In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered as Zieria parrisiae|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Zieria parrisiae (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fn) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Recovery plan for Zieria formosa, Zieria buxijugum and Zieria parrisiae (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002f) [Recovery Plan] as Zieria parrisiae.
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Zieria parrisiae.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Zieria parrisiae.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Zieria parrisiae |
|Species author||J.D.Briggs & J.A.Armstrong|
|Reference||Australian Systematic Botany 15(3): 417, figs 104-105, map fig. 106 (2002).|
Zieria sp. 15 (sp. 'Q'; Box Range South) 
Zieria parrisiae Briggs & Armstrong ms. 
Zieria parrisiae J.Briggs & J.A.Armstrong ms. 
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
A bushy shrub growing to 4.2 m in height (NSW NPWS 2002f; Armstrong 2002) with conspicuous white flowers 7-9 mm in diameter (Armstrong 2002).
Z. parrisiae is known from a single population on Box Range Farm, approx. 10 km west of Pambula on the far south coast of NSW (NSW NPWS 2002f; Armstrong 2002). The population is split into two main patches located about 200 m apart along a small gully with a third, smaller patch in between them (NSW NPWS 2002f). It occurs on private property (NSW NPWS 2002f) over an area of 3 ha (Briggs & Leigh 1990).
In 1987, the population consisted of only 40 plants - 4 adults more than 1 m in height and 36 plants resprouting from near their bases following grazing. A few seedlings had established where protected from grazing by fallen debris (Briggs & Leigh 1990). In April 2001 the population was resurveyed and had increased to 36 adult plants and 185 plants smaller ones (NSW NPWS 2002f; Armstrong 2002).
The species is not known to occur in a conservation reserve (Briggs and Leigh 1996).
Synonyms include Z. sp. 15, Z. sp. I and Z. sp. Q (Box Range South) (Briggs & Leigh 1990; Harden 1991; NSW NPWS 1999ag).
This species occurs in a gully that faces north and is part way up a steep hillside above a small creek (NSW NPWS 2002f; Armstrong 2002). The soil is a skeletal, grey loam overlying rhyolite rock. The site is strewn with broken rhyolite rocks and boulders (Briggs & Leigh 1990; NSW NPWS 2002f).
The species occurs in an intergrade zone between a shrubby heath community and open dry sclerophyll forest. The shub community is dominated by Melaleuca armillaris, Kunzea ambigua and Acacia mearnsii. Other associated species include Cassinia longifolia, Plectranthus parviflorus, Commersonia fraseri, Platysace lanceolata and Dendrobium speciosum. The vulnerable Phebalium ralstonii and Westringia davidii, and the rare Acacia subtilinervis occur in the immediate area (Briggs & Leigh 1990; NSW NPWS 1999ag). The adjacent open forest is dominated by Eucalyptus muelleriana and E. sieberi (Briggs & Leigh 1990; NSW NPWS 2002f; Armstrong 2002).
This species occurs as a mid-storey shrub and grows in partial to moderately heavy shade. Heavy frosts are uncommon at the site and the driest conditions normally occur during winter (NSW NPWS 2002f). Competition of seedlings and young plants with other native understorey species appears relatively low, as there is much exposed rock at the site and there are few other native sub-shrubs or herbaceous species present (NSW NPWS 2002f).
On the site, many of the large Melaleuca armillaris and Kunzea ambigua shrubs have become senescent and have either died or have been blown over in storms in the past couple of years. This has resulted in a substantial thinning of the shrub overstorey canopy and has consequently increased light penetration to the understorey. This change in the micro-environment may well be beneficial to the survival and growth of the numerous young plants that currently comprise the major proportion of the population of this species (NSW NPWS 2002f).
This species flowers between late Sept. and early Nov. (Briggs & Leigh 1990; Harden 1991; NSW NPWS 2002f; Armstrong 2002). It is almost certainly insect pollinated; native bees, hover flies and blowflies have been observed visiting the flowers. Fruit at all stages through to maturity can be found on plants still producing flowers in Oct. The fruits develop and ripen rapidly, and seed shed appears to be almost complete by the end of Dec. (NSW NPWS 2002f).
The mature plants flower prolifically and high levels of fruit set were observed in 1986/87 (Briggs in NSW NPWS 2002f). Seedlings of varying size are present at the site, suggesting some recruitment probably would occur in most years in the absence of browsing (NSW NPWS 2002f).
The species is known to resprout following grazing. The response to fire is unknown, but the presence of other fire-sensitive species at the site suggests that the current population has not experienced fire for as long as 50 years (Briggs & Leigh 1990). High frequency fires are considered a threat (NSW NPWS 1999ag).
The effects of fire intensity, seasonality or frequency on this species are unknown. However, the presence of very large individuals of other fire-sensitive species indicates that the site has not been burnt for several decades (NSW NPWS 2002f).Briggs & Leigh (1990) predicted that the community would be very slow to recover from fire.
Individuals have not been regularly monitored in the field, but the four large, relatively undamaged plants of this species observed in 1986 were still healthy in April 2001. Given the large size to which this species grows and the slow growth that has taken place over the past 15 years, it would appear that this species might live for 50 years or more (NSW NPWS 2002f).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Recovery plan for Zieria formosa, Zieria buxijugum and Zieria parrisiae (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002f) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Capra hircus (Goat)||The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Zieria parrisiae (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fn) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies||Recovery plan for Zieria formosa, Zieria buxijugum and Zieria parrisiae (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002f) [Recovery Plan].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Zieria parrisiae (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fn) [Conservation Advice].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals||Recovery plan for Zieria formosa, Zieria buxijugum and Zieria parrisiae (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002f) [Recovery Plan].|
|Species Stresses:Species Stresses:unspecified||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Zieria parrisiae (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fn) [Conservation Advice].|
Armstrong, J.A. (2002). Zieria (Rutaceae): a systematic and evolutionary study. Australian Systematic Botany. 15:277-463.
Briggs, J.D. & J.H. Leigh (1990). Delineation of Important Habitats of Threatened Plant Species in South-Eastern New South Wales. Canberra: Australian Heritage Commission.
Briggs, J.D. & J.H. Leigh (1996). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants - Revised Edition. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.
Harden, G.J. (ed.) (1991). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.
Keith, D. & E. Ashby (1992). Vascular Plants of Conservation Significance in the South East Forests of New South Wales. Page(s) 210. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. Hurstville, NSW National Parks &Wildlife Service.
Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.
NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (1999ag). Threatened Species Information: Zieria parrisiae. [Online]. Hurstville: NSW NPWS. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/tsprofileZieriaParrisiae.pdf.
NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (2002f). Recovery plan for Zieria formosa, Zieria buxijugum and Zieria parrisiae. [Online]. Hurstville, NSW: NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/z-formosa/index.html.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Zieria parrisiae in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 13 Jul 2014 17:46:21 +1000.