In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Not listed under EPBC Act|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Paradelma orientalis (Brigalow scaly-foot) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2013bk) [Listing Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, species delisted from the EPBC Act (15/05/2013).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzq) [Threat Abatement Plan].
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened reptiles. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.6
(Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011m) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Paradelma orientalis.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (139) (29/04/2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2013n) [Legislative Instrument] as Paradelma orientalis.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Paradelma orientalis |
|Other names||Pygopus orientalis |
|Distribution map||Species Distribution Map not available for this taxon.|
Paradelma orientalis was removed from the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 list of threatened species on 15 May 2013.
Scientific name: Paradelma orientalis
Common name: Brigalow Scaly-foot
The Brigalow Scaly-foot is a glossy dark brown/dark grey legless lizard with a milky opaqueness. The base of the head is cream to pale brown, darkening towards the snout and contrasting sharply with the black bar on the base of the head. The species has a white underbody and the scales often have dark centres forming a faint longitudinal striped pattern on the sides (Cogger 2000; TSN 2008b).
The Brigalow Scaly-foot grows to 16 cm and is quite heavy set with a round snout and moderately large limb-flaps. The scales are smooth and glossy and usually occur in 18, or occasionally 20, rows (Cogger 2000; TSN 2008b).
The known distribution of the Brigalow Scaly-foot extends from Nebo in the north, Boyne Island in the east, Wyaga in the south and Ulcanbah Station and Idalia National Park (NP) in the west (Kutt et al. 2003, Tremul 2000; TSN 2008b). The species occurs in the Brigalow Belt North and South bioregions (Cogger et al. 1993), the southern parts of the Desert Uplands bioregion and the Mulga Lands bioregion (TSN 2008b). The Brigalow Scaly-foot is known to occur only in Queensland, although potential habitat for the species may extend just over the border into New South Wales.
Recorded localities of the species include (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.; Cogger et al. 1993; Covacevich et al. 1996a; Matrixplus Consulting 2010; Schultz & Eyre 1997; Tremul 2000; Wilson & Knowles 1988): Collinsville, north of Capella, Blackwater, Dysart, Moranbah, Copabella, Nebo, Emerald, Gladstone, Lilly Hills Reserve on Boyne Island, Wandoo Station near Moura, Moura, south-east of Theodore, Coominglah, Salvator Rosa, Idalia NP, Tambo, Cracow, Windera,north of Murgon, west of Wallumbilla, Carnarvon NP, Dunmore SF near Cecil Plains, Kolonia Station near Wandoan, Golden Plateau via Taroom, Eena SF, Inglewood, Barakula SF, the Chesterton Range near Charleville and Alpha.
Tremul (2000) includes relevant survey information.
Contiguous remnant vegetation
Important Brigalow Scaly-foot populations occur in large contiguous areas of remnant vegetation that are suitable for the species, such as the Central Queensland sandstone rises, the Blackwater/Blackdown Tablelands region, the Moura/Theodore region and the Boyne Island area. Such areas of remnant vegetation are considered important strongholds for the species. Any populations found in such habitats are, therefore, important (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010).
Boyne Island is at the eastern extent of the species' range and so suitable habitat for the Brigalow Scaly-foot is necessary for maintaining the genetic diversity of the species (Richardson 2006).
Landscape corridors of suitable habitat, linking large patches of suitable remnant vegetation, are important for maintaining dispersal of the species and its genetic diversity.
The Brigalow Scaly-foot's core habitat occurs mostly within the Brigalow Belt South bioregion. The species is found in a wide variety of remnant and non-remnant open forest to woodland habitats. The species is known to persist in highly disturbed vegetation types, for example those areas invaded by Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris), Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus) and other weeds (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010). The species occurs within the following Queensland Regional Ecosystem Land Zones (LZ) (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; Eddie 2010 pers. comm.; Schultz & Eyre 1997; Tremul 2000):
- LZ 3 - Alluvium (river and creek flats)
- LZ 4 - Clay plains not associated with current alluvium
- LZ 5 - Old loamy and sandy plains
- LZ 7 - Ironstone jump-ups
- LZ 8 - Basalt plains and hills (only where close to the interface with LZ 10)
- LZ 9 - Undulating country on fine-grained sedimentary rocks
- LZ 10 - Sandstone ranges.
