Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009y) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009z) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, the approved conservation advice provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against threats (26/05/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (77) (26/05/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009k) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Threatened flora of the Western Central Wheatbelt (Collins, J., 2009) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013)
Scientific name Eucalyptus recta [56430]
Family Myrtaceae:Myrtales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author L.A.S.Johnson & K.D.Hill
Infraspecies author  
Reference Hill, K.D. & Johnson, L.A.S., (1992) Systematic studies in the eucalypts - 5. New taxa and combinations in Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in Western Australia. Telopea 4(4): 604 [tax. nov.]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Eucalyptus recta

Eucalyptus recta is a tree that grows to 15 m high and has a trunk which is straight (up to 5 m) (Western Australian Herbarium 2005). This species has smooth, shining pale silver-grey or white bark; large buds (22–25 mm long, 8–9 mm diameter) that are broadly shallowly ribbed; and large fruits (8–9 mm long, 10–12 mm diameter) (Hill & Johnson 1992).

Eucalyptus recta is endemic to Western Australia where it is known from 9 subpopulations approximately 250 km north-east from Perth in the Avon Natural Resource Management Region (WA CALM 2005b). The distance between the most northern and southern subpopulation is approximately 15 km. All of the subpopulations occur in the Cadoux area except one subpopulation, which is 50 km west of the other subpopulations in the Wongan Hills area (WA CALM 2005b). The species is geographically restricted to relatively prominent lateritic landforms associated with the Cadoux fault line (TSSC 2009z).

Eucalyptus recta's extent of occurrence is calculated to be approximately 360 km². A dataset taken from the Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation's (WA DEC) Threatened Flora Database (which contains a single GPS coordinate for each subpopulation) was used to determine the area (WA DEC 2008). There is no data to indicate past decline in extent of occurrence of this species (WA CALM 2005b).

There is insufficient data to calculate Eucalyptus recta's area of occupancy, however, it is likely to be less than 1 km² (WA CALM 2005b). For subpopulations where area occupied was recorded, the majority were only a few hectares. Based on extrapolations of this information, the area of occupancy for the 9 subpopulations is estimated to be approximately 0.156 km² (a figure of 0.011 km² was used for the subpopulations for which no area had been recorded) (WA DEC 2008). There are no data available to show past decline in area of occupancy of this species, and it is predicted that future trends should remain stable (WA CALM 2005b).

There are no translocated populations of Eucalyptus recta. However, a limited amount of seed material has been collected and stored by the Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management's (WA CALM, currently known as WA DEC) Threatened Flora Seed Centre for possible future ex situ propagation (WA CALM 2005b).

Eucalyptus recta's distribution is considered fragmented as the known subpopulations are scattered and surrounded by land cleared for agriculture (WA CALM 2005b).

From 2000–2002 there was intensive surveys carried out in the Wongan Hills-Cadoux area, surveying Eucalyptus recta's habitat range. The extent of the species habitat range has now been surveyed and it is unlikely that any significant increase in known population size or range will occur in the future (WA DEC 2008).

Eucalyptus recta is known from 9 subpopulations. The total population size of the species is approximately 3500 plants. This figure was calculated using actual and estimated counts during population monitoring (WA DEC 2008). The following table presents subpopulation numbers and the date of surveys (WA DEC 2008):

Subpopulation Date surveyed Size Area of occupancy (hectares)
1a 23/05/2000
02/06/2003
60
60
1
1b 23/05/2000
01/05/2003
20
250
2
2 23/05/2000 10 Not recorded
3a 23/05/2000
24/12/2002
02/06/2003
17/08/2007
200
200
200
163
2
3b 23/05/2002
02/06/2003
17/08/2007
250
250
250
Not recorded
3c 23/05/2000
24/12/2002
17/08/2007
20
20
37
Not recorded
4a 22/06/2000 500 1.5
4b 22/06/2000
24/12/2002
02/06/2003
60
60
60
0.1
4c 22/06/2000
02/06/2003
40
40
0.1
5 21/07/2001 100 Not recorded
6a 24/12/2002 2 Not recorded
6b 24/12/2002 4 Not recorded
7 24/12/2002 6 Not recorded
8 24/12/2002 50 Not recorded
9 24/12/2002 2000 Not recorded

No population trends or range trends for Eucalyptus recta are evident in the available data. Subpopulation 5 is known only from a herbarium record and has not been relocated since the collection was made (WA CALM 2005b). Natural recruitment has not been observed for this species, and long-term subpopulations are unlikely to be sustained if such trends persist.

