Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
QLD:Survey of Threatened Plant Species in South-East Queensland Biographical Region (Halford, D., 1998) [Report].
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi [5712]
Family Zamiaceae:Cycadales:Cycadatae:Cycadophyta:Plantae
Species author F.Muell.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 1 (Feb. 1859) 86.
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.pacsoa.org.au/cycads/Macrozamia/pauli-guilielmi.html

Scientific name: Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi

Common name: Pineapple Zamia, Twisted Ricketts Wood

Conventionally accepted as Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi W. Hill & F.Muell. (CHAH 2010).

M. pauli-guilielmi is part of a species complex that also includes M. parcifolia and M. lomandroides, and is called the Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi complex. Systematic and genetic studies are required to determine accurate species boundaries between these species (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Small cycad

The Pineapple Zamia is a small cycad with an underground ovoid trunk and spiral leaves (Jones 1993a; Qld CRA/RFA 1998). In total there are five species of Macrozamia characterised by strongly spirally twisted leaves with narrow, deeply concave leaflets, but the Pineapple Zamia is separated within this group by its very narrow, pale green leaflets (Hill 1998a, 1998b; Jones & Forster 1994).

Specialised roots

Beneath the surface, the Pineapple Zamia has a non-branching trunk that is 25 cm long and 20 cm across (Jones 1993a; Qld CRA/RFA 1998) as well as 1–3 parsnip like roots (Butt et al. 1993). Like all cycads, this species has a number of specialised roots known as coralloid roots that can be seen protruding above the surface of the earth (Jones 1993a).

Sparse crown

The Pineapple Zamia has an erect, very sparse crown, with 2 to 8 mature leaves 50–100 cm long (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Except for a woolly base, the leaves are hairless (Qld CRA/RFA 1998). Each leaf has 130–200 leaflets that appear whorled or feather-like because of the strongly twisted main axis of the leaf (rachis) (Jones & Forster 1994). The leaflets are thick, textured, 2.3–4 mm wide, and dull green on both surfaces (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Pineapple-like cones

This species is dioecious, that is, the male and female reproductive structures (cones) are on separate plants, usually with one to three cones on each plant. These cones superficially resemble pineapples, and in this species the cones of the two sexes are markedly dissimilar (Qld CRA/RFA 1998), though both cones are green in colour (Jones 1991a, 1993a; Jones & Forster 1994). Male cones are 8–14 cm long, 3.5–5 cm wide, and straight. Female cones are oval shaped, 9–14 cm long and 4–6.5 cm wide. Seeds are 17–25 mm long and 13–20 mm wide and red when ripe (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

M. pauli-guilielmi is endemic to south-east Queensland where it is found in the Wide Bay district, from near the Isis River in the north, to near Wolvi in the south (Queensland Herbarium 2007). The species is also found on Fraser Island (Jones 1993a).

Extent of occurrence

The extent of occurrence of the Pineapple Zamia is approximately 2400 km2 (Qld CRA/RFA 1998b).
While the area of occupancy is believed to have contracted from human interference, the extent of occurrence is believed to reflect the species' natural range (Qld CRA/RFA 1998b).

Area of occupancy

With an estimated area of occupancy of at least 35 ha, (Queensland Herbarium 2007), historically the Pineapple Zamia probably occupied a larger area, as land owners were in the past actively encouraged to remove cycads from their land (Forster 1996c). Large tracts of land inhabited by this species were cleared for pine plantations and urban development (Qld CRA/RFA 1998b).

Public collections

Pineapple Zamias occur in at least two public collections: one individual plant is in the Australian National Botanic Gardens, Canberra (ANBG 2006); and four individuals are found in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. This species is considered to be easy to propagate from seeds or slices from the trunk (Jones 1993a).

Pineapple Zamias were surveyed as part of the Survey of Threatened Plant Species in Southeast Queensland; and abundance estimates were determined for 17 populations during 1998.

The total area of occupancy of these 17 populations was 329 079 m2, and varied in area of occupancy from 0.01 to 8 hectares. Only one population known in 1998 occurred in disturbed habitat and all populations were made up of generally healthy individuals (Qld CRA/RFA 1998).