For more information on Queensland Regional Ecosystems, please visit the Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management website at http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife-ecosystems/biodiversity/regional_ecosystems/.
Common vegetation types
The Brigalow Scaly-foot is found in open forests, woodlands and mixed communities dominated by:
- Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla) communities
- Gidgee (Acacia cambagei)
- Bendee (Acacia catenulata)
- Lancewood (Acacia shirleyi)
- Broad-leafed Hickory Wattle (Acacia falciformis)
- Blue Spotted Gum (Corymbia citriodora)
- Narrow-leaved Ironbark (Eucalyptus crebra)
- Bimble/Poplar Box (Eucalyptus populnea)
- Belah (Casuarina cristata)
- Cypress Pine (Callitris columellaris)
- Buloke/Bull Oak (Allocasuarina luehmannii).
Specific habitat types recorded
Specific habitats (including the corresponding Queensland Regional Ecosystem or RE types) where the species has been found include:
- Brigalow open forest to woodland communities (REs 11.4.3, 11.4.8 and 11.4.9) (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.).
- Remnant Brigalow woodland with sparse tussock grasses on grey cracking clay soils in Central Queensland (Cogger et al. 1993).
- Brigalow and/or Belah open forest on alluvium (RE 11.3.1) and on broad depressions within Cainozoic sand plains (RE 11.5.16) (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.).
- Low Gidgee woodland with cracking alluvial clay soils at Ulcanbah Station (Kutt et al. 2003).
- Bendee forest on Cainozoic coarse-grained sedimentary rocks (RE 11.10.3) (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.).
- Blue Spotted Gum and Narrow-leaved Ironbark (Eucalyptus crebra) open forest in Barakula State Forest (Schultz & Eyre 1997).
- Narrow-leaved Ironbark and Grey Box (E. microcarpa) open forest with a dense sub-canopy of Cypress Pine (Callitris spp.) and Buloke on loose sandy clay substrate in Eena State Forest (Schultz & Eyre 1997).
- Bimble/Poplar Box woodland on sandy-clay alluvial soils at Downs Station (Kutt et al. 2003).
- Mountain Coolibah (Eucalyptus orgadophila) grassy open-woodland (RE 11.8.5).
- Dry sclerophyll forest on a sandstone rise in Dunmore State Forest (Schultz & Eyre 1997).
- Mixed species open woodland with a buck spinifex (Triodia mitchelli) dominated ground layer in the Chesterton Range near Charleville (Schultz & Eyre 1997).
- Buloke closed forest with widely scattered Narrow-leaved Ironbark emergents on loose sandy clay substrate in Eena State Forest (Schultz & Eyre 1997).
- Vine thickets on rocky escarpments (RE 11.5.3/5.9).
Specimens are often found sheltering under sandstone slabs, surface debris or in grass hummocks (Wilson & Knowles 1988). Topography varies from sandstone ridges to flats and gently undulating plains with clay, loam or sand (Schultz & Eyre 1997; Tremul 2000).
One specimen from Moura was found in a fold in a sheet of fallen stringybark (Shea 1987b), while four specimens from Eena State Forest were found under slabs of fallen Narrow-leaved Ironbark bark (Schultz & Eyre 1997).
Collections have been made on cultivated areas, suggesting persistence despite clearing (McDonald et al. 1991).
Boyne Island habitat
On Boyne Island, the Brigalow Scaly-foot occurs in tall woodland with Blue Spotted Gum, Clarkson's Bloodwood (Corymbia clarksoniana), Queensland Peppermint (Eucalyptus exserta) and Narrow-leaved Ironbark (E. crebra ) with a sparse understory of Hickory Wattle (Acacia falciformis), Crowded-leaf Wattle (A. conferta), Broom (Jacksonia scoparia) and Pogonolobus reticulatus with a sparse ground stratum of Xanthorrhoea latifolia, Wiry Panic (Entolasia stricta) and Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra). The substrate is covered with a dense layer of dry leaf litter. Soils are shallow and very few large rock fragments occur in the area (Tremul 2000).
Co-occurrence with nationally listed ecological communities
The Brigalow Scaly-foot is known to occur in the Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla dominant and co-dominant) ecological community (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; Cogger 2000; Wilson & Knowles 1988).
