptus spp. tall woodland on alluvial plains; 11.3.1 - Acacia harpophylla and/or Casuarina cristata open forest on alluvial plains. not of concern; of concern; endangered. 72/20/5
2 11.12.1 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on igneous rocks; 11.3.4 - Eucalyptus tereticornis and/or Eucalyptus spp. tall woodland on alluvial plains. not of concern; of concern. 80/20
3 11.11.3 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra, E. acmenoides open forest on old sedimentary rocks with varying degrees of metamorphism and folding. Coastal ranges; 11.11.15 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on deformed and metamorphosed sediments and interbedded volcanics. Undulating plains. not of concern; not of concern. 90/10
4 11.11.3 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra, E. acmenoides open forest on old sedimentary rocks with varying degrees of metamorphism and folding. Coastal ranges; 11.11.15 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on deformed and metamorphosed sediments and interbedded volcanics. Undulating plains. not of concern; not of concern. 90/10
5 11.11.3 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra, E. acmenoides open forest on old sedimentary rocks with varying degrees of metamorphism and folding. Coastal ranges; 11.11.15 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on deformed and metamorphosed sediments and interbedded volcanics. Undulating plains. not of concern; not of concern. 90/10
6 non-remnant   100
7 11.3.26 - Eucalyptus moluccana or E. microcarpa woodland to open forest on margins of alluvial plains; 11.3.25 - Eucalyptus tereticornis or E. camaldulensis woodland fringing drainage lines; 11.11.3 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra, E. acmenoides open forest on old sedimentary rocks with varying degrees of metamorphism and folding. Coastal ranges. not of concern; not of concern; not of concern. 50/35/15
8 11.12.1 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on igneous rocks; 11.12.6 - Corymbia citriodora open forest on igneous rocks (granite). not of concern; not of concern. 90/10
9 11.12.1 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on igneous rocks; 11.12.6 - Corymbia citriodora open forest on igneous rocks (granite). not of concern; not of concern. 90/10
10 12.1.3 - Mangrove shrubland to low closed forest on marine clay plains and estuaries. not of concern. 100
11 11.12.6 - Corymbia citriodora open forest on igneous rocks (granite); 11.12.1 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on igneous rocks. not of concern; not of concern. 60/40
12 11.12.6 - Corymbia citriodora open forest on igneous rocks (granite); 11.12.1 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on igneous rocks. not of concern; not of concern. 60/40
13 12.12.12 - Eucalyptus tereticornis, E. crebra or E. siderophloia, Lophostemon suaveolens open forest on granite; 12.12.28 - Eucalyptus moluccana open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks. of concern; of concern. 95/5
14 11.11.15 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on deformed and metamorphosed sediments and interbedded volcanics. Undulating plains; 11.11.4 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on old sedimentary rocks with varying degrees of metamorphism and folding. Coastal ranges. not of concern; not of concern. 95/5
15 11.11.15 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on deformed and metamorphosed sediments and interbedded volcanics. Undulating plains; 11.11.4 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on old sedimentary rocks with varying degrees of metamorphism and folding. Coastal ranges. not of concern; not of concern. 95/5
16 12.12.11 - Eucalyptus portuensis or E. acmenoides, Corymbia trachyphloia open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.5.5 - Eucalyptus portuensis, Corymbia intermedia woodland on remnant Tertiary surfaces. Usually deep red soils. not of concern; of concern. 90/10
17 12.5.5 - Eucalyptus portuensis, Corymbia intermedia woodland on remnant Tertiary surfaces. Usually deep red soils; 12.12.7 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.12.8 - Eucalyptus melanophloia woodland on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks. of concern; not of concern; of concern. 80/15/5
18 non-remnant   100
19 12.11.6 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.11.7 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.11.8 - Eucalyptus melanophloia, E. crebra woodland on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics. not of concern; not of concern; of concern. 80/15/5
20 12.11.6 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.12.5 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.3.3 - Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland to open forest on alluvial plains. not of concern; not of concern; endangered. 45/45/10
21 12.12.5 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.12.4 - Eucalyptus acmenoides ± Syncarpia glomulifera tall open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks, especially granite; 12.3.7 - Eucalyptus tereticornis, Melaleuca viminalis, Casuarina cunninghamiana fringing forest. not of concern; of concern; not of concern. 85/10/5
22 12.11.6 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.12.5 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.11.8 - Eucalyptus melanophloia, E. crebra woodland on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics. not of concern; not of concern; of concern. 60/35/5
23 non-remnant   100
24 12.12.5 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.12.7 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks. not of concern; not of concern. 90/10