There are 27 known populations of the Pineapple Zamia with at least 13,131 adult individuals. Populations range from single plants up to 3600 individuals (Queensland Herbarium 2007). The vast majority of individuals occur in four populations (Qld CRA/RFA 1998b).

Excerpts from population data from Queensland Herbarium (2007):

Population Number of Adult plants Area of occupancy Evidence of coning Seedlings present (+/-) Tenure
1 c.150 1 + 31 Vacant Crown land (VCL)
2 105 0.1 + n/a Freehold Title (FHT)/VCL
3 3 0.25 n/a n/a National park (NP)
4 15 0.0075 + n/a State Forest (SF)
5 <100 c.0.5 n/a + SF
6 Occasional n/a - n/a SF
7 1 0.25 - - FHT
8 1224 2.4 + n/a SF
9 42 0.075 - n/a SF
10 n/a n/a n/a n/a FHT
11 126 2 - n/a FHT/SF/Road Reserve (RR)
12 20 1.5 +   SF
13 10 1 - n/a SF
14 3600 5 - n/a SF
15 <100 c.5 - n/a SF
16 214 0.25 - n/a SF
17 1950 1.5 + n/a SF
18 158 2.5 + n/a SF
19 5120 8 n/a n/a SF
20 Occasional n/a n/a n/a SF
21 Occasional n/a n/a n/a SF
22 Uncommon n/a n/a n/a SF
23 105 3 + n/a SF
24 3 0.03 + n/a SF
25 Occasional n/a + n/a SF
26 23 0.03 n/a 18 NP
27 62 0.5 - n/a NP

Long term viability

Only four populations are currently considered to be viable in the long-term. Populations 8, 14 and 17 occurring in Tuan State Forest are considered to be part of a single, significantly fragmented metapopulation. Population 8 occurs in an area of pine plantations, while Populations 14, 17, and 19 (Toolara) occur in remnant vegetation.

Short term viability

Most of the remaining populations of M. pauli-guilielmi show evidence of insect pollination and seedling recruitment, an indication of viability at least in the short term (Queensland Herbarium 2007), though the life history characteristics of cycads means that any increase in population size is likely to be slow and incremental (Forster 1996c, 2004a, 2004b; Qld CRA/RFA 1998b; Sharma et al. 1998).

Further population research required

More detailed information about the health, age structure and viability of the populations of this species and its associated symbionts (other species critical to its survival) is necessary to identify which populations are particularly important for the long-term survival and recovery of this species. However, the Pineapple Zamia is thought to be genetically impoverished and therefore all populations are important for maintaining genetic diversity (Sharma et al. 1998).

There is contradictory evidence as to whether or not hybridisation is occurring, with Johnson (1959) indicating that hybridization and the occurrence of intermediate forms is common. However, a more recent survey by Jones (1991a) could not find any evidence of hybridisation occurring.

Three populations are known from national parks, and nineteen in state forests in Queensland. Four of the state forest populations (populations 8, 14, 17, and 19) are considered significant populations (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi occurs in lowland (5–230 m altitude) open forest or woodland (wallum) dominated by banksias or eucalypts, or in shrub land or heath land, generally on stabilised sand dunes (Queensland Herbarium 2007). It does not have a preferred aspect (Qld CRA/RFA 1998).

No life span estimates

There are currently no life span estimates for the Pineapple Zamia. However, other Macrozamia species range in age from 120 to 1500 years (Qld CRA/RFA 1998b). Although there is no field data on time to reach maturity for Pineapple Zamias, it is known from cultivation of other cycads that it can take 2–30 years to reach maturity. However, such time has been noted to be shorter amongst Pineapple Zamia plants in cultivation (Jones 1993a; Qld CRA/RFA 1998).

Symbiotic relationships

All cycads exist in a symbiotic relationship with blue-green algae within their coralloid roots - a form of root that forks continuously such that it resembles coral (Lindblad 1987). These roots grow upwards and may be visible above ground in the leaf litter surrounding some cycads. It is in some of the cortical cells of these roots, that the algae grow and 'fix' nitrogen from the atmosphere, making it available to their host plant, the cycad (Jones 1993a). Cycads are also known to have a mycorrhizal relationship with VAM fungi (e.g. Brundrett & Abbott 1991). However, no more specific information has been found on this association in relation to the Pineapple Zamia.