The species is also known to occur in Queensland Regional Ecosystem (RE) 11.3.2 (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010). Weeping Myall (Acacia pendula) can sometimes dominate the distinctly low tree layer in this RE. As such, the species may coincide with the endangered Weeping Myall Woodlands ecological community in a given patch of RE 11.3.2 depending on whether the vegetation meets the listing criteria for the listed community.
For more information on these nationally listed ecological communities, please consult the SPRAT database.
Co-occurrence with the nationally listed Yakka Skink (Egernia rugosa)
The Brigalow Scaly-foot is known to co-occur with the Yakka Skink (Egernia rugosa), which is listed as Vulnerable under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The species may co-occur in a range of vegetation types within Queensland Regional Ecosystem Land Zones, 3, 4, 5 , 7, 9 and 10 (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; Eddie 2010 pers. comm.).
Tremul (2000) has studied the breeding behaviour of the Brigalow Scaly-foot population on Boyne Island.
One gravid female captured in late October from Boyne Island laid two elongate eggs in captivity in early November. The eggs hatched in late January after being incubated between 1836 °C. Hatching is a slow process, taking 7.553 hours for the hatchling to finally exit the egg (Tremul 2000).
The feeding behaviour of the species has been studied by Tremul (2000) on Boyne Island.
Sap from Hickory Wattle forms a major portion of the diet of juvenile and adult Brigalow Scaly-foot lizards on Boyne Island. Newly hatched individuals were observed on the trunks of Acacia species during spotlighting, nocturnal surveys (Tremul 2000). While primarily ground-dwelling, individuals from this population have been recorded climbing the rough bark of wattles to lick exuding sap (TSN 2008b). Of 76 specimens found on Acacia species, 20% were feeding on sap. A marked individual on Boyne Island was observed to be in the same feeding tree on three consecutive nights (Tremul 2000). Scats collected from Boyne Island included remains of a spider, an orthopteroid and many unidentified insect fragments. Scats collected 20 km north of Dingo consisted of tightly compressed membranous material (mostly plant) and the remains of a large spider and a cricket (Tremul 2000).
The movement patterns of the species have also been studied by Tremul on Boyne Island.
The Brigalow Scaly-foot is a nocturnal species. Tremul (2000) found only one individual during the day, sheltering under a rock, during a ten-year study on Boyne Island (Tremul 2000). During the day, the species shelters beneath sandstone slabs, logs, loose bark, dense leaf litter and in grass tussocks, including spinifex. 75% of active specimens found during the study on Boyne Island (Tremul 2000) were spotlighted in sap-exuding Hickory Wattle trees. Lizards appeared to only use the trunk and main branches, and climb to heights in excess of 2 m (Tremul 2000). Captive specimens prefer to shelter under flat objects and show no tendency to bury in the substrate (Shea 1987b).
On Boyne Island, lizards are active between late August and early June. No individuals were observed during winter when the maximum temperature at night fell below 19 °C.
Although predation was not observed on Boyne Island, 75% of handled individuals had regenerated tails (Tremul 2000).
Species distinctiveness and detectability
Paradelma is morphologically similar to other large pygopods (Pygopus and Delma species), but can be readily differentiated from Delma species by having preanal pores, and from Pygopus species by having smooth dorsal and lateral body scales rather than slightly ridged to strongly keeled scales. It is possible that an inexperienced surveyor could mistake Paradelma for one of the large burrowing skinks, particularly the Three-clawed Worm-skink (Anomalopus verreauxii) or the Two-clawed Worm-skink (A. leuckartii), but these have styliform front and hindlimbs with terminal claws on at least the front limbs, rather than no trace of any front limbs and a flattened flap-like hindlimb (DSEWPaC 2011m).
Sampling and recording of observed specimens
Potential records of the Brigalow Scaly-foot should be supported by a good quality colour photograph. Photo vouchers or skin sloughs should be forwarded to the Queensland Museum for positive identification and data collation of the record (DSEWPaC 2011m).
Tissue sampling should only be undertaken with appropriate training in tissue preservation, ethics approval and State permits to collect samples. Where possible photo vouchers should include close-up colour shots of the limb areas, and the head, body and tail dorsally, ventrally and laterally. Dead specimens (e.g. roadkills) should be frozen and advice on preservation and lodgement sought from the Australian Museum or the Queensland Museum (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010; DSEWPaC 2011m).
A habitat assessment is recommended to be undertaken as a preliminary step to designing and undertaking a targeted survey, including:
- Determine the proximity of nearest records to the study area.