25 12.12.5 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.12.4 - Eucalyptus acmenoides ± Syncarpia glomulifera tall open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks, especially granite; 12.3.7 - Eucalyptus tereticornis, Melaleuca viminalis, Casuarina cunninghamiana fringing forest. not of concern; of concern; not of concern. 85/10/5
26 non-remnant   100
27 12.11.6 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.11.8 - Eucalyptus melanophloia, E. crebra woodland on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics. not of concern; of concern. 65/35
28 12.11.6 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.11.17 - Eucalyptus acmenoides or E. portuensis open forest on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.3.3 - Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland to open forest on alluvial plains. not of concern; of concern; endangered. 50/40/10
29 12.11.6 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.11.5 - Open forest complex with Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus siderophloia, E. major on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.11.9 - Eucalyptus tereticornis open forest on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics. Usually higher altitudes. not of concern; not of concern; of concern. 60/20/20
30 12.12.16 - Notophyll vine forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks. not of concern 100
31 12.12.3 - Open forest complex with Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus siderophloia or E. crebra or E. decolor, E. major and/or E. longirostrata, E. acmenoides or E. portuensis on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.3.15 - Corymbia intermedia, Syncarpia glomulifera open forest on granite outwash; 12.3.7 - Eucalyptus tereticornis, Melaleuca viminalis, Casuarina cunninghamiana fringing forest. not of concern; of concern; not of concern. 45/45/10
32 non-remnant   100
33 12.11.6 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.11.5 - Open forest complex with Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus siderophloia, E. major on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.12.5 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.12.3 - Open forest complex with Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus siderophloia or E. crebra or E. decolor, E. major and/or E. longirostrata, E. acmenoides or E. portuensis on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks. not of concern; not of concern; not of concern; not of concern 40/35/15/10
34 12.12.5 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.12.4 - Eucalyptus acmenoides ± Syncarpia glomulifera tall open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks, especially granite; 12.12.13 - Araucarian complex microphyll to notophyll vine forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks. not of concern; of concern; not of concern. 45/40/15
35 12.12.5 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks. not of concern. 100
36 12.11.6 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.11.7 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.11.12 - Araucarian complex microphyll vine forest on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; usually northern half of bioregion. not of concern; not of concern; of concern. 35/35/30
37 12.11.7 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics not of concern 100
38 non-remnant   100
39 12.12.4 - Eucalyptus acmenoides ± Syncarpia glomulifera tall open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks, especially granite. of concern. 100
40 non-remnant   100
41 12.9-10.2 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on sedimentary rocks; 12.3.11 - Eucalyptus siderophloia, E. tereticornis, Corymbia intermedia open forest on alluvial plains usually near coast. not of concern; of concern. 90/10
42 12.12.5 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.11.7 - Eucalyptus crebra woodland on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.11.12 - Araucarian complex microphyll vine forest on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; usually northern half of bioregion. not of concern; not of concern; of concern. 55/30/15
43 12.12.9 - Shrubby woodland with Eucalyptus dura usually on rocky peaks on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.12.10 - Shrubland of rocky peaks on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.12.11 - Eucalyptus portuensis or E. acmenoides, Corymbia trachyphloia open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.12.5 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks. of concern; of concern; not of concern; not of concern. 35/25/20/20
44 12.11.6 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.11.14 - Eucalyptus crebra, E. tereticornis woodland on metamorphics ± interbedded volcanics; 12.3.11 - Eucalyptus siderophloia, E. tereticornis, Corymbia intermedia open forest on alluvial plains usually near coast. not of concern; of concern; of concern. 70/20/10
45 12.12.23 - Eucalyptus tereticornis ± E. eugenioides woodland on crests, upper slopes and elevated valleys on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.12.5 - Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus crebra open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.12.11 - Eucalyptus portuensis or E. acmenoides, Corymbia trachyphloia open forest on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks; 12.12.8 - Eucalyptus melanophloia woodland on Mesozoic to Proterozoic igneous rocks. not of concern; not of concern; not of concern; of concern. 40/30/15/15
46 non-remnant   100