Insect associates

Other organisms that are critical to the life cycle of Pineapple Zamias are its insect associates. A number of complex cycad-insect associations are thought to exist (Oberprieler 1995; Terry 2001) and a variety of associations have been postulated for Pineapple Zamia; however, the most well studied aspect is that between cycads and their insect pollinators (Forster et al. 1994; Terry 2001).

Importance of Pollinators

As Pineapple Zamias are dioecious, cones on both male and female plants must be produced at the same time and pollen must be transferred between male and female individuals for seed production. Pollination is a complex system involving insect vectors (Jones 1993a), with weevil like beetles of the genus Tranes are thought to be one of the pollination vectors for the Pineapple Zamia (Forster et al. 1994). However, other species of beetles (Coleoptera) as well as some bees (Hymenoptera) and thrips (Thysanoptera) have been found in association with the reproductive structures of other Macrozamias.

Some cycad pollination syndromes are highly specialised, with the cycad dependent upon individual insect species (Forster 1994). Terry (2001) reports on some of the different pollination systems of species of Macrozamia: four are pollinated only by Cycadothrips; eight with only Tranes sp. weevils and another three depend on both thrips and weevils, sometimes in a highly mutualistic association. To date only one species of weevil, Tranes sp. 2, is known to be involved with pollination of Pineapple Zamia and this species of thrip is considered to be restricted to only a few Macrozamia hosts including: M. douglasii, M. johnsonii and M. lomandroides (Forster et al. 1994).

Forster and colleagues (1994) made behavioural observations of this weevil, (Tranes sp. 2) on Pineapple Zamias and observed adults of Tranes sp. 2 on the male cones of Pineapple Zamias covered in pollen; whilst the larvae of this species fed on the axis of the male cones before pupating, when the adults emerged they moved and mated among the microsporophylls (Forster et al. 1994).

Seed production

Pineapple Zamias are highly variable in their annual seed production as their coning (fruit production) events only occur every 4–6 years (Jones 1993). Once produced seed viability is not thought to persist beyond 6–12 months (Qld CRA/RFA 1998). Consequently, this variability in annual seed production and limited seed longevity is likely to lead to highly varied rates of seedling recruitment (Jones 1993; Qld CRA/RFA 1998).

Seed of the Pineapple Zamia becomes ripe in March to April (Queensland Herbarium 2007). There is no information available on dispersal or recruitment for M. pauli-guilielmi (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Native mammals are thought to disperse the seed (Qld CRA/RFA 1998), though seedling recruitment is noted to be localised with seedlings often being clumped in close proximity to the parent plants (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Additionally, research on related species of Macrozamia (M. riedlei and M. communis) has demonstrated that most seeds will not survive to seedling stage, which can take up to 18 months, and in these species only 3–4% of the seed produced survives to adulthood (Jones 1993a; Qld CRA/RFA 1998).

Importance of fire in resprouting

The synchronous cone formation (masting) often follows fire, with a small percentage of individuals
coning in the first year following the fire, and a high percentage of individuals coning in the second
year. This pattern has been found in many species of Macrozamia.The underground stems of adult Macrozamia plants allow the plants to resprout after loss of above-ground foliage from fire. Seedlings and unburied seeds are usually killed by fire (Queensland Herbarium 2007).

All members of the Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi species complex are characterised by (Jones and Forster 1994):

  • strongly spirally twisted leaves
  • narrow, incurved leaflets
  • a restricted distribution.

A description of the closely related species and their differences to Pineapple Zamias are presented below.

Macrozamia flexuosa

Pineapple Zamias are morphologically closest to M. flexuosa but can be distinguished by its shorter flattened petioles and narrower, lighter green, dull leaflets which are yellowish beneath (Butt 1991). The Pineapple Zamia is also restricted to the Wide Bay district growing mainly in coastal lowlands (Jones and Forster 1994).