- Search relevant databases such as Zoology Data Search (Queensland Museum) and Wildlife Online (Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management).
- Obtain State vegetation mapping for the study area to determine the extent of suitable habitat including the presence of associated vegetation communities.
- Determine the presence of suitable microhabitat features in the study area.
Employ multiple survey techniques to confirm the presence/absence of the Brigalow Scaly-foot in your study area. Actively search suitable microhabitat and strategically deploy pitfall or, where practical, funnel trap lines during the day. Conduct targeted, spotlight surveys on warm nights to optimize your survey effort where necessary (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010). Refer to Tremul (2000) with regards to spotlight searches of sap-exuding Acacia species on Boyne Island.
Please note that the use of traps requires State government approval. It is important to ensure that trapped animals, including by-catch, do not suffer injury or death from the effects of high temperatures, dehydration or predation, whilst caught in traps.
As temperatures rise during the day, the species is likely to seek refuge in temperature-buffered environments and are less likely to be encountered. During winter, detection rates by active hand-searching may increase during the warmer parts of the day. This is especially important in the southern parts of the species' range (Agnew 2010 pers. comm.; DSEWPaC 2011m).
Minimum survey effort
Sufficient time is required to thoroughly search the area by day and to spotlight by night. The minimum survey effort required includes (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010):
- a minimum of three survey days and nights
- at least one replicate survey employing all of the recommended techniques, if the species has not already been detected.
A recovery plan for the Queensland Brigalow Belt Reptiles, including the Brigalow Scaly-foot, was drafted by WWF-Australia in 2006 (Richardson 2006). The recovery actions outlined in this plan, and in the species profile on the Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (Queensland DERM 2010b), are as follows:
- Monitoring the progress of the species recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary (TSSC 2008gd).
- Supporting pest management activities which seek to address feral animal threats e.g. Foxes, Cats and Pigs (AGDEH 2005p; DEWHA 2008zzp, 2008zzq; TSN 2008b).
- Maintaining large, healthy, connected patches of native vegetation and avoiding the clearing of remnant patches of native woodland (TSN 2008b).
- Investigating conservation arrangements such as the use of covenants, conservation agreements, incentives for landholders to adjust land uses or practices, grant programs and land management assistance, or inclusion in reserve tenure (e.g. the Land for Wildlife program) (TSN 2008b; TSSC 2008gd).
- Ensuring grazing practices are sustainable and maintain at least 70% ground cover (TSN 2008b).
- Negotiating management agreements with landholders that are in line with recommended management guidelines to protect key habitat and priority areas (Queensland DERM 2010a).
- Ensuring road widening and maintenance activities (or other infrastructure or development activities as appropriate), in areas where the Brigalow Scaly-foot occurs, do not adversely impact on known populations (TSSC 2008gd).
- Protecting Brigalow Scaly-foot habitat on the stock route network and shire roadsides and reserves (Queensland DERM 2010a).
- Promoting a collaborative approach to reptile conservation with the involvement of government agencies, industry groups, indigenous groups, landholders, regional Natural Resource Management bodies and the community (Queensland DERM 2010a).
- The promotion of the use of cool burns in a mosaic pattern that produces patchiness, leaving areas of ground cover unburned. If possible, leaving stick-raked timber piles unburned (TSN 2008b).
- Reporting sightings to WWF-Australia, the Queensland Museum or the Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management/Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. Taking a photo of live or dead specimens is useful to help identification (TSN 2008b).
- Investigating options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations (TSSC 2008gd).
Mitigation measures or approaches that may be suitable for the Brigalow Scaly-foot's habitat include (Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop 2010):
- design proposed action to avoid habitat disturbance
- establish adequate buffer zones to protect habitat
- implement measures to exclude cattle from habitats
- maintain habitat connectivity across the landscape, e.g., along roadside reserves, uncultivated lands between cropped and pasture-improved areas
- retain shelter habitat features in place
- devise and implement a habitat management plan specific to the Brigalow Scaly-foot
- implement measures to reduce the risk of invasive and predatory species accessing reptile habitat
- devise and implement an appropriate fire management plan
- devise and implement water management, sediment erosion and pollution control plans.
Tremul (2000) undertook a ten-year study of the Boyne Island Brigalow Scaly-foot population. In particular, the study aimed to increase knowledge of the population's breeding, feeding and arboreality.