Cycas megacarpa is not known to be part of any threatened ecological community listed under the EPBC Act.

Endangered habitat types, under the Queensland Vegetation Management Act (December 2005), that Cycas megacarpa occurs in includes Acacia harpophylla and/or Casuarina cristata open forest on alluvial plains; Acacia harpophylla open forest on deformed and metamorphosed sediments and interbedded volcanics; and Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland to open forest on alluvial plains (QLD EPA 2004).

The exact age range of Cycas megacarpa is currently not known (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Cycads in general are considered to be long lived plants with Australian Macrozamia species ranging from 60 to 1530 years (Benson & McDougall 1993; Pate 1993).
Cycads are unisexual with male pollen cones or female seed cones (Jones 2002). Female cones use a lot of the plant resources as the seeds develop (Jones 2002). The seeds of Cycas megacarpa become ripe from March onwards and will not be ready to germinate for nine months due to delayed fertilisation (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Very little information is known about pollination in Cycad species (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998; Queensland Herbarium 2007). Previously it was believed that Cycads were pollinated via the wind, which may, in part, still take place (Forster et al. 1994; Schneider et al. 2002; Queensland Herbarium 2007). Insects may also be involved, including Coleoptera beetles, thrips and/or Trigona carbonaria, an ancient bee species observed collecting pollen from Cycas media (Forster et al. 1994; Ornduff 1991; Queensland Herbarium 2007; Schneider et al. 2002). Forster and colleagues (1994) found Hapalips sp. (beetle), an unidentifiable Cossoninae (weevil) and Ulomoides australis (beetle) on Cycas megacarpa. Cycad species also form symbiotic relationships with cyanobacteria and mycorrhiza (Forster 2004b).

Seeds generally do not disperse far from the parent plant. A limited amount of dispersal may be carried out by mammals, rodents and fruit bats. The seeds are, however, toxic and relatively large (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Forster (2007) suggests the apparent lack of dispersal may be linked to the geologically recent extinction of the Australian megafauna as well as the toxicity of the seeds.

Fire is a natural component of habitats in which Cycas megacarpa is found (Forster 2007; Queensland Herbarium 2007). These fires vary greatly in intensity and frequency and most adult Cycas megacarpa individuals can survive fire, suffering only with varying degrees of foliage loss and stem scarring (Forster 2007; Queensland Herbarium 2007). Fire is likely to kill seeds on the plant as well as seedlings or dispersed seed (Forster 2007; Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Cycas megacarpa may be distinguished from other Cycad species in Australia by its large glaucous seeds as well as its green leaves with moderate broad leaflets (Hill & Osbourne 2001).

The National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the Cycads (Queensland Herbarium 2007) lists nine key threats to Cycas megacarpa including; destruction due to land clearing; legal harvesting and commercial harvesting; illegal harvesting of the whole plant; illegal harvesting of seed; loss of genetic variation; loss of insect pollinators; and land management practices including fire, timber harvesting and drought. Queensland Herbarium (2007) identified that Populations 6, 18, 38, 23, 32 and 40 are under threat as they are in non remnant vegetation and are not protected in other ways.