Macrozamia plurinervia

M. plurinervia is a tough, drought-tolerant species which grows mainly in inland districts which have a low and irregular rainfall (Butt 1991). This species has a broader petiole and rachis than both the Pineapple Zamia and M. flexuosa and it has much broader, stiffer, thicker textured, dark-green to glaucous leaflets with the apex tapering sharply to a point and glaucous cones (Jones 1991). This species has a widespread, yet disjunct distribution, occurring on the lower slopes and western parts of the Northern Tablelands, Central Western Slopes (upper Hunter Valley), North Western Slopes of NSW and southern parts of the Darling Downs District of Queensland (Jones 1991a). At each location this species has a small and localised distribution (Jones 1993a).

Macrozamia crassifolia

Macrozamia crassifolia has much thicker-textured, darker green leaflets, male cones with prominent apical spines on the upper sporophylls (compared with very short or vestigial spines in the Pineapple Zamia) and larger female cones. It occurs in six populations in two small areas near Mundubbera and Eidsvold in the Burnett district, existing among rocks and boulders at altitudes of between 340–420 m (Jones and Forster 1994).

Macrozamia parcifolia

Macrozamia parcifolia has narrower, thinner-textured, darker green leaflets which are attached to the rachis at a steeper angle. Also, the hardened base of its leaflets are greenish white and obscure in comparison to the prominent cream to white hardened base of the Pineapple Zamia. Macrozamia parcifolia has the narrowest and thinnest leaves of any members of the complex, giving its leaves an untidy and wispy appearance. This species is known from three locations restricted to the Biggenden area in the Wide Bay district and grows on red-brown clay loams of basaltic origin on ridges and in tall open forest at altitudes of between 180–220 m (Jones and Forster 1994). This species is very similar in morphology and genetic distance to the Pineapple Zamia so much so that Sharma et al. (1998) state that there is insufficient evidence to discriminate between these two species based on genetic analysis using allozyme data.

Survey methods

Pineapple Zamias can be detected year round. However, determining the sex of an individual is only possible when it is coning (Qld CRA/RFA 1998b). Additionally, detecting the presence of its insect associates, and thus assessing the viability of the population, may depend on the time of day that surveys are conducted. For example Tranes lyterioides, is a pollination vector of the related species Macrozamia communis, and this weevil is largely nocturnal; its time of greatest activity is between 1930–2100 h (Terry 2001).

Loss of habitat

Historically, loss of Pineapple Zamia habitat has been an issue in areas where large tracts of land have been cleared for agriculture or pine plantations and to a lesser extent residential development (Jones 1993a; Qld CRA/RFA 1998). Habitat loss remains a threat on freehold land and road reserves, with proposed road corridors in the Poona, Tuan State Forest 915 (SF) and Cooloola Way road systems; quarrying in the vicinity of Tuan SF; and proposed housing development in the vicinity of Tin Can Bay, Poona, Maryborough, Buxton and Isis River areas (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Where plants are growing within pine plantations their survival is unlikely as the ground is 'ripped and mounded' prior to planting of the next crop (Qld CRA/RFA 1998). However, new management practices have been implemented to minimise the impact of forestry practices on cycads within Queensland State Forests (Forster 2004b).

Removal of plants

Illegal removal of cycad plants from the wild is a global problem. Graziers remove cycads from their land to prevent the toxic leaves and fruits of cycad species being ingested by stock animals. Pineapple Zamia is recorded as causing hepatic disease in cattle when eaten even in low quantities, and ataxia (loss of coordination and paralysis) when eaten dry (Hooper 1983). Plants, seeds and seedlings are also removed by cycad enthusiasts for collections. Species such as the Pineapple Zamia are particularly targeted by poachers (Forster 1996b). All individuals are threatened by poaching, however, the closer a populations' proximity to roads the greater the potential and extent of poaching (Qld CRA/RFA 1998).

Inappropriate fire regime

The habitats of M. platyrhachis and M. pauli-guilielmi are extremely fire-prone and are burnt irregularly at two year, or longer, intervals. The fires are often intense, uncontrolled and may be started by lightning or burning off on adjacent pastoral land, state forests or national parks (Queensland Herbarium 2007). Fires that pass through a population when mature plants are senescing may kill juvenile plants and seeds, affecting the viability of the population. It is unknown what the impact of fire is on the symbiotic associates of Macrozamias, such as insect pollinators (Qld CRA/RFA 1998).

