Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Angophora robur (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008hw) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010l) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines EPBC Act policy statement 3.5 - White box - yellow box - Blakely's red gum grassy woodlands and derived native grasslands (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006r) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Sandstone Rough-barked Apple - profile (NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH), 2012d) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list)
Scientific name Angophora robur [56088]
Family Myrtaceae:Myrtales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author L.A.S.Johnson & K.D.Hill
Infraspecies author  
Reference Johnson, L.A.S. & Hill, K.D. (1990) New taxa and combinations in Eucalyptus and Angophora (Myrtaceae). Telopea 4(1): 40; fig. 1 (map) [tax. nov.]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Angophora robur

Common name: Sandstone Rough-barked Apple

Other names: Broad-leaved Sandstone Apple

This species has been conventionally accepted as Angophora robur (CHAH 2010).

The Sandstone Rough-barked Apple is a small, twisted tree, growing to 10 m tall. It has persistent rough grey to grey-brown bark on the trunk and branches. Leaves are opposite to one another along stems, often bristly and paler below, and large at up to 18 cm long and 7.5 cm wide (TSSC 2008hw). The petioles (leaf stalks) are absent or up to 1 mm long. White or cream coloured flowers are clustered in groups of 3 to 7 at the end of branches. Fruits are large, up to 1.6 cm long and wide, and cup-shaped with longitudinal ribs (CPBR 2006; Johnson & Hill 1990; NSW OEH 2012d).

The species occurs along a sandstone belt running from near Glenreagh, north-west of Coffs Harbour, to the Coaldale district, north-west of Grafton, NSW (Johnson & Hill 1990; NSW OEH 2012d; Sheringham & Westaway 1995). There is an isolated occurrence of the species farther west, near Nymboid (NSW OEH 2012d).

There is no estimate of total population size, however, the species can be locally common where found (NSW OEH 2012d; TSSC 2008hw).


The Sandstone Rough-barked Apple may hybridise with the Broad-leaved Apple (Angophora subvelutina) to produce plants with intermediate-sized fruit (Edwards & Edwards, undated).

The species occurs in the following reserves (Johnson & Hill 1990; Sheringham & Westaway 1995):

  • Banyabba Nature Reserve
  • Sherwood Nature Reserve, which includes the former Waihou Flora Reserve
  • Flaggy Creek Nature Reserve
  • Tallawadjah Nature Reserve
  • Chambigne Nature Reserve and the adjacent Chambigne Conservation Area

The Sandstone Rough-barked Apple is restricted to dry sclerophyll woodland on sandy or skeletal soils on sandstone, or occasionally granite, especially in forests with numerous rocky outcrops (Johnson & Hill 1990; NSW OEH 2012d). The species is often associated with other rough-barked apples (Angophora spp.), stringybarks (Eucalyptus spp.) and bloodwoods (Corymbia spp.), often co-dominating dry open forest communities (Sheringham & Westaway 1995).

This species forms a lignotuber (woody swelling below or just above the ground, containing adventitious buds from which new shoots develop if the top of the plant is cut or burnt) (CPBR 2006). Flowering has been recorded starting in December.

The ability of the species to hybridise with the Broad-leaved Apple can make detection of the species difficult in areas where both species occur (Edwards & Edwards, undated).

The main identified threats to the Sandstone Rough-barked Apple are clearing of habitat for rural residential development or agriculture, inappropriate fire regimes (which may affect regeneration), widening of roads and timber harvesting (NSW OEH 2012d; TSSC 2008hw).

The Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW DECCW 2010l) includes actions to protect the Sandstone Rough-barked Apple.

The NSW Office of Environment (2012d) outline the following management actions to protect the species:

  • Manage fire to promote regeneration.
  • Identify populations and areas of habitat along roadsides and protect them during road works.
  • Protect trees and areas of habitat during timber harvesting.
  • Protect areas of habitat from clearing and development.

Documents relevant to the management of the Sandstone Rough-barked Apple can be found at the start of the profile. Other documents that may assist in protection of the species include:

  • Sherwood Nature Reserve Plan of Management (NSW DECC 2009a).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Angophora robur (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008hw) [Conservation Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Angophora robur (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008hw) [Conservation Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Angophora robur (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008hw) [Conservation Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Angophora robur (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008hw) [Conservation Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Angophora robur (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008hw) [Conservation Advice].

Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research (CPBR) (2006). EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia, Third Edition. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2006r). EPBC Act policy statement 3.5 - White box - yellow box - Blakely's red gum grassy woodlands and derived native grasslands. [Online]. DEH: Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/box-gum.html.

Edwards, J. & P. Edwards (undated). Flora Survey of Chambigne State Conservation Reserve. [Online]. Report by the Clarence Environment Centre for the NSW Department of Climate Change and Water. Available from: http://www.cec.org.au/submissions/FloraSurveyChambigneNatureReserve.pdf.

Johnson, L.A.S. & K.D. Hill (1990). New taxa and combinations in Eucalyptus and Angophora (Myrtaceae). Telopea. 4(1).

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2009a). Sherwood Nature Reserve Plan of Management. [Online]. Available from: http://www.verticalmania.com/downloads/SherwoodNRPOM.pdf.

NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2010l). Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan. [Online]. Coffs Harbour, New South Wales: DECCW. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/northern-rivers.html.

NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH) (2012d). Sandstone Rough-barked Apple - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10054.

Sheringham, P. & J. Westaway (1995). Significant Vascular Plants of Upper North East NSW: A report by the NSW NPWS for the Natural Resources Audit Council. NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008hw). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Angophora robur. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/56088-conservation-advice.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Angophora robur in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 25 Jul 2014 06:44:06 +1000.