Management documents for the Brigalow Scaly-foot include:
- Threat Abatement Plan for predation by Feral Cats (DEWHA 2008zzp)
- Threat Abatement Plan for predation by the European Red Fox (DEWHA 2008zzq)
- Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (AGDEH 2005p)
- Draft National Recovery Plan for the Queensland Brigalow Belt Reptiles (Richardson 2006)
- Enhancing biodiversity hotspots along Western Queensland stock routes (Qld DERM 2009a).
No threats data available.
Agnew, L. (2010). Personal Communication. Consultant Biologist, Austecology.
Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2005p). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pig.html.
Brigalow Belt Reptiles Workshop (2010). Proceedings from the workshop for the nine listed reptiles of the Brigalow Belt bioregions. 18-19 August. Brisbane: Queensland Herbarium.
Cogger, H.G. (2000). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia - 6th edition. Sydney, NSW: Reed New Holland.
Cogger, H.G., E.E. Cameron, R.A. Sadlier & P. Eggler (1993). The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Australian Nature Conservation Agency. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/action/reptiles/index.html.
Covacevich, J.A., P.J. Couper & K.R. McDonald (1996a). Reptiles of Queensland's Brigalow Biogeographic Region: Distributions, Status and Conservation. Page(s) 148. Canberra: Australian Nature Conservation Agency (ANCA).
Covacevich, J.A., P.J. Couper & K.R. McDonald (1998). Reptile diversity at risk in the Brigalow Belt, Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 42(2):475-486.
Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011m). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened reptiles. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.6 . [Online]. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPaC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-reptiles.html.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzp). Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/cats08.html.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzq). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/foxes08.html.
Eddie, C. (2010). Personal Communication. Ecologist, Boobook.
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. [Online]. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org.
Kutt, A.S., D.S. Hannah & N.Y. Thurgate (2003). Distribution, habitat and conservation status of Paradelma orientalis Günther 1876 (Lacertilia: Pygopodidae). Australian Zoologist. 32:261-264.
Matrixplus Consulting (2010). South Galilee Coal Project. Referral of proposed action to the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts.
McDonald, K.R., J.A. Covacevich, G.J. Ingram & P.J. Couper (1991). The status of frogs and reptiles. In: Ingram, G.J. & R.J. Raven, eds. An Atlas of Queensland's Frogs, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals. Page(s) 338-345. Brisbane: Queensland Museum.
Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (Qld DERM) (2009a). Enhancing biodiversity hotspots along Western Queensland stock routes. [Online]. DERM. Available from: http://www.southwestnrm.org.au/ihub/enhancing-biodiversity-hotspots-along-western-queensland-stock-routes-report.
Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (Queensland DERM) (2010a). Brigalow scaly-foot. [Online]. Available from: http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife-ecosystems/wildlife/az_of_animals/brigalow_scalyfoot.html.
Richardson, R. (2006). Draft Queensland Brigalow Belt Reptile Recovery Plan 2008 - 2012. [Online]. Report to the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. Brisbane, Queensland: WWF-Australia. Available from: http://www.qmdc.org.au/publications/download/52/fact-sheets-case-studies/reptile-recovery/draft-reptile-recovery-plan.pdf.
Schultz, M. & T.J. Eyre (1997). New distribution and habitat data for the pygopodid, Paradelma orientalis (Gunther, 1876). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 42 (1):212.
Shea, G.M. (1987b). Notes on the biology of Paradelma orientalis. Herpetofauna. 17 (1):5-6.
Threatened Species Network (TSN) (2008b). Brigalow Belt bioregion: a biodiversity jewel. [Online]. WWF-Australia. Available from: http://www.wwf.org.au/publications/reptiles-brigalo-belt.pdf.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008gd). NON-CURRENT Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Paradelma orientalis (Brigalow Scaly-foot). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/59134-conservation-advice.pdf.
Tremul, P.R. (2000). Breeding, feeding and arboreality in Paradelma orientalis: a poorly known, vulnerable pygopodid from Queensland, Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 45 (2):599-609.
Wilson, S.K. & D.G. Knowles (1988). Australia's Reptiles: A Photographic Reference to the Terrestrial Reptiles of Australia. Australia: Collins Publishers.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Paradelma orientalis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 15 Sep 2014 19:27:05 +1000.