Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Zieria prostrata
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Zieria prostrata Recovery Plan - 1999-2001 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 1998b) [Recovery Plan] as Zieria prostrata.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Zieria prostrata.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Zieria prostrata.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Headland Zieria - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005np) [Internet].
NSW:Zieria prostrata - endangered species listing (NSW Scientific Committee, 2003e) [Report].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list) as Zieria prostrata
Scientific name Zieria prostrata [56782]
Family Rutaceae:Sapindales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author J.A.Armstrong
Infraspecies author  
Reference Australian Systematic Botany 15(3): 425, figs. 110-111, map fig. 112 (2002).
Other names Zieria sp. 16 (Look at Me Now Headland) [24546]
Zieria prostrata Armstrong ms. [67258]
Zieria prostrata J.A.Armstrong ms. [67361]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images
http://www.npws.nsw.gov.au/news/recovery_plans/Zieria.pdf
http://www.anbg.gov.au/images/photo_cd/S1710C5196856/084.html

A multi-stemmed, prostrate, mat-forming shrub, 0.5 to 1 m in diameter. It is usually 0.1 m high but may grow to 0.5 m in a protected position (Steenbeeke 1998; NSW NPWS 1998b; SGAP 2000; Armstrong 2002). Conspicuous flowers are white or pink and c. 0.5 to 0.7 mm in diameter (Armstrong 2002).

This species has a very restricted distribution near Coffs Harbour in north-eastern NSW. It is known only from four headlands along a three kilometre stretch of coastline within Moonee Beach Nature Reserve and occupies a total area of less than 1 ha (NSW NPWS 1998b, NSW Scientific Committee 2003e). Populations occur at Bare Bluff, Diggers Point, Dammerels Head and Look-At-Me-Now Headland (NSW NPWS 1998b) but Armstrong (2002) mentions only three populations, omitting Diggers Point.

Searching of three hundred kilometres of coastline adjoining the known sites in 1996 revealed no new populations. There are no credible historic reports of a more extensive distribution. Some plants in cultivation at the Australian National Botanic Gardens, Canberra, were reportedly collected from Bonville Headland, 23 km south of the current populations (NSW NPWS 1998b). However, herbarium records for such a collection are lacking and genetic tests have shown that these plants share the DNA profile of a Dammerels Head plant (Peakall 1994a).

A reintroduction programme was implemented in 1993 (NSW NPWS 1998b; Hogbin & Peakall 1998). Plants were propagated from material collected on two of the headlands and replanted on their respective source sites. By 1998, survival rates were poor with only 19 of 150 still alive at Look-At-Me-Now Headland and 5 of 50 at Dammerels Head. Four of the eight plants introduced at Bonville Headland were still surviving (NSW NPWS 1998b).

The total population size including reintroduced specimens is estimated to be c. 1200 plants: Look-At-Me-Now Headland (130 plants in small, scattered patches) (Armstrong 2002), Dammerels Point (200 plants), Diggers Point (9 plants) and Bare Bluff (800 plants). There are no historical records to determine whether the populations are declining or increasing (NSW NPWS 1998b).

This species is similar to Zieria smithii and Z. sp. aff smithii but can be distinguished by its oblong central leaflet and bare ridged branches (NSW NPWS 1998b).

It was formerly know as Z. sp. Q (Harden 1991).

The species grows mainly in exposed southerly aspects on headlands (NSW NPWS 1998b; Steenbeeke 1998; Armstrong 2002). Here soils are moderately deep yellow podzols, with moderate to free drainage and weak to moderate structure (NSW NPWS 1998b) or shallow soils derived from metasediments of greywacke (Armstrong 2002). The climate is characterised by high annual rainfall (average 1718 mm) and low diurnal temperature fluctuations (NSW NPWS 1998b).

It occurs in low coastal heathland or sod grassland (Griffith, S.J. in Armstrong 2002; Harden 2002). This vegetation is dominated by Themeda australis but includes Helichrysum bracteatum, Hibbertia vestita, Oxylobium scandens var. obovatum, Pultenaea sp. aff. villosa, Pimelea linifolia, Senecio lautus subsp. maritimus, Polymeria calycina, Stephania japonica var. discolor and Hydrocotyle peduncularis. In more sheltered aspects, the species grows among wind-pruned open to sparse shrubland with Banksia integrifolia var. integrifolia and Acacia sophorae (Griffith, S.J. in Armstrong 2002).

Flowering is mostly from late Aug. until early Oct. (NSW NPWS 1998b; SGAP 2000; Armstrong 2002). Fruit are borne on the plant during spring to summer (Steenbeeke 1998) in Oct-Nov (Armstrong 2002).