Destruction due to land clearing
Populations of Cycas megacarpa were historically much larger (Queensland Herbarium 2007). While many populations are now located in National Parks or State Forests there is a substantial risk to populations that are not surveyed, in land already cleared or in areas considered to be a non-remnant (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Selective destruction of Cycads was promoted by the Queensland Government up until the late 1960s (Forster 2004a, 2004b). This was due to the toxic effects of cycad leaves on stock, especially young or sick animals that would develop a condition called Zamia stagger (Forster 2004a, 2004b; Kelly 1967; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1998). It was suggested to farmers that they kill plants before dry weather to prevent stock grazing on cycads during lean times (Kelly 1967). Populations believed to be at risk from direct land clearing occur in non-remnant vegetation and areas that are not protected by other measures (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Legal harvesting and commercial salvage
Wild harvesting of whole plants was phased out in December 2005 (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Historically, Cycads have been harvested both in Australia and overseas with a mill opening in NSW in 1921 to extract starch from the stems, but this eventually closed due to technical difficulties (Whitelock 2002). While all populations are considered to be at risk from legal harvesting there is potential for wild harvesting and salvage when large approved developments take place (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Illegal harvesting of whole plants
Cycads are collected by enthusiasts from all over the world (Forster 2004b; Jones 2002; Queensland Herbarium 2007). All populations are at risk from illegal harvesting of whole plants but poaching is especially prevalent in southern Queensland (Forster 2007; Queensland Herbarium 2007). An example of illegal harvesting occurred in 2003 when a 7 m high individual was removed from a National Park (Forster 2007).

Illegal harvesting of seed
Legal seed harvesting for horticultural use has been carried out in the past however there is no reliable data on amounts and subsequent impacts of seed removal in the short or long term (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Cycas megacarpa is not one of the 'blue Cycads of desire' but fertile seed can still fetch between 50 cents to $2.50 USD (Forster 2007). It is now illegal to harvest seed from cycad populations without a permit. All populations are at risk from illegal harvesting of seed (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Loss of genetic variation
The knowledge of Cycad genetics is minimal (Forster 2007; Queensland Herbarium 2007). Cycas megacarpa covers a wide distribution range with small disjunct populations and the potential for gene flow between populations is considered to be small (Forster 2004b; Queensland Herbarium 2007). Forster (2004b, 2007) raises concerns that the limited dispersal of seeds, and genetic information, between populations will result in a cycle of inbreeding leading to an accumulation of deleterious genes. All populations, but especially small or fragmented population of <500 individuals, are at risk from the loss of genetic diversity (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Loss of insect pollinators
Another threat to the reproductive potential of Cycas megacarpa is the loss of insect pollinators (Hyslop & Haskard 2005; Queensland Herbarium 2007). While there is little known about the exact pollination method for Cycas megacarpa there is a growing awareness of the potential role that insects may play (Forster 2004b; Forster et al. 1994; Queensland Herbarium 2007). There is the potential for species extinction through disruption of mutualistic relationship between insects and Cycas megacarpa (Forster 2004b; Forster et al. 1994; Queensland Herbarium 2007). Bond (1994) indicates that pathways to extinction due to the loss of a mutualistic partner is not simple. Questions that need to be considered include the probability of the mutualism failing, what is the degree of reproductive dependence, and how important are seeds to the demography of the plant (Bond 1994). All populations, but especially small or fragmented population of <500 individuals, are at risk from the loss of insect pollinators (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Land management practices - Fire
Fire exists within the habitat of Cycas megacarpa with adult plants tolerant of fire and able to re-sprout after fire events (Queensland Herbarium 2007). The main threat associated with fire is to the seed bank and juvenile plants (Forster 2004b; Queensland Herbarium 2007). Since Cycads seeds do not live a long time in the soil, most fires, especially high intensity fires, will destroy seeds in the soil (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Seedlings of Cycads are known to be destroyed by fire even at low intensities. The cumulative seedling lost due to fire regimes that are too frequent or hot will result in the decline in population size over time (Queensland Herbarium 2007). All populations are at risk from inappropriate land and fire management practices (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Land management practices - Timber harvesting
In the past, populations of Cycas megacarpa located in State Forests were damaged by machines used in timber harvesting (Queensland Herbarium 2007). This type of damage is similar to severe storm damage with additional compaction caused by heavy machinery (Queensland Herbarium 2007). There is evidence that this damage does not always result in the death of the individual as plants can re-sprout from damaged stems (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Current forestry practices reduce the impact of logging on non-target species however the impact of harvesting on insect populations for pollination of Cycas megacarpa is not known (Queensland Herbarium 2007). All populations are at risk from inappropriate timber harvesting practices (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Land management practices - Drought
The direct effect of drought on Cycads in Australia is unknown however small seedlings were observed to disappear from populations studied during the 2000-03 drought in southern Queensland (Queensland Herbarium 2007). This seedling death could be attributed to water deficiency, grazing or other factors (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Other threats, not classified as key threats in the National Multi-species recovery plan for the Cycads, include:

Predation
The Lilioceris nigripes (beetle) and the Lycaenid Butterfly (Theclinesthes onycha) have been found on Cycas megacarpa (Forster 2007; Queensland Herbarium 2007). New foliage, especially post fire mass emergence of new foliage, is at particular risk from insect damage (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Early reports indicated that marsupials consumed foliage but this is not proven (Forster 2007). Domestic stock are known to consume foliage when pasture is scarce.

Climate change
Cycads are confined to limited geographical ranges generally within a warm climate, with low levels of frost and long growing summers (Norstog & Nicholls 1997). It is possible that previously world temperatures allowed Cycads to disperse further from the equator (Norstog & Nicholls 1997). Hyslop and Haskard (2005) refer to Cycads as climate change indicator species due to their sensitivity to climatic conditions. Along with changes to temperature, Hyslop and Haskard (2005) suggest that climate change effects could include interruption of reproduction due to increased carbon dioxide, the spread of pests and diseases, changes in canopy cover and shifting rainfall patterns. These effects are likely to impact on long lived species such as Cycads.
Recovery and regeneration
Raimondo and Donaldson (2003) report that recovery times for species can be greatly affected by life history traits. Theoretically, longer lived species, such as Cycads, can survive through short term environmental changes and breakdowns in mutualistic associations. The trade-off for this is that when population numbers are reduced, recovery time is generally slow (Raimondo & Donaldson 2003).

Competition
Cycad population decline may have been linked to their inability to compete with the 'newer' flowering plants (Norstog & Nicholls 1997), however, the Cycads may have been in decline prior to the rise of flowering plants (Norstog & Nicholls 1997).

In the National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the Cycads, the Queensland Herbarium (2007) identified current actions being undertaken to reduce threats as well as suggesting future actions for threat abatement. Many of the future actions suggested involved additional research and monitoring of populations in order to understand biological and ecological responses (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Threats summary and recovery actions (Queensland Herbarium 2007).


Type of threat Populations
affected
Current actions to reduce threats Future actions to reduce threats
Destruction of habitat and individuals due to land clearing
  • development for housing
  • road building and maintenance activities
  • mining, quarrying
  • permitted land clearing
Mainly populations occurring in non-remnant vegetation, and not protected in other ways Many populations discovered, surveyed and documented.

Broad-scale clearing of remnant vegetation to end December 2006.

Mapped as buffered points (known collections) in remnant vegetation.

Clearing prohibited in these areas.

A permit must be obtained to clear remnant vegetation (under 2 ha).
Negotiate conservation agreements to secure conservation of significant known populations of Cycads on freehold and leasehold property.

Search for further populations of all species.

Detailed survey of populations currently considered threatened, and update maps to reflect actual extent.

Major landholders and custodians to be contacted and made aware of current regulations.

Relevant legislation and permitting processes to be strengthened to prevent clearing of habitat.
Legal
harvesting and
commercial salvage
All populations Permitted commercial harvesting of whole
plants to cease December 2005 except under permitted salvage or bioprospecting, where the reason for the salvage is not for commercial purposes.

Harvesting of plant parts only under
permit from the EPA.
Relevant legislation and permitting processes to be strengthened to prevent clearing of habitat.

Harvesting of plant parts and seed to cease except for the purposes of this recovery plan.
Illegal
destruction and
harvesting
All populations Information has been provided to the public and specifically to horticultural societies through talks, displays and publications.