One subpopulation occurs within conservation estate (Manmanning Nature Reserve). The remaining eight subpopulations occur on Shire road verges and private property (WA CALM 2005b).

Eucalyptus recta occurs in gravel rises and gravelly sands on slopes typical of mallet eucalypts (Eucalyptus spp.) and occurs with Blue Mallet (Eucalyptus gardneri) and Salmon Gum (Eucalyptus salmonophloia) in the Cadoux area, and with Salmon Gum in the Wongan Hills area (WA CALM 2005b).

Eucalyptus recta is geographically restricted to relatively prominent lateritic landforms associated with the Cadoux fault line (TSSC 2009z).

Details on Eucalyptus recta age of sexual maturity, life expectancy and natural mortality are unknown. Natural recruitment has not been observed. Research is required to identify factors that trigger or influence germination and recruitment (WA CALM 2005b).

The flowering period and pollinating mechanisms of Eucalyptus recta are unknown. Its floral structure suggests that it employs an insect pollinating mechanism. Several subpopulations occur in areas that are prone to disturbance (i.e. road verges, unfenced agricultural land and old gravel workings). This suggests that the species may be a coloniser. However, there have been no new populations located in recently disturbed areas. The species disturbance response requires research (WA CALM 2005b).

Eucalyptus recta is conspicuous and restricted to relatively prominent lateritic landforms and the species is readily distinguished by its tree habit and white bark (WA CALM 2005b). The flowering period and optimal timing of surverys are unknown.

Eucalyptus recta's closest affinity is to Eucalyptus ornata, from which it differs in the larger buds (14–20 mm long in E. ornata). It is distinguished in the Silver Mallett (E. falcata) group by its tree habit, the white bark, the large buds, which are broadly shallow ribbed, the long acute calyptra, and the large fruits (Hill & Johnson 1992).

The main identified threats to Eucalyptus recta are inadequate recruitment, stock grazing and trampling, wildfire, chemical drift from agricultural properties, competition from weeds, road and firebreak maintenance, timber cutting and grazing by insects (TSSC 2009z; WA CALM 2005b). Land clearing, reducing available habitat, has been a threat in the past. Climate change may be a threat in the future (WA CALM 2005b).

Inadequate recruitment
Recruitment has not been observed at any Eucalyptus recta subpopulations. Without recruitment, subpopulations are unlikely to sustain themselves long-term (WA CALM 2005b).

Stock grazing
Many of the known Eucalyptus recta subpopulations are located on private property as small pockets of remnant vegetation. As none of the sites are fenced, stock are able to move through the sites and graze or trample seedlings (WA CALM 2005b). WA DEC staff are negotiating fencing options with property owners (WA DEC 2008).

Wildfire
The effects of fire on Eucalyptus recta are unknown. Too frequent fire is likely to kill non-mature plants and degrade surrounding habitat. However, fire is likely to be necessary to stimulate recruitment (TSSC 2009z).

Chemical drift
All subpopulations are surrounded by agriculture and are threatened by chemical drift (from fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides) (WA CALM 2005b). The impact of chemical drift on Eucalyptus recta sites is largely unknown, although it probably damages in the form of burning, particularly to seedlings (WA CALM 2005b).

Competition by weeds
Weeds are prevalent at many of the subpopulation sites and compete with Eucalyptus recta, particularly seedlings, for light, space, soil moisture and nutrients (WA DEC 2005b). They also increase the fire hazard due to the easy ignition of high fuel loads, which are produced annually by many weed species (WA CALM 2005b).