Loss of Genetic Variation

The Pineapple Zamia exhibits low genetic diversity most likely due to the limited distribution and small population size of the species (Sharma et al. 1998). Continued loss of individuals affects the ability of the species to be viable into the future.

Associations with Other Species

Pineapple Zamias face an uncertain future due not only to the persistent natural and anthropogenic threats outlined above, but also to the complex interactions it has with other organisms. This species is known to depend on insects to distribute its pollen and other complex tasks (Terry et al. 2005). This means that pollinator extinction becomes an additional, major threat to small cycad populations (e.g. Norstog et al. 1993). The causes of pollinator decline are thought to be much the same as the cause of decline in the cycads: loss of habitat due to large-scale land clearing, illegal removal of cycad plants (Terry et al. 2005), timber harvesting and fire (Forster 2004a, 2004b). The Pineapple Zamia exists in a mycorrhizal relationship with a fungus, and like other cycads it is known to depend on blue-green algae for nitrogen fixation (Lindblad 1987). Thus the population survival of these organisms is critical for the maintenance of the web of associations necessary for the preservation of the Pineapple Zamia. These organisms are likely to be threatened by the same threats as the Pineapple Zamia.

Climate change

Rapid changes in climate are also considered a threat to cycads worldwide (Forster 2004a, 2004b).

A National Multi-species Recovery Plan for cycads (Queensland Herbarium 2007) was adopted in 2007 and the objectives of this document are:

  • To prevent further loss of individuals, populations, pollinator species and habitat critical for the species survival.
  • To recover existing populations to normal reproductive capacity to ensure viability in the long-term, prevent extinction, maintain genetic viability, and improve conservation status.

A number of conservation measures for the Pineapple Zamia were also proposed as part of the Queensland Regional Forestry Agreement including (Qld CRA/RFA 1998):

  • All remaining populations of Pineapple Zamia that are in native forest and not already preserved within State Forest Scientific Areas should be preserved; and, in the event of large-scale land clearing, individual plants should be salvaged.
  • The location of wild populations of Pineapple Zamia should remain confidential and access to this information should only be provided to individuals with the appropriate permits from the Queensland Department of Environment and Queensland Department of Primary Industries.
  • Appropriate fire management practices are contingent upon detailed information on the ecology and reproductive biology of Pineapple Zamia, information that is largely lacking. Consequently information regarding the effect of fire on coning and seedling survival is needed before an appropriate fire regime can be decided upon.

Translocation of cycads from threatened habitats has been undertaken for other Australian species (Cycas megacarpa, C. ophiolitica and M. lomandroides (Forster 2005; Rowe and Rowe 1995, cited in Queensland Herbarium 2007). Translocation of cycads has also been undertaken for South African species (Boyd 1995, cited in Queensland Herbarium 2007). Any translocation project should follow the general guidelines for translocation as given by Vallee and colleagues (2004).

Four taxonomic and/or population studies have been published in relation to the Pineapple Zamia, namely, Johnson (1959), Jones (1991a), Jones & Forster (1994) and Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee (1998b).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006py) [Internet].
Survey of Threatened Plant Species in South East Queensland Biogeographical Region (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee, 1998) [Internet].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Wood and Pulp Plantations:Habitat destruction due to forestry activities Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006py) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006py) [Internet].
National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Survey of Threatened Plant Species in South East Queensland Biogeographical Region (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee, 1998) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006py) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006py) [Internet].
National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Survey of Threatened Plant Species in South East Queensland Biogeographical Region (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee, 1998) [Internet].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Survey of Threatened Plant Species in South East Queensland Biogeographical Region (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee, 1998) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006py) [Internet].
National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006py) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development of roads and railroads National Multi-species Recovery Plan for the cycads, Cycas megacarpa, Cycas ophiolitica, Macrozamia cranei, Macrozamia lomandroides, Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi and Macrozamia platyrhachis (Queensland Herbarium, 2007) [Recovery Plan].

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Macrozamia pauli-guilielmi in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 31 Jul 2014 03:51:24 +1000.