These six 'Endangered' plant species may only be sold under permit from the EPA.
Major landholders and custodians to be contacted and made aware of regulations pertaining to the destruction and harvesting of plants and plant parts.

Provide assistance with fencing of small isolated populations.

Further education of general public, horticultural societies and nursery industry.

Work with the industry to explore other means of addressing the horticultural and collector demand.
Loss of genetic variation and insect pollinators All populations, especially small or fragmented populations < 500 individuals per area Research on similar species overseas
suggests low diversity within populations
and high differentiation between populations.

Some preliminary work on the identification of pollinators has been carried out for M. lomandroides and M. platyrhachis.
Undertake research to determine the genetic variation and robustness of population mosaics.

Undertake research to determine pollinators and their life cycles particularly for C. megacarpa, C. ophiolitica, M. cranei, and M. pauliguilielmi.

Undertake research to determine dispersal mechanisms and vectors.

Establish long-term monitoring plots including population statistics, pollinator populations and response to fire.

Translocation of individual plants under immediate threat to suitable nearby habitat.

Artificial augmentation for critical populations.
Land management practices
  • fire
  • timber harvesting
All populations Observations on cone, seed and seedling
loss due to fire have been made for some species.

Some research and monitoring of C. megacarpa has been carried out.

Timber harvesting guidelines have been
written for C. megacarpa and are applicable to the other species.
Provision of interim management guidelines to be provided to landholders and custodians.

Undertake research to determine optimum fire regimes.

Establish long-term monitoring plots including population statistics, pollinator populations and response to fire.

Long-term monitoring of populations affected by timber harvesting.

There are no published ecological studies for Cycas megacarpa (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Major taxonomic studies include;

Hill, K.D. (1992). A preliminary account of Cycas (Cycadaceae) in Queensland. Telopea. 5(1): 177-206.

Hill, K.D. (1996). A taxonomic revision of the genus Cycas (Cycadaceae) in Australia. Telopea. 7(1): 1-64.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Cycas megacarpa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gp) [Internet].
Survey of Threatened Plant Species in South East Queensland Biogeographical Region (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee, 1998) [Internet].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes A preliminary assessment of Cycad conservation and diversity in Queensland, Australia. Encephalartos. 46:8-18. (Forster, P.I., 1996c) [Journal].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Wood and Pulp Plantations:Habitat destruction due to forestry activities National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest Survey of Threatened Plant Species in South East Queensland Biogeographical Region (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee, 1998) [Internet].
National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection Cycas megacarpa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gp) [Internet].
National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Cycas megacarpa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gp) [Internet].
National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Survey of Threatened Plant Species in South East Queensland Biogeographical Region (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee, 1998) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].

Beck. W (1993). Cycas used by Australian Aboriginal people. In: Gardn. C.A., D.W. Stevenson and K.J. Norstog, eds. The Biology, Structure, and Systematics of the Cycadales, Proceedings of CYCAD 90, the Second International Conference on Cycad Biology. Page(s) 8-15. Milton, Australia: Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia Ltd.

Benson, D. & L. McDougall (1993). Ecology of Sydney Plant Species Part 1: Ferns, fern-allies, cycads, conifers and dicotyledon families Acanthaceae to Asclepiadaceae. Cunninghamia. 3(2):257-422. Sydney: National Herbarium of NSW.

Bond, W.J. (1994). Do mutualisticisms matter? Assessing the impact of pollinator and disperser disruption on plant extinction. In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series B. 344:83-90.

Burnett Water (2001). Burnett Catchment Water Infrastructure - Walla Weir Raising Environmental Impact Statement. [Online]. Available from: http://www.sunwater.com.au/burnettwater_docs.htm#W_EIS. [Accessed: 05-Mar-2008].

Connell Hatch (2009). Aldoga Bank Deviation. Environment Protection and Biodiversity. Conservation Act 1999 Referral Form. QR Limited. Reference H328443-ABD-EV00-03. Revision 4. Spring Hill, Queensland: Connell Hatch.