Road and firebreak maintenance
A number of the subpopulations occur on road verges, and are particularly vulnerable to road and firebreak widening and maintenance works, such as slashing, grading, clearing and soil compaction by vehicle movement (WA CALM 2005b).

Lack of ecological resources
Most Eucalyptus recta subpopulations are small, fragmented and generally surrounded by farmland and do not have access to the same ecological resources as the nature reserve subpopulation. It is predicted that over time this will reduce recruitment and cause population senescence (WA CALM 2005b).

Timber cutting
One subpopulations exists near an old gravel pit on private property. At this site the species may be subject to timber cutting, most likely for fence posts (WA CALM 2005b).

Grazing by insects
Insects have been observed grazing Eucalyptus recta trees at two subpopulations. This is likely to be reducing plant health and reproductive capacity (WA CALM 2005).

Ministers recovery plan decision
A recovery plan for this species is not considered to be necessary at this time as the approved conservation advice provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against threats (2009).

Priority actions
Declared rare flora markers have been installed at two roadside subpopulations and along the firebreak/boundary of Manmanning Nature Reserve (WA CALM 2005b).

The following recovery actions have been recommended (TSSC 2009y; WA CALM 2005b):

  • Design and implement a monitoring program for the species.
  • More precisely assess population size, geographic distribution, ecological requirements and demographic information, including:
    • factors that trigger or influence germination and recruitment
    • the flowering period and pollinating mechanism for the species
    • the species' response to disturbance (e.g. fire)
    • other relevant mortality and morphological data for the species.

  • Undertake seed germination and seedling establishment trials to determine the requirement for successful establishment.
  • Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional subpopulations of Eucalyptus recta.
  • Assess the impact of the herbivorous insect and, if required, develop and implement a management plan for the control of the insect which is grazing on the species at two of its subpopulations.
  • Ensure road widening and maintenance activities, or slashing for fuel reduction, in areas where Eucalyptus recta occurs, do not adversely impact on the known subpopulations.
  • Ensure chemicals or other mechanisms used to eradicate weeds do not have a significant adverse impact on the species.
  • Where appropriate, establish vegetation buffers and corridors to protect the species.
  • Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Investigate formal conservation arrangements such as the use of covenants, conservation agreements or inclusion in reserve tenure.
  • Identify, remove and prevent introduction of invasive weeds, which could become a threat to Eucalyptus recta, using appropriate methods.
  • Prevent grazing at sites where the species is known to occur, through exclusion fencing or other barriers.
  • Develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for Eucalyptus recta.
  • Identify an appropriate intensity and interval of fire to promote seed germination.
  • Provide maps of known occurrences of the species to local and state Rural Fire Services, and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plans, and/or operation maps.
  • Raise awareness of Eucalyptus recta within the local community and land managers through site visits, increased signage (e.g. declared rare flora markers to help prevent disturbance at sites) and fact sheets/information brochures.
  • Develop a community network interested in the protection and management of the nine subpopulations.
  • Maintain liaison with private landholders and land managers on which populations occur.
  • Undertake appropriate seed or germplasm collection and storage.

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (TSSC 2009y) lists recovery actions for Eucalyptus recta.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009y) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009z) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009y) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009z) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009y) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009z) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009y) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009z) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009z) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009y) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Negative impacts caused by insects Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009z) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009y) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009z) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009y) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate fire regimes including natural wildfires Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009z) [Listing Advice].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Habitat degradation due to agricultural chemical pollution Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009z) [Listing Advice].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Herbicide application Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009z) [Listing Advice].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Pesticide application Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009z) [Listing Advice].
Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Drift of agricultural chemicals Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009y) [Conservation Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009y) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009z) [Listing Advice].

Hill, K.D. & L.A.S. Johnson (1992). Systematic studies in the eucalypts. 5. New taxa and combinations in Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in Western Australia. Telopea. 4(4):561-634. Sydney: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009y). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/56430-conservation-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009z). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus recta (a tree). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/56430-listing-advice.pdf.

Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2005b). Records held in the CALM's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2008). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA DEC.

Western Australian Herbarium (2005). FloraBase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eucalyptus recta in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 17 Apr 2014 23:40:54 +1000.