Large quantities of seed are produced in the wild, despite the lack of an obvious pollinator. In cultivation, the species is self-fertile and self-pollinating in the absence of pollinating organisms (Hogbin & Peakall 1999). Seeds are released explosively and ants further assist dispersal. The soil seedbank seems to have a short lifespan and extremely low viability (<1%). Annual seed set is probably required for seedling recruitment. In contrast, in situ experiments showed no significant reduction in seed viability over time. Seeds buried at 2 cm in disturbed soils germinated faster than those at 5 cm, or in undisturbed soil at the same depths (NSW NPWS 1998b).

In 1996, insect larvae consumed 50% of the seed produced by two populations (NSW NPWS 1998b; SGAP 2000). Dammerels Head and Look-At-Me-Now Headland experienced a high level of seed predation and seed deformity, whereas Bare Bluff and Diggers Point showed no evidence of seed predation and significantly less seed deformity. It is unknown if this pattern will continue or whether it merely represents seasonal variation (Hogbin & Peakall 1997 in NSW NPWS 1998b).

The species is atypical of putative outcrossing species. There was high genetic differentiation between populations and little genetic differentiation between individuals of a population. Such high levels of divergence are particularly unusual given the highly restricted distribution of the species. High levels of selfing are likely to be occurring (Peakall 1994a; Hogbin & Peakall 1999). Gene flow between headlands may be minimal or non existent, due to restricted pollen and seed dispersal. The smallest population, Diggers Point, is genetically the most divergent despite being geographically intermediate (Hogbin & Peakall 1999).

Adult plants are killed by fire. The fire-free period required for successful species continuity is unknown, but is likely to be critical (NSW NPWS 1998b; SGAP 2000). Individuals of the species appear to persist in the absence of fire for extended periods (Griffith, S.J. in Armstrong 2002).

The species is capable of vegetative reproduction by stem layering. Seedlings are rarely seen in natural populations of Z. prostrata (Griffith, S.J. in Armstrong 2002).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Sea level rise:Inundation associated with climate change Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Zieria prostrata Recovery Plan - 1999-2001 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 1998b) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking Zieria prostrata Recovery Plan - 1999-2001 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 1998b) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu) Zieria prostrata Recovery Plan - 1999-2001 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 1998b) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) Zieria prostrata Recovery Plan - 1999-2001 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 1998b) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Bitou Bush, Boneseed) Weeds of National Significance Bitou Bush and Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata and monilifera) Strategic Plan (Agriculture & Resources Management Council of Australia & New Zealand, Australian & New Zealand Environment & Conservation Council and Forestry Ministers, 2000b) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Zieria prostrata Recovery Plan - 1999-2001 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 1998b) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Zieria prostrata Recovery Plan - 1999-2001 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 1998b) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Zieria prostrata Recovery Plan - 1999-2001 (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 1998b) [Recovery Plan].

Anon (1996c). Draft Minutes for the 5th Zieria prostrata Recovery Team Meeting: 24-25 Sept. 1996. Page(s) 9.

Armstrong, J.A. (2002). Zieria (Rutaceae): a systematic and evolutionary study. Australian Systematic Botany. 15:277-463.

Griffith, S.J. (1992c). Species Recovery Plan Zieria prostrata ms. Hurstville: NSW NPWS.

Harden, G.J. (ed.) (1991). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

Harden, G.J. (ed.) (2002). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two - rev. edn. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.

Hogbin, P.M. & Peakall, R. (1999). Evaluation of the Contribution of Genetic Research to the Management of the Endangered Plant Zieria prostrata. Conservation Biology. 13(3):514-522.

Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (1998b). Zieria prostrata Recovery Plan - 1999-2001. [Online]. Hurstville: NSW NPWS. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/z-prostrata/index.html.

NSW Scientific Committee (2003e). Zieria prostrata - endangered species listing. [Online]. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/listings/ZieriaProstrataEndSpListing.htm.

Peakall, R. (1994a). Genetic Analysis of the Endangered Zieria prostrata: implications for its conservation, A report prepared for the NSW NPWS. Page(s) 9. Australian National University. Canberra, unpublished.

Prakash, N. (1995). Aspects of the Reproductive Biology of Zieria prostrata (Rutaceae), A Report Prepared for the NSW NPWS. Armidale, University of New England.

Sheringham, P. & J. Westaway (1995). Significant Vascular Plants of Upper North East NSW: A report by the NSW NPWS for the Natural Resources Audit Council. NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.

Society for Growing Australian Plants; Canberra Region Inc (2000). SGAP ACT Database. [Online]. Available from: http://members.ozemail.com.au/~mightyq/plants/.

Steenbeeke, G. (1998). Clarence Rare Plant Species Information. [Online]. Available from: http://www.nor.com.au/environment/clarencecatchment/vegetation/rares/rarein.htm.

Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Zieria prostrata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 22 Aug 2014 05:01:25 +1000.