Forster, P.I. (2004a). Diversity of the Cycads of Queensland, together with an assessment of their conservation status. In: Lindstrom, A.J., ed. The biology, structure, and systematics of the Cycadales Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Cycad Biology, Thailand. Page(s) 60-72.

Forster, P.I. (2004b). The cycads of Queensland - diversity and conservation. Palms and Cycads. 82:4-28.

Forster, P.I. (2007). Recovery Plans for Endangered Cycads: a model set of objectives and actions using the example of Cycas megacarpa from Queensland, Australia. Memoirs of the New York Botanic Gardens. 97:3-31.

Forster, P.I., P.J. Machin, L. Mound & G.W. Wilson (1994). Insects Associated with Reproductive Structures of Cycads in Queensland and Northeast New South Wales, Australia, Biotropica. Biotropica. 26 (2):217-222.

Hill, K. & R. Osbourne (2001). Cycads of Australia. Kangaroo Press, East Roseville, NSW.

Hill, K.D. (1992). A preliminary account of Cycas (Cycadaceae) in Queensland. Telopea. 5(1):177-206.

Hill, K.D. (1996). A taxonomic revision of the genus Cycas (Cycadaceae) in Australia. Telopea. 7(1):1-64.

Hill, K.D. (1998a). Cycadophyta. In: Flora of Australia. 48:597-661. Melbourne: CSIRO.

Hill, K.D. (2003). Cycas megacarpa. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [Online]. www.iucnredlist.org. [Accessed: 05-Mar-2008].

Hyslop, K. & C. Haskard (2005). Queensland Threatened Plants: spotlight on cycads. WWF-Australia, Sydney.

Jones, D.L. (2002). Cycads of the world: ancient plants in today's landscape, Second edition. Reed New Holland, Sydney.

Kelly, T.K. (1967). Killing zamias with power kerosene. Queensland Agricultural Journal. 93:184-185.

Norstog, K.J. & T.J. Nicholls (1997). The Biology of the Cycads. Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London.

Ornduff, R. (1991). Size classes, reproductive behaviour, and insect associates of Cycas media (Cycadaceae) in Australia. Botanical Gazette. 152:203-207.

Pate, J.S. (1993). Biology of the south-west Australian cycad Macrozamia riedlei. In: Gardn. C.A., D.W. Stevenson and K.J. Norstog, eds. The Biology, Structure, and Systematics of the Cycadales, Proceedings of CYCAD 90, the Second International Conference on Cycad Biology. Page(s) 125-130. Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia Ltd., Milton, Australia.

Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee (1998). Survey of Threatened Plant Species in South East Queensland Biogeographical Region. [Online]. Available from: http://www.daff.gov.au/rfa/regions/qld/environment/threatened-plant.

Queensland Government Environment Protection Agency (QLD EPA) (2001). Master Plan for Queensland's Park System, Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. [Online]. Available from: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/parks_and_forests/managing_parks_and_forests/management_plans_and_strategies/parks_master_plan/. [Accessed: 08-May-2008].

Queensland Government Environment Protection Agency (QLD EPA) (2004). Regional Ecosystems. [Online]. Available from: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/nature_conservation/biodiversity/regional_ecosystems/. [Accessed: 05-May-2008].

Queensland Government Environment Protection Agency (QLD EPA) (2008). State of the Environment Queensland 2007. [Online]. Available from: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/environmental_management/state_of_the_environment/state_of_the_environment_queensland_2007/state_of_the_environment_queensland_2007. [Accessed: 09-May-2008].

Queensland Herbarium (2007). National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis. [Online]. Report to Department of the Environment and Water Resources, Canberra. Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Brisbane. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/cycads.html.

Raimondo, D.C. & J.S. Donaldson (2003). Responses of cycads with different life histories to the impact of plant collecting: simulation models to determine important life history stages and population recovery times. Biological Conservation. 111:345-358.

Schneider, D., M. Wink, F. Sporer & P. Lounibos (2002). Cycads: their evolution, toxins, herbivores and insect pollinators. Naturwissenschaften. 89:281-294.

Whitelock, L. (2002). The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Cycas megacarpa in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 26 Jul 2014 09:08:05 +1000.